PERC: Still toxic after all these years Contaminated
PERC: Still toxic after all these years Contaminated Dry Cleaning Sites in NC Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League NC Healthy Communities www.bredl.org PERC: what is it? Introduced as a dry cleaning solvent in 1934; dry cleaning solvent of choice early 1960s Perchlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachlorethylene, tetrachloroethene, PCE, PERC Colorless, nonflammable liquid, sweet odor
Found in solvent soaps, metal de-greasers, aerosols, printing inks, adhesives, sealants, paint removers, lubricants, leather treatments, shoe polishes, typewriter correction fluid, spot removers Economical for dry cleaners: 1-55 gal. drum can clean 16,000 lbs of clothing 95,000 tons of PERC used annually by 35,000 cleaners throughout the United States and Canada Accounts for 80 to 85 percent of all dry cleaning solvents currently used in U.S. Estimated 2,000 active and abandoned contaminated dry cleaning sites in NC
PERC continues to be used by over 400 drycleaners in NC Environmental and health toxicity known for 20+ years Health effects linked to PERC Short-term exposure (low levels) Dizziness, sleepiness, irritated skin, eyes, nose, throat Short-term exposure (high levels) Respiratory irritation, nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, unconsciousness, death Long-term Exposure Neurological effects, reproductive disorders, damage to central nervous system, memory loss, damage to liver and kidney, birth defects, heart defects, breast cancer, leukemia, cancers of the skin, colon, larynx, esophagus, bladder, intestines, pancreas, ovary, prostate and urogenital tract Chronic (long-term) toxicity to aquatic life Possible impacts on forests (chlorosis, necrosis, and premature needle loss seen in trees) Reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen.
- U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services Classified as a hazardous air pollutant. - US EPA PERCs toxic by-products - Toxic - Volatile - Persistent - Bioaccumulative Vinyl chloride (carcinogen) Phosgene (lung irritant /hazardous gas) Carbon tetrachloride (liver toxin) Trichloroacetic acid (herbicide) Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) (harmful to aquatic organisms) Dioxin (carcinogen)
Chloral hydrate (sedative/liver damage) 2-chloroacetaldehyde (severe irritant, liver cancer in mice) How are people exposed to PERC? Inhalation Off-gassing of perc in dry cleaned clothing, showering with PERC-contaminated water Movement of vapors through floors, walls of contaminated buildings Handling by workers in dry cleaning establishments Residents living in communities with dry cleaning establishments Incineration of PERC residuals Ingestion Water perc-contaminated drinking water supplies Food - eating food contaminated with perc Skin irritant Skin Contact with PERC through handling, dry-cleaned clothing, environmental contamination In utero
PERC passes through umbilical cord to fetus Breast milk Accumulates in fat tissue and released over time to blood Health studies In the United States five studies of dry cleaning workers have found a significant increase in cancer of the breast, the kidneys and the cervix. Studies have found that chronic exposures to airborne PERC adversely affects neurobehavioral function in otherwise healthy individuals living near dry cleaning facilities. A study of newly dry-cleaned clothing in a residential closet found elevated PERC levels (0.5-2.9 m/3), levels that would require mitigation under the NC DSCA program. A recent Boston University School of Public Health study funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences found that babies born to women exposed during pregnancy to PERC in drinking water had a threefold increase in risk of birth defects. A recent study by the Food and Drug Administration in Washington measured levels of Perc (100 to more than 1,000 ppb) in butter bought from stores located next to dry cleaning establishments. Whos responsible?
Dry Cleaning Solvent Clean Up Act (DSCA) program 1997 State program created in 1997 to mitigate widespread contamination from contaminated dry cleaning sites Clean up fund established through sales tax revenues August 26, 2009, Senate Bill 700 extended sunset date of DSCA program to January 1, 2022 Clean up fund balance: $37.6 million (DSCA Oct. 2008 Annual Report) 226 sites certified under DSCA, 5 closed Mitigation not to exceed $1 million per contaminated site Land use restrictions will be required for most sites Program under-funded, subject to budgetary shortfalls, revisions, and restrictions Contaminated dry cleaning sites DSCA Program PERC contamination will be minimized, not eliminated
Risk-based clean up favored by dry cleaners. Costs less, sets lower limits for contaminants, groundwater compromised, public health compromised No compensation for affected residents re: health issues related to PERC exposure No compensation available to property owners with contaminated homes No incentives for dry cleaners to switch to cleaner, safer alternatives Contaminated dry cleaning sites will go unnoticed by majority of public due to lack of requirement to notify residents who live near such sites
Residents who refuse to comply will continue to be exposed to PERC through contaminated drinking water wells Surface water and environment at risk because of non-compliance issues and lack of funding to mitigate contamination Dry cleaning businesses continue to use PERC resulting in further risks to public health and environment Percs heavy toll on NC Estimated 2,000 contaminated dry cleaning sites in NC Contaminated dry cleaning sites discovered in 42 counties
High potential for public exposure to toxic chemicals Contaminated drinking water wells, community water supplies Residences, businesses connected to city water supplies 17 sites have impacted creeks, rivers and streams with perc contamination above NC DWQ 2B surface water standards Toxic PERC vapors have contaminated land, buildings, businesses, residences, people
Residents exposed to PERC through vapors seeping through floors/walls Mitigation of PERC more difficult than oil spill cleanup Average cost of clean up for each contaminated dry cleaning site: $330,000 Durham: PERC contamination 13 known contaminated dry cleaning sites Groundwater at 12 sites impacted above NC DWQ 2L groundwater standard of 0.0007 ppm Former BB&T: Top priority site. Highest perc levels in groundwater recorded (70,000 ppb). Church congregation exposed to PERC vapors seeping through floors/walls that posed an imminent risk for up to two years while site being assessed. Air inside homes adjacent to PERC plume contaminated higher than acceptable levels. Remediation will be extremely difficult, cost of preferred remediation exceeds DSCA limit ($2.3 million).
Weavers Cleaners: Grossly contaminated similar to BB&T site. Soil vapor extraction system installed and reduced to unrestricted levels. Indoor air in 2-3 homes adjacent to site may be impacted by PERC vapors. W.P Ballard: Highest amounts of soil contamination, PERC by-products detected in 2 private wells below standards, monitoring mitigation costs $1 million. Plants Unlimited: Ellerbe Creek and Goose Creek impacted above NC DWQ 2B surface water standards of 0.8 ppb. PERC detected at high levels in one residence, one business drinking water/water supply wells, connected to city water Triangle Square Cleaners: Day care center potentially at risk due to high flowing water discovered 70 ft. beneath surface carrying high concentrations from PERC (DNAPL)
Model Laundry/Church of Ephesus: Impacts to Goose Creek above NC DWQ 2B surface water quality standards (possible overlap w/ Honeywell contamination) and possible vapor intrusion issues. American Dry Cleaners: Possible danger to ecological receptors - animals, plants, etc. Camp LeJeune, NC Estimated 500,000 citizens and soldiers exposed to PERC contaminated drinking water from off-base dry-cleaner, ABC One Hour Cleaner Drinking water wells discovered contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that included trichloroethylene, benzene, PERC One well primarily contaminated with high levels of PERC (215 ppb)
484 people diagnosed with cancer, other illnesses with 19 documented cases of male breast cancer numbers growing 1,600 people filed claims seeking $34 billion in damages ATSDR conducting a study of children born to mothers exposed to VOC-contaminated drinking water during 1968-1985 to examine cases of spina bifida, anencephaly (absence of all or a major part of the brain), cleft lip, cleft palate, childhood leukemia, childhood nonHodgkin's lymphoma ABC One Hour Cleaner finalized as a National Priority Site in March 1989 and does not qualify for the DSCA program. The worst public drinking-water contamination in the nation's history. What other states are doing
1994: Dade County, FL, sues dry cleaners for contamination of 556 private water wells. 2000: City of Lodi, CA, filed suit in federal court against several dry cleaning businesses for contaminating water supply wells with PERC. 2006: City of Modesto, CA, sues dry cleaners for contaminating water wells, properties 2007: CA first state to pass legislation to phase-out PERC; expected to be completed 2023. CA Air Resources Board provides a $10,000 grant to cleaners using PERC to switch to cleaner alternative.
CA requires drycleaners to display a sign warning that PERC is a probable human carcinogen. NJ and other counties (Washoe, NV) considering bans on PERC. 2006: New dry cleaning machines installed in residential buildings are not allowed to use PERC (EPA, 40 CFR Part 63, National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities). What can you do? Buy clothing that doesnt require dry cleaning Patronize cleaners that use wet cleaning processes Advocate that your city or county provides information to the public re: risks of dry cleaning solvents Become involved in county or statewide programs to phaseout PERC with incentives for using cleaner, safer alternatives For more information contact: Sue Dayton BREDL NC Healthy Communities
(336) 525-2003 or [email protected] Healthy communities and a healthy environment are achievable with fundamental shifts in attitudes and practices. We welcome you to join us in these efforts! Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League www.bredl.org
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