Research Methodology By Peerayuth (Pete) Charoensukmongkol, Ph.D. Assistant

Research Methodology By Peerayuth (Pete) Charoensukmongkol, Ph.D. Assistant

Research Methodology By Peerayuth (Pete) Charoensukmongkol, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Management International College National Institute of Present at Development The Russian Presidential AcademyThailand of Administration, Bangkok,

National Economy and Public Administration St. Petersburg, Russia 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 INTRODUCTION 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12 What is research? Re + Search = Research

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 Why Is Research Important? To solve problems 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 14 Why Is Research Important? From academic perspectives: To facilitate learning.

To extend prior knowledge. To confirm/disprove prior findings. From business and societal perspectives: To solve problem in a business, a society, or a country. To promote wellbeing, efficiency, productivity, and performance 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15 The Scientific Method Research is the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about any phenomena of interest.

The scientific method is a logical and rational order of steps by which scientists come to conclusions about the phenomenon of interest 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16 Scientific Method Review related literature and theories Research question

Background research Collect real-world data and use the data to test the hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Identify a research topic and formulate a research question Use the information from

background research to make a prediction Summarize the result from hypothesis testing and make a recommendation Conclusion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Scientific Method: Shopping Search Google; Read review from other consumers. Research

question Background research Hypothesis Buy or try the product. Experiment I want to buy the new product, but dont know if it is worth buying. Justify whether the information from the review is convincing.

Know whether the buying decision is correct. Recommend (or not recommend) the product to others. Conclusion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Research Basic (pure) research Applied research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9 Basic and Applied Research Basic (pure) research conducted without a specific decision in mind that usually does not address the needs of a specific organization/society. Attempts to expand the limits of knowledge in genera Not aimed at solving a pragmatic problem. Conducted without commission and no commercial value associated with it. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 110

Basic and Applied Research Basic (pure) research Example: The study about the origin of the universe. Why dinosaurs extinct. Why human behaviors are influence by emotions. Why people basically resist change. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 111 Basic and Applied Research Applied research Conducted to address a specific decision for a

specific firm, organization, or society. Applied research is normally sponsored by organizations or institutions that benefits from research findings 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 112 Basic and Applied Research Applied research Example: How to increase fuel efficiency in a new model of automobile. How to design the website that attracts a lot of customers to visit.

What are the characteristics of media design content that makes consumers easily remember the brand. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 113 Basic and Applied Research Knowledge from Basic research is a fundamental of Applied research. Applied research Applied research Basic research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

114 Types of Research Qualitative research Quantitative research Quantitative (Quantity) Qualitative (Quality) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

Objective / purpose Research question Qualitative To gain an understanding of underlying reasons and motivations for unclear issues. Quantitative To quantify data, to test a hypothesis, and to generalize results from a sample to the population of interest.

To gain in-depth and meaningful information that need to be To confirm the findings from described in narrative structure. qualitative research by using a large group of sample. Research question is explorative Research question is specifically and is broadly stated: stated. It clearly state what to be tested. For example Why employees lose productivity? For example

Do low compensation and excessive workload influence productivity of employees? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 116 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Qualitative Quantitative Data collection technique

Unstructured or semistructured techniques such as In-depth interviews or case study. Structured techniques such as questionnaires. or historical statistics data. Type of data gathered Narration; not in numerical form. Data are recorded by

notetaking and/or tape recording. Gathers data in numerical form which can be put into categories, or in rank order, or measured in units of measurement. Sample Usually a small number of non-representative cases.

Usually a large number of cases representing the population of interest. Respondents selected to fulfill a given quota. Randomly selected respondents. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 117 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Data analysis

Outcome Qualitative Quantitative Interview data are synthesized and summarized by a researcher. Statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics. Correlation analysis.

Non-statistical method Exploratory and/or investigative. Findings are not conclusive and cannot be used to make generalizations about the population of interest. Used to recommend a final course of action. Develop an initial understanding and

sound base for further decision making. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 118 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Weaknesses Qualitative Quantitative Small sample size makes it difficult for researchers

to infer/generalize the results back to a larger group of people. Unable to get meaningful information. Can have higher chance of subjective bias because the results are based on subjective evaluation of a researcher The scope of information that researchers can

obtain is narrow. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 119 Combining qualitative and quantitative method: Mixed method Qualitative method Quantitative method 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 120

Combining qualitative and quantitative method: Mixed method Allows researchers to overcome limitations of each type of research method. Researchers can begin with qualitative research to help them identify potential factors that explain the phenomenon of interest, then the quantitative research is conducted to test them with larger scope data. Data that researchers obtained from qualitative research can be used to provide further explanations to the issues that cannot be explained by results from quantitative research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 121

Combining qualitative and quantitative method: Mixed method Why employees lose productivity? (Qualitative research question). Conducted an in-depth interview with some key persons in the organization to understand some possible causes of the problem (Qualitative research method) Key informant raised the issue that low compensation and excessive workload may be a problem that lead to the lost in work productivity (Qualitative data). Used statistical data about compensation and workload of all employees in the organization to analyze whether they correlate with work productivity (Quantitative research method). 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

122 THEORY, CONCEPT, VARIABLE AND HYPOTHESIS 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 123 Research question Background research Hypothesis

Experiment Conclusion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 24 What is a Theory? Theory A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions or how things relate to one another. Concept A

Concept Positive (+) / Negative (-) B Types of Relationship Causal relationship (Direction of Causality) Positive (+) relationship: If A increases, B will increase If A decreases, B will decrease Negative (-) relationship: If A increases, B will decrease If A decreases, B will increase 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Relationship in a Theory? Concept

A Concept Positive (+) / Negative (-) Positive (+) relationship B Negative (-) relationship 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Relationship in a Theory? Concept

A Concept Positive (+) / Negative (-) B Economic Theory 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Relationship in a Theory? Concept A

Concept Positive (+) / Negative (-) B Risk-Return Theory of Investment 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Examples of a Theory Why do some people who come out of jail turn to be worse than when they were going in? Years of

experience in Jail Negative (-) Sense of Morality 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 329 Examples of a Theory Social learning theory: Social learning theory states that social behavior is learned primarily by observing and

imitating the actions of others. Social learning theory Years of experience in Jail Negative(-) Sense of Morality 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 330

Research Concepts Concept (or Construct) A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences or process that has been given a name. Concept Concept Examples: Profitability Investment A B Risk Economic development

Demand/Supply Crime Happiness Job Performance Stress 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 331 Ladder of Abstraction Concepts can be classified by the level of abstraction Abstract level and Empirical level. Abstract level Highly abstract

Concept Ladder of Abstraction Less abstract concept Empirical level 332 Empirical Concept 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Ladder of Abstraction Abstract concept VS Empirical concept 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ladder of Abstraction 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ladder of Abstraction Ladder of Abstraction Organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general. 1. Abstract Level (General, Cannot be measured easily) The level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a

quality apart from an object. 2. Empirical Level (Specific, Can be measured) The level of knowledge that is verifiable by experience or observation. Cognitive Intelligence Intelligence quotient (IQ) Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Quotient (EQ) Intelligence Abstract level Ladder of Abstraction Empirical level 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 335

Concept operationalization Transform Abstract concept into Empirical Concept Operationalization is a process of defining the measurement of a phenomenon that is not directly measurable. Operationalization is the process of defining a fuzzy concept so as to make it clearly distinguishable, measurable, and understandable in terms of empirical observations. A concepts that is operationalized will become a variable. Concept Operationalization Operationalization

Variable Can be quantified 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Concept operationalization Economic Growth ..can be measured by.. GDP growth Import volume International trade

..can be measured by.. Export volume Profitability Business performance ..can be measured by.. Return on investment Abstract level Ladder of Abstraction

Empirical level 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 337 Concept operationalization Job performance ..is operationalized by.. Job performance

rating scale Customer satisfaction ..can be measured by.. Rating Score from Customer survey Abstract level Ladder of Abstraction

Empirical level 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 338 Theory and hypothesis A theory provides a framework to formulate a hypothesis (or a proposition) Theory Hypothesis 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

339 Hypotheses Hypothesis is a formulation of a possible answer to a specific scientific question based on theoretical supports. It deals with the connection between two existing concepts. Theory Hypothesis must be testable. Hypothesis 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Theory testing and theory building

Reasoning is the process of making inferences from a body of information Deductive reasoning (theory testing) Inductive reasoning (theory building) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 341 Deductive reasoning The logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a known general premise or something known to be true. This is called the top-down approach because the researcher starts at the top with a very broad

spectrum of information and they work their way down to a specific conclusion. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 342 Deductive Reasoning All Russian citizens can sing Russian national anthem. Broad info Given that Bastian is Russian Erik is Russian Stephan is Russian

Then Specific info Conclusion Bastian, Erik, and Stephan can sing Russian national anthem. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 343 Deductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning is normally used in quantitative research. It is usually used for theory testing.

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 344 Deductive Reasoning (example) The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. Perceived Usefulness + Intention to Use Technology

Perceived Ease of use + 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Deductive Reasoning (example) Theory of TAM (general information) Perceived Usefulness and Perceive ease of use will lead to Intention to use technology. If the components in TAM theory affect technology usage in general, it should be applicable to all types of technology usage

of all people. E.g. A researcher may want to test whether the TAM theory can explain intention of people to use e-government services. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 346 Deductive Reasoning (example) Theory of TAM (general information) Perceived Usefulness and Perceive ease of use will lead to Intention to use technology. Specific information E-government is related to technology. Hypothesis

Perceived Usefulness and Perceive ease of use will lead to Intention to use E-Government services. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 347 Deductive Reasoning Perceived Usefulness and Perceive ease of use will lead to Intention to use technology Since e-government is related to technology. Perceived Usefulness and Perceive ease of use will lead to Intention of people to use e-government

Collect data from people to test the hypotheses If the data support the hypothesis, the predictive power of TAM theory can be strengthened 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 348 Deductive Reasoning If anything belongs to technology, the variables in the TAM model can be used to explain that thing, through the deductive approach. Perceived Usefulness

+ Intention to use a Technology Perceived Ease of use Internet Banking Online shopping Online stock trading

Online dating + 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 349 Inductive reasoning The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts. This is sometimes called a bottom up approach. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

350 Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning is normally used in scientific and qualitative research. It is usually used for theory building. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 351 The process of theory development and theory testing Inductive process Deductive process

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 352 Can we always trust a theory? The validity of the theory could be context-specific. time-specific. The theory must be repeatedly tested across different groups of people over different periods of time to verify its applicability. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

353 CAUSALITY ANALYSIS 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 154 Causal Research Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships (inferences). Cause Effect

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. A B (1) A causes B (Unidirectional relationship) A B (2) B causes A (Unidirectional relationship)

A B (3) A and B cause each other (Bidirectional relationship) A B (4) A and B just correlate (The direction of causality cannot be implied) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Evidence of causality How do we prove that the cause-effect relationship is real? 3 conditions of real causality: Temporal sequence Concomitant variation Nonspurious association 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 457 Evidence of causality Temporal sequencethe appropriate

causal order of events. Cause Effect Happened at Time t (e.g. year 2000) Happened at Time t+1 (e.g. year 2001) Cause Effect Happened at Time t-1

(e.g. year 2001) Happened at Time t (e.g. year 2000) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 458 Evidence of causality Concomitant variationtwo phenomena vary together. Occur when two events covary or correlate X increases when Y increased X decreases when Y increased 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

459 Evidence of causality Nonspurious associationan absence of alternative plausible explanations. For example: There is a positive relationship between ice cream sales and murder cases. When ice cream sales increase, murder cases increase. When ice cream sales drop, murder cases reduce. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 460 EXHIBIT 4.2

The Spurious Effect of Ice Cream 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 461 Association does not imply causation a correlation between two variables does not necessarily imply that one causes the other. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 62

Examples of Spurious Association 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 63 Examples of Spurious Association 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 64 Examples of Spurious Association 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

65 Reverse causation Reverse causality means that the direction of causality between two factors may be opposite from what we expect ? OR ? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 66

Reverse causation Example: Considered the relationship between Income and Health ..which one is the cause? ..which one is the effect? Having money allows people to gain access to better healthcare service Income Health Having good health allows people to be more productive to earn more money 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 67

Reverse causation Example: Considered the relationship between the amount of bank loan and business growth ..which one is the cause? ..which one is the effect? Companies need loan to grow their business Loan amount Business growth As business is growing, companies can obtain higher amount of loan from the bank 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

68 Different types of effect Main effect Moderating (interacting) effect Mediating effect 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1269 Main Effect The influence of a single independent variable on a dependent variable. Independent

Variable (X) Dependent Variable (Y) Main effect 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1270 Moderating effect Moderating effect The effect of the independent variable (cause) on the dependent variable (effect) is contingent on the third factor which can

either enhance or suppress the effect. The third factor that influences the relationship is called a moderator. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1271 Interaction (Moderating) effect Moderator Moderating effect Independent

Variable (X) Dependent Variable (Y) Main effect 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Moderating effect Does a training program increase sale performance? Number of training sessions

Sale performance 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Moderating effect Young employees Old employees 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Moderating effect Young employees Old employees

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1275 Interaction (Moderating) effect Age of employee moderates the effect of training program on sale performance. Only young employees who received more training tend to have higher sale performance Age of employee Number of training sessions

Sale performance 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Mediating effect X does not influence Y directly. But it can influence Y indirectly through a third variable called a Mediator M mediates the relationship between X and Y Strong Effect Independent Variable (X)

Mediator Weak Effect Strong Effect Dependent Variable (Y) 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Example of mediating effect Research found the effect of weather condition and stock prices

Effect 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Example of mediating effect Weather condition does not directly affect stock price. However, weather condition affect moods of investors, which in turn, affect their decision to buy/sell stocks. Moods of investors Str o ng eff

ec t St ro Weather condition Weak effect ng eff ec

t Stock market movement Moods of investors mediates the positive linkage between weather condition and stock market movement 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Example of mediating effect Does Superstitious Behaviors make people success? Superstitious Behaviors

No direct relationship Success 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Example of mediating effect Superstitious Behaviors do not directly make people be successful. However, Superstitious Behaviors can help people increase confidence, which in turn, increases their chance of success. Po s iti

ve Po siti ve a nd str o ng

Confidence Superstitious Behaviors No direct relationship an d st ro ng Success

Increased confidence "mediates the positive linkage between Superstitious Behaviors and Success 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 182 Scientific Method Research question Background research

Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 83 What is experiment? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 84

Experimental process Experiment An experiment is an orderly procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. An experiment provides insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1285 Experimental process

Provide some treatment/manipulation (add water) Something happens (Seeds sprout) The treatment (water) leads to the outcome (seeds sprout) Water make seeds sprout 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1286 Experimental process Experimental treatment: the way an experimental variable is manipulated.

Independent variable Dependent variable X Y Experimental treatment is applied Change is observed 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1287

Types of experimental design Pure experimental design Quasi experimental design 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Experimental and Control groups Subjects The sampling units for an experiment, usually human respondents who provide measures based on the experimental manipulation. Experimental Group A group of subjects to whom an experimental treatment is administered.

Control Group A group of subjects to whom no experimental treatment is administered. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1289 Experimental and Control groups Does giving more assignments improve student performance? Assignment Operationalization

Amount of assignments Student Performance Operationalization Test score 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1290 Experimental and Control groups Experimental subjects Experimental Group: A lot of assignments

Subjects randomly assigned to a group Control Group: Regular load of assignments Subjects are randomly assigned to a group 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1291 The Effect of the treatment Experimental Group Control Group

A Treatment (a lot of assignments) are given Average Performance (E) = 90 Comparison Average Performance (C) = 70 The Effect of the experimental treatment = (E - C) = 90-70 = 20

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Pretest-Posttest Average Performance (E1) = 60 Before Giving A Treatment (Pretest) Experimental Group Average Performance (C1) = 70

Control Group A Treatment (a lot of assignments) Is given After giving Average A Treatment Performance (C2) = 75 (Posttest) The Effect of the treatment = (E2 E1) (C2 C1) = (90 60) (75 70) = 30 5 = 25

Average Performance (E2) = 90 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Measure The Effect of the treatment Within-Subjects Designs Between-Subjects Designs 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Within-Subjects Designs Involves repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured.

Example: Will salary increase improve job performance? Salary $1,000 Average job performance Sold 10 units/month 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1295 Within-Subject design Beginning of January Increased salary to $1,100

Beginning of February Increased salary to $1,200 Beginning of March Increased salary to $1,300 End of January Sold 15 units/month End of February Sold 20 units/month End of March

Sold 25 units/month 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 96 Within-Subject Design Longitudinal study Researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Between-Subjects Design Each subject receives only one treatment combination.

Usually advantageous although they are usually more costly. Validity is usually higher. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 1298 Between-Subjects Design Beginning of the month End of the month Increased salary to $1,100

Measured job performance Sold 15 units/month Increased salary to $1,200 Measured job performance Sold 25 units/month No salary increase Measured job performance Sold 10 units/month !!!!!

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 99 Between-Subjects Design Cross-sectional study Researchers compare different population groups at a single point in time 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12101 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12102 Example of experimental research Natural selection Adaptation 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12103

Example of experimental research Natural selection 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12104 Example of experimental research Learning Short-term memory Long-term memory Surprise seems to enhance memory recall related to information that is acquired within a time interval that could be called the SURPRISE ZONE

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12105 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12106 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12107

Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12108 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12109 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12110 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12111 Example of experimental research 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12112 Quasi-experimental design

Quasi-experiment has all the same elements as pure experiment; however, subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions. Subjects are selected based on the values of the independent variable (e.g., age, gender), rather than having the experimenter assign values of the independent variable to subjects 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12113 Quasi-experimental design Example: The effect of sleeping pills on memory loss.

Experimental group Control group People who are prescribed sleeping pills by a doctor are invited to participate voluntarily as 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Issues in Experimental Research Internal Validity The extent that an experimental variable is truly responsible for any variance in the dependent variable. Does the experimental manipulation truly cause changes in the specific outcome of interest?

2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12115 Issues in Experimental Research Validity of the experiment Validity is a measure of how correct the results of an experiment are. 2 aspects of validity in experiment Internal Validity External Validity 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12116 Issues in Experimental Research Internal validity refers to the extent to which we can be reasonably sure that the change (or lack of change) in the outcome was caused by the treatment. ? Treatment ? Outcome Uncontrolled factors

12117 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Issues in Experimental Research Internal Validity The placebo effect The measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medication or invasive treatment that has been administered. In medical experiment that test the effect of a medicine Experimental group (takes a real medicine) Expected to see the effect Control group 1 (Take no medicine) Expected to see NO effect

Control group 2 (Takes a Placebo) Expected to see NO effect The placebo effect happens when Control group 2 shows the same effect as the Experimental group. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12118 Issues in Experimental Research Hawthorne Effect People will perform differently from normal when they know that someone observes them 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12119

Issues in Experimental Research External Validity The accuracy with which experimental results can be generalized beyond the experimental subjects. e.g. can the results from a small group experiment be generalized to a larger group of people? 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12120 Issues in Experimental Research External Validity

Our sample: We found the result But will we get the same result when the same experiment is conducted with different groups of sample? Other sample Other sample Other sample 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12121 Issues in Experimental Research

External Validity Our sample: We found the result Other sample Found the same result External validity is high Other sample Other sample

Found the same result Found the same result 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12122 Issues in Experimental Research External Validity Our sample: We found the result Other sample No result

External validity is a problem Other sample Other sample No result No result 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 12123

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