Main Idea Hinduism Details When? Circa 2,000 B.C.E.

Main Idea Hinduism Details When? Circa 2,000 B.C.E.

Main Idea Hinduism Details When? Circa 2,000 B.C.E. ????? Where? India Who? Mix of Indo-European Aryan invader beliefs and local dark skinned Dravidian beliefs. Why? A way to justify lighter skinned foreign domination of darker native population Key concepts Diffusion (How and where did it spread?) Notemaking go Caste (or varna) system: born into a caste (jati) and die in it Karma, reincarnation Dharma (divine law) Moksha (similar to Buddhist Nirvana) being released from the cycle of life Polytheistic The Rig Veda (book of poetic hyms, but no guiding principles)

Mostly practiced in India, a mix in SE Asia and Indonesia spread through trade and migration. Main Idea Buddhism When? Where? Who? Why? Details Notemaking Circa 500 B.C.E. India Siddharta Gautama (A.K.A. The Buddha= Enlightened One) Indian prince He wanted to end human suffering Key concepts Diffusion (How and where did it spread?) go Asceticism: the practice of self denial: celibacy (no sex), poverty, living in isolation (also practiced by Christian monks) Monasticism: the practice of living as a monk (Christianity too) The Four Noble Truths The Middle Path of moderation The Eightfold Path Nirvana Buddhist paradise, release from the cycle of life Reincarnation Spread through trade and missionaries to Central Asia, East Asia and SE Asia. Today practiced all over the world. Appealing because of no caste system and you can achieve Nirvana in one life cycle.

Main Idea Judaism Details When? 2,000 B.C.E. Where? Israel Who? Abraham received covenant with God Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt Why? Abraham agreed to worship only one God and they would receive the land of Israel. Key concepts Diffusion (How and where did it spread?) go First monotheistic (one God) religion 10 commandments, Old Testament Torah (holy text) Temple (place of worship) No idol worship Diaspora (scattering) outside of Israel No missionaries, difficult to convert Notemaking

Main Idea Details Notemaking Christianity When? Circa 0 C.E. Where? Israel/Palestine under Roman rule in Bethlehem. Who? Jesus Why? Eternal salvation (saving your soul)/ damnation (hell) Reformed Judaism, more on being good love they neighbor, forgiveness for sins Preached about peace during violent Roman times. Key concepts Monotheistic, missionaries (people who spread religion) piety (acting religious), pagans (nonbelievers) Church (place of worship) Bible (Old and New Testament) Martyrdom (suffering for the cause) Miracles Diffusion (How and where did it spread?) go

12 disciples, Paul spreads word of Jesus and later missionaries spread teachings of Jesus and converted people. Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity Trade and conquest Practiced all over the world Main Idea Details Notemaking Islam When? 610 C.E. Where? Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Who? Muhammad Why? Upset by greed and corruption in Mecca he went to meditate in a cave and received revelations from the angel Gabriel. go Key concepts Diffusion (How and where did it spread?) Mosque (place of worship), Kaba (black cube worshipped in Mecca)

Five Pillars: submit to Allah, Ramadan, Haj, pay alms, pray 5 times a day Quran (koran) holy book Jihad (holy war) Haj (pilgrimage to Mecca) Sharia (Islamic law) Hijra (Muhammads journey to Medina 622 C.E.) Missionaries Trade Conquest Practiced from N and E Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, and South and SE Asia. Indonesia is largest Muslim country. What is the worlds largest religion? Main Idea Details Notemaking Islamic Empires When? 634 C.E.-1492 (Granada falls to Spain) Why (motive)? Motivated by new religion and sense of community How? Speed on camels and new camel saddle, unity, faith Rule? Caliphates ruled by Caliph ( religious and political leader), urban, trade based, cosmopolitan, Sharia Ulama (religious leaders and scholars) Sultan (political

leader) go Where? Collapse? From Southern Spain-Pakistan Mongols conquer Baghdad in 1258 ending Abassid dynasty, Spain conquered Granada in 1492 Contributions or lasting legacies? Shiites (Shia) believe Ali was rightful successor Sunnis believe the umma (muslim community) picks leader Kept records of Greeks, important for Renaissance Astrolabe (navigation device), medical encyclopedia, Main Idea Details Notemaking Alexander the Great When? 356-323 B.C.E. Why (motive)? Revenge for Persians conquering the Greeks, Wanted to spread Greek culture How? Great leadership and soldiers, Greek war tactics

Rule? Married local women to create allegiances Cosmopolitan, peaceful Where? Greece-India Collapse? Upon death, no clear leader. Empire split into Hellenistic or Macedonian Kingdoms. Contributions or lasting legacies? Alexandria in Egypt modeled after the Greeks Hellenistic Age (spread of Greek culture to North Africa and West Asia) go Main Idea Details The Roman Empire When? 753 B.C.E.-530 C.E. Why (motive)? Notemaking Defense and acquisition of agricultural lands How?

Superior military technology and citizen army Rule? Republic, 3 branches of government Later military dictatorship Centralized, granted citizenship to conquered, pax Romana (Roman peace led to increase in trade) Diocletian divided the empire into East and West Where? Collapse? Contributions or lasting legacies? go Everything around the Mediterranean and up to England. Use of mercenaries, inflation led to rebellions, fighting over the thrown and barbarian invaders from the North, Orthodox Christianity (East, Constantinople named after Constantine) and Roman Catholicism (West, Rome) Engineers: roads, aqueducts, toilets Government: republic and three branches Legal system: 12 tables, Emperor Justinian Latin language spread to Western Europe (Romanization) Main Idea Details Notemaking Han China When? 220 B.C.E.-221 C.E. Why (motive)? People disliked Qin dynasty ruled by Qin Shi Huangdi first

emperor and his use of legalism. How? Large population and advanced weaponry, crossbow Rule? Centralized, tribute system (conquered states had to give gifts or pay taxes) Mandate of Heaven, Confucianism go Where? Eastern China, Vietnam, Korea and northwest China Collapse? Barbarian invasions from the North, use of mercenaries, peasant rebellions, corrupt officials Contributions or lasting legacies? Spread of Confucianism and Chinese writing, Silk Road trade with Rome Roads, watermills Main Idea Details Mauryan Empire When? 324 B.C.E.-184 B.C.E. Why (motive)?

Chandragupta Maurya is inspired by Alexanders the Greats empire and tries to unite India. How? Difficult because of diverse terrain and cultures but had wealth and strategic location on trade routes. The enemy of my enemy is my friend Taxed agriculture, had a large imperial army and issued standard coinage to increase trade. Rule? Notemaking go Where? Almost the entire subcontinent of India Collapse? Fighting over the throne and barbarian invasions from the North. Contributions or lasting legacies? Ashoka gave up fighting and spread the teachings of Buddhism using stupas Ramayana and the Mahabharata(longest poem in the world), two epic poems Advances in medicine Standardization of Sanskrit (classical written language) Main Idea Details Gupta Empire

When? 320 550 C.E. Why (motive)? How? Rule? Notemaking Founder modeled himself after the Mauryan empire wealth and strategic location on trade routes Taxed agriculture, imperial army and forced labor on roads Decentralized theater-state put on parties and parades to convince people to join Hinduism go Where? Collapse? North and central India The Huns from Central Asia invaded and destroyed empire. Contributions or lasting legacies? Invented the concept of zero, Arabic numerals and place system Status of women declined, widow forced to cremate themselves alive sati Main Idea Details Mongols When?

1206-1368 Why (motive)? Pastoral nomads who wanted the wealth of civilized societies (especially China) How? Speed on horses, fierce brutal warriors, terror tactics, military technology (stirrup, crossbow) Khan (ruler), divided into Khanates Took on religion and culture of conquered areas, used locals in administration Yuan dynasty in China ruled by Kublai Khan Rule? Notemaking go Where? Collapse? Korea- Central Asia, Middle East and Eastern Europe. Tried to conquer Japan but divine wind (Kamikaze) wiped them out. Got soft in civilized society and lost fierce warrior edge. Contributions or lasting legacies? Mongolian DNA, Stirrup in Europe led to rise of the knight (mounted warrior), pax Mongoliana increased trade, spread plague from China to Europe.

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