Architectural Tactics and Patterns An architectural pattern is

Architectural Tactics and Patterns  An architectural pattern is

Architectural Tactics and Patterns An architectural pattern is is a package of design decisions that is found repeatedly in practice, has known properties that permit reuse, and describes a class of architectures Patterns are found in practice, not invented, they are discovered. There will never be a complete list of patterns. Patterns spontaneously emerge in reaction of environmental conditions, and as long as those conditions change, new patterns will emerge.

Architectural design seldom starts from first principles. Experienced architects typically think of creating an architecture as process of selecting, tailoring, and combining patterns Patterns package tactics. Most of patterns consists of (are constructed from) several different tactics. Tactics are building blocks of design from which architectural patterns are created. Multiple patterns can be used in architecture design of a complex system Architectural Tactics and Patterns Description of an architectural pattern:

Context: a recurring, common situation that gives rise to a problem. Problem: a generalized problem that arises in the given context, including problem outline and its variants complementary or opposing forces quality attributes that must be met Solution: abstract description of the architectural structures that solve the problem by balancing many forces at work. a set of element types (e.g. data repositories, processes, and objects)

a set of interaction mechanisms or connectors (e.g. method calls, events, and message bus) Module Patterns Layered Pattern Context: to develop and evolve portions of the system independently Problem: modules can be developed and evolved separately with little interaction among the parts, supporting portability, modifiability, and reuse.

Solution Module Patterns Layered Pattern Context: to develop and evolve portions of the system independently Problem: modules can be developed and evolved separately with little interaction among the parts, supporting portability, modifiability, and reuse. Solution

Module Patterns Layered Pattern Context: to develop and evolve portions of the system independently Problem: modules can be developed and evolved separately with little interaction among the parts, supporting portability, modifiability, and reuse. Solution

Module Patterns Layered Pattern Context: to develop and evolve portions of the system independently Problem: modules can be developed and evolved separately with little interaction among the parts, supporting portability, modifiability, and reuse. Solution Module Patterns

Layered Pattern Context: to develop and evolve portions of the system independently Problem: modules can be developed and evolved separately with little interaction among the parts, supporting portability, modifiability, and reuse. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Broker Pattern

Context: implementing systems with collaborative services: interoperation, connection, information exchange, and service availability. Problem: How to structure distributed software so that service users do not need to know the nature and location of service providers, to make it easy to dynamically change the bindings between users and providers. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns

Broker Pattern Context: implementing systems with collaborative services: interoperation, connection, information exchange, and service availability. Problem: How to structure distributed software so that service users do not need to know the nature and location of service providers, to make it easy to dynamically change the bindings between users and providers. Solution

Component-and-Connector Patterns Model-View-Controller (MVC) Pattern Context: for interactive GUI based systems, to keep modifications to the user interface separate from the rest of the system, and support multiple or alternative views of computing results or current state of data. Problem: How can user interface functionality ne kept separate from application functionality and still be responsive to user input, or changes in the underlying applications data?

How can multiple views of user interface be created, maintained, and coordinated when the underlying application data changes? Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Model-View-Controller (MVC) Pattern Solution

Component-and-Connector Patterns Pipe-and-Filter Pattern Context: transform streams of data items from input to output, using reusable components. Problem: divide a system into reusable, loosely coupled components with simple, generic interaction mechanisms with flexible and dynamic combination of such reusable components, also support parallel executions of components Solution

Component-and-Connector Patterns Pipe-and-Filter Pattern Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Client-Server Pattern Context: There are shared resources and services that large numbers of distributed clients wish to access, and for which we wish to control access or quality of service.

Problem: for modifiability and reuse, factor out common services and modify them in a single location or small number of locations. for scalability and availability, centralize the control of these resources and services while distributing the resources themselves across multiple physical servers. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns

Client-Server Pattern Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Peer-to-Peer Pattern Context: Distributed computing entities with independent resources need to cooperate and collaborate to provide a service to a distributed community of users. Problem: How can a set of equal distributed computing entities be connected to each other

via a common protocol, so that they can organize and share their services with high availability and scalability? Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Peer-to-Peer Pattern Solution

Component-and-Connector Patterns Service-Oriented Architecture Pattern Context: A number of services are offered (and described) by service providers and consumed by service consumers. Service consumers need to be able to understand and use these services without any detailed knowledge of their implementation. Problem: To support interoperability of distributed components running on different platforms and written in different implementation languages, provided by different organizations, and

distributed across the internet. To locate services and combine (and dynamically recombine) them into meaningful coalitions while achieving reasonable performance, security, and availability. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Service-Oriented Architecture Pattern Solution

Component-and-Connector Patterns Publish-Subscript Pattern Context: There are a number of independent producers and consumers of data that must interact. The precise number and nature of the data producers and consumers are not predetermined or fixed, nor is the data that they share. Problem: To create integration mechanisms that support the ability to transmit messages among the producers and consumers in such a way that they are unaware if each others

identity, or potentially even their existence. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns Publish-Subscript Pattern Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns

Shared-Data Pattern Context: Various computing components need to share and manipulate large amounts of data. This data does not belong solely to any one of those components. Problem: To store and manipulate persistent data that is accessed by multiple independent components. Solution Component-and-Connector Patterns

Shared-Data Pattern Context: Various computing components need to share and manipulate large amounts of data. This data does not belong solely to any one of those components. Problem: To store and manipulate persistent data that is accessed by multiple independent components. Solution Allocation/C&C Patterns

Map-Reduce Pattern Context: Programs for analysis of big data should be easy to write, run efficiently, and resilient with respect to hardware failure. Problem: To efficiently perform a distributed and parallel sort of a large data set and provide a simple means for programmer to specify the analysis to be done. Solution Allocation/C&C Patterns

Map-Reduce Pattern Solution Allocation/C&C Patterns Multi-Tier Pattern Context: In a distributed deployment, to distribute a systems infrastructure into distinct sunsets, for operational or business reasons. Problem: To split the system into a number of computationally independent execution

structures (groups of software and hardware) connected by some communication media, to provide specific environments optimal for operational requirements and resource usage. Solution Allocation/C&C Patterns Multi-Tier Pattern Context: In a distributed deployment, to distribute a systems infrastructure into distinct sunsets, for operational or business reasons.

Problem: To split the system into a number of computationally independent execution structures (groups of software and hardware) connected by some communication media, to provide specific environments optimal for operational requirements and resource usage. Solution Relationships between Tactics and Patterns

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