Training Agenda/Objectives Day 1: Cost Management Overview Understanding
Training Agenda/Objectives Day 1: Cost Management Overview Understanding of why managing costs are important, Armys overall objectives, the process of Cost Management, how it differs from Budget, and key cost terms Day 2: Cost Object Definition Understanding of an ERP, how to build a Cost Model, and the various cost objects within a Cost Model (e.g. organization, products, job orders, etc.) Day 3: Assignment of Costs Understanding of cost allocations/assignments, how to chose which to utilize when, how to valuate the results of the assignments (Std. vs Actual), and rate creation Day 4: Analysis and Reporting Understanding of the results of the Cost Model and how various types of analysis and decisions are supported D3L1_p1 Day 3 Objective & Agenda Day 3: Assignment of Costs Understanding of cost allocations/assignments, how to chose which to utilize when, how to valuate the results of the assignments (Std. vs Actual), and rate creation Lesson 1: Cost Assignments Overview Lesson 2: Direct Activity Allocation Lesson 3: Assessment Cycles Lesson 4: Indirect Activity Allocation, Target/Actual, and
Templates Lesson 7: Overhead Costing Sheet Lesson 8: Costing Assignment Methods Comparison Lesson 9: Standard vs. Actual & Depreciation D3L1_p2 Lesson 1: Cost Assignments Overview Objective(s): To provide a high level understanding of the types of cost assignments To understand what allocations and assignment are used for D3L1_p3 Cost Model Cost Objects Full Cost Organizations Full Cost Product/Services SSPs Provided Director of Logistics)
Full Cost Customers Cost Center SSPA: Manage OCIE Inventory Brigade XXX SSPB: Issue Cost Center/Resource Pool Military Labor Civilian Employees Contractors Military D3L1_p4 SSPC: Issue Clothing to Initial Training Soldier Central Issue facility
Depreciation OCIE to Soldier CIV HR CNT HR MIL HR TRADOC YYY SSPD: Accept OCI Turn-Ins SSPE: Receive & Process Shipments Brigade ZZZ SSPF: Manage Chemical Defense Equipment
. . Etc. First step of the Cost Model is to define how the various cost objects will be utilized Then the relationships between the cost objects have to be analyzed and modeled. The relationships are reflected in the assignments and allocations defined Cost Flow Overview Allocations and Assignments are utilized in order to reflect the cost flows of the organization providing the ability to: Determine the full costs of products/services (for both plan and actual) Determine the full costs of customers (for both plan and actual) Understand the how the organization can influence the costs through their behavior D3L1_p5
Assignment vs. Allocation Allocation: The establishment of relationship between a sending cost object and a receiving cost object based on a quantity (with a rate for valuation) being consumed by the receiver The establishment of a relationship between a sending cost object to one or more receiving cost object(s) based on % (even if a quantity is utilized to generate a %, e.g. # FTEs) Requires: Activity Type or Business Process quantity as sender A rate associated to valuate the quantity flow Mechanism for capturing or imputing the sender quantity Requires: Mechanism for capturing a quantitative or monetary value on the receiver(s) which is then utilized to determine the % split of the sender costs Acceptance of batch processing CC 1 $220
-$200 D3L1_p6 10 Hr @ 10 @ 0 $1 $10 Order 1 Order 2 CC 1 $220 -$220 50 % Assignment: 50%
Order 1 10 Hrs Order 2 10 Hrs Assignment vs. Allocation Assignment: Allocation: Pros: Direct relationship Real-time information for analysis Reduces systemic burden during period close Dynamic (can change as the environment changes) Capacity Mgmt (resource utilization) Pros: Provides mechanism for cost association when tracking of quantity is not possible or cost prohibitive Cons: Must have the ability to track quantity from send to receiver or impute
Cons: Full-absorption approach Typically less accurate High demand on system resources during period-end close Static assumption set often infrequently updated D3L1_p7 Allocation to Assignment Maturation Process 100% 80% Value-Based Quantity-Based 60% 40% 20% 0% Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
Year 5 Year N As the Armys Management Accounting framework matures over time, utilization between cost allocation versus assignment methods will shift. Value-based: Cost allocations utilizing tracing factors that result in the allocation of dollars between cost objects, e.g. % split or quantitative information such as # FTEs. The result is the cost flow of dollars only. Supports current costing with limited management control and projection capabilities. D3L1_p8 Quantity-based: Cost assignments utilizing the quantity of goods and services provided between cost objects, e.g. # Hrs, SQFT, CPUMINS, etc. The result is the flow of quantities between cost objects with a corresponding monetary valuation. Therefore both quantities and dollars flow. Supports current costing with management control and projection capabilities. Cost Assignments and Allocations Today: Not All Cost Allocated Focused on Direct Obligation by Appropriation Assigned / Mapped to High Level Programs (e.g. MDEP) Allocation Done Differently by Organization Tomorrow (GFEBS):
Standardized Process Will Use Acceptable Cost Assignment/ Allocation Practices Will Provide Capability for Multiple Cost Assignments/Allocations Allocations Only where Direct Assignments not Used Inconsistent Army Reporting Not Full Cost Financial Focus to Meet Budget Execution Reports Not linked to Output Required for Full Cost Accuracy More Accurately Defines Overhead & Indirect Cost Maintains Budget Execution Capability Linked to Output D3L1_p9 What Assignments/Allocations Are Currently Performed?
Space Allocation (received from IMCOM) Space Allocation (for courses, classes) Admin/teaching staffs time? Lecture room usage? Office supplies stock? Library costs? Current Cost transfers for? Cost Assignment/Allocation Methods Supported by SAP 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Direct Activity Allocations/Confirmations Cycles (e.g. Assessment) Indirect Activity Allocation Cycle Target = Actual Template Allocation Overhead Costing Sheets Choosing Assignment / Allocation Methods Questions to ask: Are quantities known?
If yes, what kind of quantity is known? Is it the quantity between sender and receiver? Or just of the receiver? Is it the quantity relationship between sender/receiver (i.e. std. qty) When is the information needed (e.g. real-time, monthly)? Is the information needed in actual only or is it also used for planning? Are there complexities/weighting factors? Lesson 1: Wrap-Up Assignments are the establishment of relationship between a sending cost object and a receiving cost object based on a quantity (with a rate for valuation) being consumed by the receiver Allocations are the establishment of a relationship between a sending cost object to one or more receiving cost object(s) based on % (even if a quantity is utilized to generate a %, e.g. # FTEs) Assignments and allocations are necessary in order to supoort the Full Cost of Organizations, Products/Services, and Customers Assignments should be utilized where possible unless
the quantities cannot be tracked or are cost prohibitive in comparison to the information provided D3L1_p13 Questions __________ are utilized to send costs from the sender cost object to the receiver cost objects(s) based on % __________ are utilized to send costs from the sender cost object to the receiver cost object based on the sender cost object quantity using a rate for valuation SAP has 2 allocation/assignment methods? o True oX False D3L1_p14 Lesson 2: Direct Activity Allocation Objective(s): Understand what is a direct activity allocation Walk through an example Understand how it is currently used Learn how will be supported within GFEBS D3L2_p1
Direct Activity Allocations Definition Definition The direct recording and posting of either an activity type (resource driver) or a process (activity driver) quantity. This method is a direct charging of the quantity to the receiver. SSP A: PROVIDE LEGAL ASSISTANCE 2ABM0014 LEGAL (ILO) Labor Costs CIV HR SSP B: LEGAL ASSISTANCE (ADVERSE ACTIONS) Labor Costs Must know the quantity of the sender being consumed by the receiver(s) Real-time posting unless batch interfaced in from a source system D3L2_p2 Direct Activity Allocations Example SSP A: 2ABM0014: LEGAL (ILO) Name Cost Element
LEGAL ASSISTANCE (ADVERSE ACTIONS) Name 60 hrs at $50/hr 20 hrs at $50/hr Labor Cost Element 9300.0100 Amoun t $3,000 Quantit y 60 hrs SSP B: LEGAL ASSISTANCE (ADVERSE ACTIONS) Name Labor
Cost Element 9300.0100 Amoun t $1,000 Quantit y 20 hrs Direct Activity Allocation How Currently Used? D3L2_p4 What examples are there currently which would match a Direct Activity Allocation? Direct Activity Allocation How Supported in GFEBS Used to reflected the ATAAPS time entered directly against an SSP this information will feed into GFEBS and charge the Cost Center/Activity Type out to the receiving SSP
Confirmations within GFEBS are a form of Direct Activity Allocations. D3L2_p5 Used to reflect the DPW work to an order for Equipment, GSA Vehicles, and DPW work hrs (DPW Hrs to work orders are not charged out in ATAAPS) Lesson 2: Wrap-Up A direct activity allocation is the direct recording and posting of either an activity type (resource driver) or a process (activity driver) quantity. This method is a direct charging of the quantity to the receiver. Requires the sender cost object quantity to be known by receiver Is a real-time posting providing information immediately The cost flowed from the sender to the receiver is based determined by the rate * quantity charged D3L2_p6 Questions: 1. Direct Activity Allocations provide information on the
quantity and the dollars related to the sender/receiver relationship? o True o False 2. Direct Activity Allocations are batch run at the end of the period? o True oX False 3. When is Direct Allocation preferred and what information is needed? ALWAYS! D3L2_p7 Lesson 3: Assessment Cycles Objective(s): Understand what are cycles Learn about Assessment cycle D3L3_p1 What Are Cycles? Cycles are a form of allocation within GFEBS Used when tracking of the actual quantity between sender and receiver is not available or is cost prohibitive Run at the end of a period (i.e. batch oriented not real-time) Allow for the set-up of individual sender/receiver relationships or groups of senders to groups of receivers
Support various cost basis as the determine of the % split to the receivers (e.g. $s, hrs, SKFs, %s, etc.) D3L3_p2 Cycles Overview Are there cost drivers available for allocations? Labor HRs % Time Labor $s SQ FT Etc. Receiver Cost Center1 Sender Cost Center Name Cost Amount Element Sender Cost Center Cost Cost XXXX $ZZZZ Name Amount Element Cost
XXXX $ZZZZ 50% 50% Allocated Costs Receiver Cost Center1 Allocated Costs D3L3_p3 Assessment Cycles Definition A value-based allocation method that uses an aggregate account to move both primary (G/L accounts) and secondary cost elements (internal allocation accounts) between senders and receivers. 2ABM0066: CONSOL ISSUE FAC 2ABM0008: 2ABM0008: DIR. DIR. OF OF LOGISTICS LOGISTICS Name Name
Cost Cost Element Element Labor Labor Travel Travel 6100.11B1 6100.11B1 6100.21T0 6100.21T0 $10,000 $10,000 $4,000 $4,000 Supplies Supplies 6100.261B 6100.261B $2,000 $2,000 DOL Support
9100.0000 ($16,000) D3L3_p6 Amount Amount 50% of Labor $ 50% of Labor $ Name Cost Element Amount Labor 6100.11B1 $2,000 Travel 6100.21T0
$2,000 DOL Support 9100.0000 $8,000 2ABM0061: FOOD SVC & BR Name Cost Element Amount Labor 6100.11B1 $2,000 Travel 6100.21T0 $1,000 DOL Support 9100.0000
$8,000 Assessment Cycles D3L3_p7 A se co nd ary co st ele me nt is util ize Lesson 3: Wrap-Up An assessment cycle is a value-based allocation method that uses an aggregate account to move both primary (G/L accounts) and secondary cost elements (internal allocation accounts) between senders and receivers. Cycles support the ability to defined relationships between individual sender/receiver relationship or groups
Cycles are run at period-end close D3L3_p8 Questions: 1. Cycles are: o Run at Period-End Close o Real-Time 2. Assessment Cycles allocate using a secondary cost element (aggregate account) o True o D3L3_p9 False Lesson 4: Indirect Activity Allocation, Target = Actual, and Templates Objective(s): Understand more advanced costing assignment methods Know when to use these different methods D3L4_p1
Cost Assignment - Imputed There are three additional cost assignment methods which can be utilized when the direct activity allocation relationship is not known: Indirect Activity Allocation Imputes/ Calculates the sender quantity based on the receiver quantities through cycles Target = Actual Imputes the sender quantity based on the receiver quantity through planning Template Imputes/Calculates sender quantity based on receiver information through rules D3L4_p2 Indirect Activity Allocation Definition The allocation of quantities (rather than dollars) using the cycle-supported allocation basis such as fixed portion, fixed percentage, and so on. Has ability to inversely determine a sender quantity based on receiver information. 2ABM0066: CONSOLIDATED ISSUE FACILITIY 2ABM0008: DIRECTOR (DOL) CIV HR CIV HR 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT
CIV HR D3L4_p3 Indirect Activity Allocation 2ABM0008: DIR DOL Name Perm Labor Cost Element 6100.11B1 9300.0100 Labor Charge Rate = $20/Hr Name Amount $8,000 ($3,200) 160 Hrs 2ABM0066: CONSOL ISSUE FAC 25% 40 Hrs
Labor CIV HR 75% 120 Hrs Cost Element Amount Quantity $800 40 Hrs 9300.0100 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT Name Cost Element Labor 9300.0100 Amount
Quantity $2,400 120 Hrs Headcount = 30 Utilizes receiver(s) basis to determine the amount of sender quantity Rate is applied to the quantity sent from sender to receiver Runs at period-end close D3L4_p4 CIV HR Headcount = 10 CIV HR Target = Actual Definition Target=Actual imputes the output quantity of one driver based on another and posts quantities with their corresponding values. The relationship is defined through planning rather than a cycle. 2ABM0066: CONSOLIDATED ISSUE FACILITIY
2ABM0008: DIRECTOR (DOL) CIV HR CIV HR 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT CIV HR D3L4_p5 Target = Actual Labor Charge Rate = $20/Hr 2ABM0008: DIR DOL Name Perm Labor Cost Element 6100.11B1 9300.0100 Name Amount $8,000 ($5,000)
2ABM0066: CONSOL ISSUE FAC 180Hrs Labor Amount Quantity $3,600 180 Hrs 9300.0100 CIV HR 1:10 CIV HR 160 180 80 70 240 250 Plan 1600 Actual 1800 70 Hrs 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT
Name Labor Cost Element Cost Element 9300.0100 1:20 Amount Quantity $1,400 70 Hrs CIV HR Track actual output on receiver Plan 1600 Done through planning Actual 1400
Period-end closed based Planned relationship between the output of the receiver to the output of the sender (e.g. for every 10 Hrs worked, need 1 mgr Hr) D3L4_p6 Target=Actual Done through planning process A strong relationship been established between the receivers output quantities and the target input quantities The target = actual functionality calculates the target input quantities based on the receivers output quantities No need to capture sender quantities as they are imputed based on receivers output D3L4_p7 Templates Definition A tool that facilitates simple to complex assignments of costs between cost objects using Boolean (IF-THEN) logic. Used to establish a quantity-based relationship between these types of cost objects for allocations to be made based on operational metrics in a timely manner. 2ABM0066: CONSOLIDATED ISSUE FACILITIY 2ABM0008:
DIRECTOR (DOL) CIV HR CIV HR 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT CIV HR D3L4_p8 Templates 2ABM0008: DIR DOL Name Perm Labor Cost Element 6100.11B1 9300.0100 $8,000 ($6,400) Business Rules: IF 100 hours worked, THEN 10 Mgr hours 2ABM0066: CONSOL ISSUE FAC Name
170 Hrs 2ABM0070: CIIP ISSUE & FIT Name Labor Business rule based Rules are dynamic Calculated in real time Allows any flexibility with complexity D3L4_p9 Cost Element Cost Element 9300.0100 Amount Quantity $3,400 170 Hrs CIV HR Actual 1700
Templates Dynamic determination of the activity type or process consumed by a cost object Can use financial, non-financial or attribute informaiton to determine the If-Then business rule Allows for any complexity in a cost assignment Can occur within the period or only at periodend close D3L4_p10 Lesson 4: Wrap-Up Indirect Activity Allocation is the allocation of quantities (rather than dollars) using the cycle-supported allocation basis such as fixed portion, fixed percentage, and so on. It has the ability to inversely determine a sender quantity based on receiver information. Target = Actual is Similar to indirect activity allocation cycle. It imputes the output quantity of one driver based on another and posts quantities with their corresponding values. The relationship is defined through planning rather than a cycle. Template allocation is a tool that facilitates simple to complex assignments of costs between cost objects using Boolean (IF-THEN) logic. It is used to establish a quantity-based relationship between these types of cost objects for allocations to be made based on operational metrics in a timely manner. D3L4_p11 Questions:
1. ______________________ Template Allocations imputes/ calculates sender quantity based on receiver information through rules. 2. ______________________ Indirect Activity Allocations imputes/ calculates the sender quantities based on the receiver quantities through cycles. Target = Actual 3. ______________________ imputes the sender quantity based on the receiver quantity through planning. D3L4_p13 Lesson 5: Overhead Costing Sheet Objective(s): Understand the capabilities of the allocation method Walk through an example Discuss uses within GFEBS D3L5_p1 Overhead Costing Sheet Definition A costing sheet is an allocation mechanism for associating costs to a receiver based on static business rules
A costing sheet consists of: Base lines - These contain the amount or quantity on which the overhead is calculated (e.g. Labor). Calculation lines - These contain the percentage or rate to be applied to one or more base lines (e.g. $1.53). Totals lines - These contain the sum of the base amount and calculated amounts. Credit What cost object receives the offsetting credit for the cost allocation (e.g. CC warehousing using secondary CE) Overhead Costing Sheet Costing Sheet X = Activity Types X = What? Y = How Much? Z = From Who? Y = $1.53 Z = Warehouse 2CE 9000.2714 Uses Logic Order Warehouse Name Cost Element Material
6100.262 B Shop Stock 9000.2714 Amount $200 ($15.30) 2ABM0084: HVAC Name Labor Cost Element 9300.010 0 Name Labor Cost Element 9300.010 0 Amoun t $500
Quantit y 10 hrs Shop Stock 9000.271 4 $15.30 10 10 at $50 Amount $500 CIV HR Costing Sheet Uses When a static rule can be identified to make an overhead surcharge Will be utilized to accommodate shop stock costs applied to work orders Often used to apply overhead as well such as a rate for management time per each hour worked by employees Can only be used to apply costs to orders
and WBS elements Lesson 5: Wrap-Up A overhead costing sheet is an allocation mechanism for associating costs to a receiver based on static business rules Maintains a static rule which can apply a % overhead or Rate per the base Typically utilized in production areas Questions: 1. Costing Sheets can be used with (check all that apply)? o Cost Centers o Maintenance Orders o Sales Orders o Business Processes o WBS Elements 2. Define business rules for allocating overhead costs to the receiver Lesson 6: Costing Allocation / Assignment Method Comparison
Objective(s): Understand the differences between all the various methods Be able to identify the pros/cons of each D3L6_p1 How to Chose Which to Use? What is the cost objective (e.g. associate cost to a receiver, understand relationship between cost objects, etc.)? What information is available to utilize? When is the resulting costing information needed to support analysis and control (e.g. dollars only, quantities as well)? What are the impacts to the system (e.g. periodend close, volumes)? How much does it cost to maintain/run versus the value of information received? Choosing Assignment / Allocation Methods Questions to ask: Are quantities known? If yes, what kind of quantity is known? Is it the
quantity between sender and receiver? Or just of the receiver? Is it the quantity relationship between sender/receiver (i.e. std. qty) When is the information needed (e.g. real-time, monthly)? Is the information needed in actual only or is it also used for planning? Are there complexities/weighting factors? Allocation / Assignment Method Comparison Type Assignment Basis Possibilities Quantity Type S:R Rec. When Info is Needed Plan Actual
Handle Complexity X None Periodend Copy Limited Periodend Copy Limited Charges out imputed quantity w/rate
Periodend Runs Limited 5. Templates Simple to Complex Formulas and IfThen Rules (methods) charging a quantity w/Rate Within Period* Copy High Level Easily Supported 6. Cost Sheet
Static business rules apply overhead to orders and WBS elements. charges $$s only Periodend Runs Limited 1. Direct Activity Allocation Charges actual quantity w/rate Real Time 2. Cycle (Such as Assessment s) Charges out $$s only based on fixed %, fixed portions, fixed amount, variable tracing based on value field
dollars or quantities. 3. Indirect Activity Allocation Charges out quantity w/ rate based on fixed %, fixed portion, fixed quantities, variable tracing based on value field dollars or quantities. 4. Target= Actual Lesson 6: Wrap-Up There are multiple Cost movements supported within GFEBS and are decided based on multiple factors Can handle various levels of complexity from direct relationships to simple complexity to complex If-Then rules Can change over time as cost objectives mature or change Questions: Match Up A Assessment Cycle F
Indirect calculation of sending quantity B Costing Sheet E Imputed quantity consumption based on plan relationship C Direct Activity Allocation Real time sender/receiver relationship C D Template % allocation with aggregation into A secondary cost element E Target = Actual D If-then dynamic business rules F Indirect Activity Allocation B
WBS elements Static business rules for orders and Lesson 7: Standard vs. Actual & Depreciation Objective(s): Understand the different methods for valuation of a cost assignment Identify the pros/cons of standard vs. actual Understand Armys desire to be standard based for cost management Understand rate development considerations D3L7_p1 Std. vs Actual: Standard Rates Standard Rate: The total value of costs planned for an activity type divided by the planned output quantity of the activity type. (Planned Input $ / Planned Output Qty) The Cost Center for Plumbing plans for 8,000 hours for the year and costs of $800,000 Standard Rate = Planned Costs / Planned Hours = $100 per hour Actual costs for the year turned out to be $1,000,000 and only 5,000 hours were recorded Quantity and Spending variances occur Cost Center Costs ($) Plan $ 800,000
Actual $ 1,000,000 Quantity (Hrs) Variance $ 200,000 Plan 8,000 Actual Variance 5,000 -3,000 Receiver Cost Object Costs ($) Plan $ 800 D3L7_p2 Actual $ 1,000 Quantity (Hrs) Variance
$200 Plan Actual 8 10 Variance 2 Std. vs Actual: Actual Rates Actual Rate: The total value of actual costs on an activity type divided by the actual quantity of the activity type. (Actual Input $ / Actual Output Qty) The Cost Center for Plumbing plans for 8,000 hours for the year and costs of $800,000 Actual costs for the year turned out to be $1,000,000 and only 5,000 hours were recorded Actual Rate = Actual Costs / Actual Hours = $200 per hour Quantity, Spending and Price variances occur Cost Center Costs ($) Plan $ 800,000
Actual $ 1,000,000 Quantity (Hrs) Variance Plan $ 200,000 1. Posting on the 15th Standard Rate of $100 per hour was used 2. Posting on the 30th Actual rate known and costs revaluated D3L7_p3 Actual 8,000 5,000 Variance -3,000 Receiver Cost Object Costs ($) Plan 1. $ 800 2. $ 800
Actual $ 1,000 $ 2,000 Quantity (Hrs) Variance $ 200 $ 1,200 Plan Actual 8 8 10 10 Variance 2 2 Std. vs Actual: Why Use Std. So that the receiving customers know what they will be charged in advance To prevent inconsistent price impacts downstream Allow the manager to mange the mix of resources versus the customer requesting a cheaper resource Support identifying causes of variances Support transparency to determine efficiencies and
utilizations D3L7_p4 Standard versus Actual Rates Variance Analysis Management Accounting Processes Strategic Framework Analysis & Design Perform Analysis Define MA Model Develop Operating Plan Perform Controlling Create & Maintain Master Data Develop Standards Post Actual Data Perform Period Close Calculate Variances Revise Standards D3L7_p5 Cost Variance Reports
Depreciation Financial and Management Accounting Needs Vary: Financial View $100,000 5 year straight line $20,000/year Financial Depreciation Financial Depreciation: Utilizing the externally defined methods and tables for depreciating an asset by type; e.g. 10 Years for Aircraft Engines. Financial Depreciation Product X $s Product Y Cost Cost Cost Time Point A D3L7_p6 Point B Depreciation Financial and Management Accounting Needs Vary:
Financial View $100,000 5 year straight line Management View $100,000 10,000 hour lifespan $20,000/year Financial Depreciation $10/hour Cost Depreciation The Army has identified the needs for Cost Depreciation to be utilized within it Management Accounting framework. Cost Depreciation: Utilizing the depreciation methods defined by asset type that better reflect the usage life of an asset; e.g # Hrs Flown for Aircraft Engines as the Aircraft may have been intermittently flown within the last 10 years utilizing only 10% of its useful life. Cost Depreciation Product X $s D3L7_p7 Product Y
Replacement value divided by economic life. Cost Point A Time Point B Lesson 7: Wrap-Up A standard rate is the total value of costs planned for an activity type divided by the planned output quantity of the activity type. (Planned Input $ / Planned Output Qty) A actual rate is the total value of actual costs on an activity type divided by the actual quantity of the activity type. (Actual Input $ / Actual Output Qty) Financial depreciation is calculated by utilizing the externally defined methods and tables for depreciating an asset by type; e.g. 10 Years for Aircraft Engines. Cost depreciation is calculated by utilizing the depreciation methods defined by asset type that better reflect the usage life of an asset; e.g # Hrs Flown for Aircraft Engines as the Aircraft may have been intermittently flown within the last 10 years utilizing only 10% of its useful life. D3L7_p10 Question:
What are the advantages of using Std. rates versus Actual rates? Answer: less fluctuations in product costs and customer costs, enables variance analysis D3L7_p12
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