EU Criminal Justice Conference Safeguarding the use of
EU Criminal Justice Conference Safeguarding the use of expert evidence in the European Union Tuesday 23 September 2008 Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme Expert Evidence problem or solution? Chair: Bob Heslett, Vice President, The Law Society Keynote speakers: Lord Goldsmith QC, European Chair of Litigation, Debevoise & Plimpton LLP & Former Attorney General,
Andrew Rennison, Forensic Science Regulator Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme Regulating forensic science Andrew Rennison Background House of Commons Home Affairs Committee 1989
House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology 1993 Miscarriages of justice cases forensic science played a prominent part Royal Commission 1991 1993 Caddy report 1996
Forensic Science Working Group 1997 practitioner registration Parliament - Forensic Science on Trial 2005 England and Wales competitive market
Scotland and Northern Ireland Law Commission expert evidence Overseeing Quality Regulation of standards Practitioner registration ISO standards?
Overseeing Quality Forensic Science Regulator Establish quality standards (science) Deal with complaints about quality standards Monitor compliance Provision of forensic science services National forensic science
databases: NDNADB Internal (police) External (suppliers) Ensure accreditation of suppliers and competence of practitioners NBIS To provide advice (Ministers, CJS) and guidance (suppliers) on quality standards Overseeing Quality
Vision To achieve: comprehensive standards framework provider, practitioner and method (product or service) training level playing field for all suppliers and practitioners UK wide quality standards maintained in the face of the changing market and increased competition Confidence in the use of forensic science. Overseeing Quality
Strategy Engage with stakeholders Work with delivery partners Rely on the domain experts Identify and manage risk Principles first Overseeing Quality
Principles Overriding obligation to the Criminal Justice System Providers should be accredited by a recognised independent body to accepted standards; Practitioners should be able to demonstrate, through an independent
process, their on-going competence and development; Each method should be based on sound science supported by sufficient data to justify its use within the CJS and a robust interpretation model, and, where possible, validated according to accepted scientific procedures; Accountability for standards rests with senior managers; and
Records of accreditation, competence and validation must be accurate, retained and available for disclosure through the court process. Overseeing Quality Scope Forensic science Any scientific or technical knowledge that is applied to the investigation of crime and the evaluation of evidence to assist the courts in resolving questions of fact in criminal
cases. Hard sciences. Practitioner Includes the work of all those who contribute to the collection, analysis and reporting of the evidence. UK criminal courts / prosecution process Equipment, scene, victim, suspect, collection, examination, analysis, reporting, evidence. Overseeing Quality
Specialist groups Quality standards standards and validation Andrew Rennison The user requirement from the Court perspective Ewen Smith
DNA analysis Karen Squibb-Williams Digital forensics Prof Jim Fraser Practitioner competency DCC Clive Wolfendale Forensic pathology Dr Millward-Saddler Special reviews Overseeing Quality Law Commission In every trial, juries are required to make determinations of disputed factual issues. Where to do so requires specialised knowledge, experts in the relevant field are called upon to help the jury interpret the evidence. This is to ensure that jurors do not draw mistaken inferences from the evidence. Although juries should not defer to experts' knowledge and opinions, there remains the danger that they will do so, especially if the field of expertise is particularly difficult to comprehend.
This gives rise to a real danger if there are legitimate questions about the validity of the expert's opinion. This may be because the expert's field is a new or developing science with little in the way of peer review, or because there are doubts as to the validity of the methodology employed. The problem is accentuated if there is no available expert in the same field who can be called by the opposing party to provide an effective criticism. In such cases, the jury may have no option but to defer to the view of the expert. A related problem is that judges, advocates and jurors may not appreciate the limitations of expert and particularly scientific evidence. A number of cases in recent years have suggested that these are real difficulties which require a solution. In this project we are seeking to address the problems outlined above associated with the admissibility and understanding of expert evidence in criminal proceedings. Overseeing Quality
Changing standards framework Overseeing Quality Other projects Quality standards delivered in-house by police forces Review of the forensic regulatory function Complaints handling Risk management
Overseeing Quality [email protected] Chair: Ian Kelcey, Chair, Criminal Law Society, The Law Society The Prosecution Perspective Karen Squibb-Williams, Strategic Policy Advisor, CPS The Forensic Science Practitioner Perspective Mike Allen, Council of Forensic Science Practitioners Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme
Safeguarding the use of expert evidence The forensic practitioner and registration Mike Allen Developmental projects consultant to Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners Purpose of presentation To explore mechanisms for assessing the quality of an expert witness. What are the qualities of an expert witness?
Competence Integrity What is competence? The quality of being competent; adequacy; possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification, or capacity. How is competence measured?
Qualifications. Reputation. Years of experience. Membership of approved professional group. None of the above Competence is doing what you do properly. Once you are deemed competent, there is a presumption that you are doing your job to the best of your ability unless there is evidence to the contrary (integrity). Council for the Registration of
Forensic Practitioners This registration body has over 2700 registrants in nearly 30 specialties (anthropology to linguistics to fingerprints to firearms). It assesses current case work by peer review. Assessment process A selection of recent cases is assessed against set criteria by an experienced practitioner. The forensic process is similar in all disciplines and the assessment process
reflects this. Benefits Independent Reassures the courts Mechanism for complaints (Code of Conduct) www.crfp.org.uk
EU Criminal Justice Conference Safeguarding the use of expert evidence in the European Union Coffee break Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme The Judicial Perspective Speaker: Mr Justice Fulford QC, International Criminal Court Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme
The Defence Perspective Chair: Joanna Evans, Barrister, 25 Bedford Row Panel members: George Gebbie, Advocate, European Criminal Bar Association Neil OMay, Partner, Bindmans LLP Christopher Sallon QC, Doughty Street Chambers Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme George C. Gebbie, Advocate Member of the List Counsel of the ICC
Coordinator of the EC BA Expert Witness Project London 23rd September 2008 Cause for concern in the safeguarding of expert evidence in The European Union London 23rd September 2008 George C. Gebbie, Advocate Member of the List Counsel of the ICC Coordinator of the EC BA Expert Witness
Project The Policewoman www.shirleymckie.c om The Prints Madrid Train Bombings 11th March 2004 The Treaty of Prm
The aim of the Prm Treaty is to intensify and accelerate the exchange of information between law enforcement authorities. Data such as DNA, fingerprints and vehicle registration details can be compared and exchanged. Here!! EU Criminal Justice Conference Lunch Strand Fleet & Bell Rooms Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme
A European Union Perspective Chair: Louise Hodges, Chair, UK Task Force Panel members: Anders Aagaard, European Commission Anand Doobay, Partner, Peters & Peters Aled Williams, UK national member for Eurojust Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme EU PERSPECTIVE: EUROJUST
Law Society 23 September 2008 Aled Williams Outline What is Eurojust ? The future ? Treaty of Lisbon Expert evidence and amendments to Eurojust Decision
FR: 12+ LMs UK: FR ES IT PAK USA 1998 European Judicial Network+2008 2002 Eurojust Decision (revised 2008) 2007 Treaty of Lisbon Free Movement 30 EU Legal Systems 500m pop.
WHAT IS EUROJUST ? Judicial Co-operation Unit of the European Union 27 MS prosecutors / judges/ police Fight serious cross border crime,
particularly when it is organised, and involves two or more Member States - JHA Council Decision of 14 December 2000 SOME CRIME AREAS Fraud Drugs
THB Terrorism HOW EUROJUST WORKS Case Referrals
Co-ordination Meetings Strategic Meetings OPERATIONAL MEETINGS LEVEL I - meeting L SL
F BE PL SL SL SL NL BE
UK BE CONCERNED NAT. MEMBERS + JUDICIAL A/O POLICE AUTHORITIES OF CONCERNED COUNTRIES UK UK I
S BE UK BE ... 27 National Members ...
LEVEL II - meeting D SL Concerned NMs UK D D D
LEVEL III meeting D Co-ordination meeting Case evolution 2002 - 2008 1200 1085 1000
757 771 800 588 600 381 400 300 202 200
0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2008 EXPERT EVIDENCE AND EUROJUST ILLUSTRATION Estonian armed gang operating in various MS Europol Liaison Bureaux
Eurojust co-ordination re collection of evidence CROSS BORDER FRAUD EUROJUST ILLUSTRATION Boiler room frauds Jurisdiction Territorial; active; passive; universal
Practicalities LIMITATIONS IN FIGHTING CROSS BORDER FRAUD Displacement Extradition/EAW problems
Trial costs SUCCESS IN FIGHTING CROSS BORDER FRAUD European Arrest Warrants Restraint and Confiscation
Trial pending OPERATION BAGHAD Human trafficking/illegal immigration 9 MS
Europol analysis work file Co-ordination meetings at Eurojust Concerted action June 2008 EAWs and searches 75 arrests THE FUTURE: EUROJUST AND EXPERT EVIDENCE
Treaty of Lisbon Eurojust Decision amendments ENFSI project CRIMINAL JUSTICE RD (STILL) 3 PILLAR EUROPEAN UNION
First : EC Second:CFSP Third : JHA/AFSJ LISBON AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE CO-OPERATION PILLAR STRUCTURE DISMANTLED Treaty on European Union TEU
Treaty on Functioning of the European Union TFEU QMV ECJ CO-DECISION
EPPO ENHANCING COOPERATION EUROJUST TEU Art. 31.2 The Council shall encourage cooperation through Eurojust by: (a) proper coordination between ..national prosecuting authorities; (b) support for criminal investigations in serious cross-border crime, particularly
organised crime, taking account, of analyses carried out by Europol; (c) cooperation between Eurojust and the European Judicial Network, to facilitate letters rogatory and extradition requests. ENHANCING COOPERATION EUROJUST TFEU Art. 85 ..the European Parliament and the Council, by means of regulations adopted in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall
determine Eurojusts structure, operation, field of action and tasks. ENHANCING COOPERATION EUROJUST TFEU Art. 85 ordinary legislative procedure, shall determine Eurojusts structure,
Commission proposal Council QMV European Parliament co-decision ENHANCING COOPERATION AFTER LISBON: TFEU Art 85 initiation of criminal investigations, ..proposing the initiation of prosecutions (b) coordination of investigations and prosecutions; (c) strengthening of judicial cooperation, including by resolution of conflicts of
jurisdiction and by close cooperation with the EJN (a) EUROJUST AND EPPO AFTER LISBON? TFEU Art 86 TEU Constitutional Treaty III 274
a EPPO from Eurojust Lisbon :may establish a European Public Prosecutors Office from Eurojust. EPPO AFTER LISBON? TFEU Art 86 EPPO proposal Unanimity 9/27 Enhanced co-operationPrm ?
financial interests of EU. EPPO AFTER LISBON? TFEU Art 85.. (a) initiation of criminal investigations, ..proposing the initiation of prosecutions (b)
.EPPO by default ? CHANGES TO EUROJUST DECISION AND (EXPERT) EVIDENCE IN GENERAL Immediate MLA problems Delay Format and admissibility
CHANGES AND (EXPERT) EVIDENCE IN GENERAL Solutions to MLA problems? Delay: strengthening Eurojust (direct transmission) Format and admissibility MLAC Art.4 CHANGES TO
EUROJUST DECISION Eurojust as precursor to EPPO Eurojust as alternative to EPPO CHANGES TO EUROJUST DECISION Operational capabilities Location On-call co-ordination Powers Information exchange Liaison magistrates
CHANGES TO EUROJUST DECISION: POWERS National Members acting through Eurojust Eurojust College
Common powers for national members as national authorities? CHANGES TO EUROJUST POWERS VIA NM Request special investigative measures
Response to requests without undue delay Non-compliance with requests to be justified, Article 8 .operational reasons CHANGES TO EUROJUST POWERS AS COLLEGE
Non-binding opinions on conflicts of jurisdiction Complaints re judicial cooperation Non-compliance with requests to be justified, Article 8 .operational reasons POWERS VIA NMs as
NATIONAL AUTHORITIES National Members acting as national authorities Common powers Constitutional Clause
POWERS VIA NMs as NATIONAL AUTHORITIES Ordinary powers Powers exercised in agreement
Urgent powers POWERS VIA NMs as NATIONAL AUTHORITIES Ordinary powers requests for judicial co-operation including regarding instruments giving
effect to the principle of mutual recognition Receive Transmit Facilitate execution POWERS VIA NMs as NATIONAL AUTHORITIES Requests in agreement with national authorities
Issue Execute Order investigative measures (coordination) Authorise controlled deliveries POWERS VIA NMs as NATIONAL AUTHORITIES
Urgent cases - Authorise and coordinate controlled deliveries in own State - Execute in relation to own State request for judicial cooperation POWERS VIA NMs as NATIONAL AUTHORITIES Safeguard clause 9f (a) constitutional rules, or
(b) fundamental aspects of CJS re: (i) division of powers between police, prosecutors and judges, (ii) functional division of tasks between prosecution authorities (iii) federal structure of MS concerned. INFORMATION EXCHANGE Art 13.1 Member States shall exchange with Eurojust any information necessary for the performance of its tasks.
INFORMATION EXCHANGE Art 13.1 JITs Serious cross-border crime Conflicts, deliveries,problems INFO. EXCHANGE: MS OBLIGATION NOTIFY EJ Requests or decisions directly involving 3 MS if punishable by min-max at least 5 years AND listed offence
Arms, drugs, human trafficking Sexual exploitation of children and child pornography Corruption Fraud, euro counterfeiting, money laundering Attacks against information systems OR organised crime OR serious cross-border dimension or EU repercussion EXPERT EVIDENCE ILLUSTRATION: MADRID
Locating the expert Facilitation: Evidence format : EU 2000 MLAC Extent of information recovery Partners: Spanish court, UKCA, Embassy C(IC)A 2003 court nomination
2000 EU MLAC Art. 4:Format Where mutual assistance is afforded, the requested Member State shall comply with the formalities and procedures expressly indicated by the requesting Member State, unless otherwise provided in this Convention and provided that such formalities and procedures are not contrary to the fundamental principles of law in the requested Member State. BETTER EU EVIDENCE
FLOW THROUGH AMENDMENTS Increased information flow MS response re clauses Article 9f (powers)..reciprocity? Article 13.8a (information ex.) Eurojust influencing tools Eurojust
The Law Society: Criminal Justice Conference 23rd September 2008 Safeguarding the Use of Expert Evidence in the European Union: A European Union Perspective Anand Doobay Partner, Peters & Peters Cross Border Use of Expert Evidence Increase of cross border crime leading to increasing numbers of criminal investigations / prosecutions
involving evidence from more than one Member State. Location of evidence Location of experts MLA Framework in the UK Not necessary in the UK for expert evidence to be obtained from overseas using an MLA process for it to be admissible. Mutual legal assistance in the UK does not require the existence of a treaty
arrangement or international agreement. Relevant treaty provisions must be taken into consideration when interpreting the applicable domestic legislation. The UK is party to a large number of multilateral conventions and agreements dealing that deal with MLA such (e.g. UNCAC, UNCTOC) supplemented by a number of bilateral MLA treaties (e.g. EU Convention on MLA in Criminal Matters).
The provision of mutual assistance in criminal matters in the UK is principally governed by the Crime (International Co-operation) Act 2003 (CICA 2003) and the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (External Requests and Orders) Order 2005 (the POCA order). UK Central Authority for MLA requests Responsibility for mutual assistance in criminal matters in England & Wales lies with the Secretary of State for the Home Department (UK Central Authority)
Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) has primary responsibility for processing requests for investigative help from overseas. Requests for investigative assistance need not be sent to the UK Central Authority unless it is a requirement of the foreign authority making the request. The Mutual Legal Assistance Guidelines are published by the United Kingdom Central Authority - requests both to and from the UK CICA 2003 Chapter 2, section 7 of CICA 2003
Requests for assistance in obtaining evidence abroad (1) If it appears to a judicial authority in the United Kingdom on an application made by a person mentioned in subsection (3) (a) that an offence has been committed or that there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that an offence has been committed, and (b) that proceedings in respect of the offence have been instituted or that the offence is being investigated, the judicial authority may request assistance under this section. (2) The assistance that may be requested under this section is assistance in obtaining outside the United Kingdom any evidence specified in the request for use in the proceedings or investigation. Chapter 2, section 8 of CICA 2003 Sending requests for assistance (1) A request for assistance under section 7 may be sent
(a) to a court exercising jurisdiction in the place where the evidence is situated, (b) to any authority recognised by the government of the country in question as the appropriate authority for receiving requests of that kind. or Practical Issues Admissibility / Weight (including expertise)
Availability of MLA for defence Evidential chain Compulsion to obtain evidence A Pan European Perspective
Comparative Approach Chair: Joanna Evans, Barrister, 25 Bedford Row Panel members: Janne Nyman, Finnish Task Force Andrea Tassi, Italian Task Force Matus Gemmes, Slovak Task Force Hanne Rahbeak, Danish Task Force Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme EU Criminal Justice Conference Conclusion:
Tim OSullivan, Member of The Law Society Council Co-financed by a grant under the European Commissions AGIS Programme
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