Reported Speech Direct and Indirect Reported Speech: Learning
Reported Speech Direct and Indirect Reported Speech: Learning Goals In this chapter you will use reported speech to practice: Punctuation Capital letters Strong verbs Verb tenses Pronoun / antecedent shifts Relationships to reality Attention to detail and meaning! Reported Speech Direct
Indirect Reports the speakers words exactly. Quotation marks show the reader that these are the exact words spoken. Reports the meaning of the speakers words, but the exact words are not necessarily repeated. Direct Reported Speech For example .
We use direct reported speech to make a sentence that tells our listener exactly what Bob said. The sentence looks like this: Im going home. Bob said, Im going home. Notice that Bobs words are exactly the same! Exactly does not mean pretty close or almost the same! It means every word is repeated exactly as the speaker said it!
Direct Reported Speech Or Study hard! Study hard! Kyle yelled. Direct Reported Speech Or Where are you going? Sue asked, Where are you going? Indirect Reported Speech For example . Im going home.
We use indirect reported speech to make a sentence that tells our listener what Bob said, but we dont repeat every word exactly. Indirect reported speech looks like this: Bob said that he was going home. Notice:
We added that We changed I to he We changed the verb tense Indirect Reported Speech Study hard! Kyle told us to study hard. Indirect Reported Speech Where are you going? Sue asked where I was going. Reported Speech: Comparisons Bob: Im going home.
Direct Indirect Bob said, Im going home. Bob said that he was going home. Kyle: Study hard! Direct Indirect Kyle yelled, Study hard! Kyle told us to study hard.
Sue: Where are you going? Direct Indirect Sue asked, Where are you going? Sue asked where I was going. Discussion See page 73 for instructions Common Mistake Talk and speak are not reporting verbs! Therefore, we DO NOT USE THEM when we are reporting speech. See page 74 for examples
Reporting Verbs: Common Mistake Speak and talk with to and with speak / talk to and speak / talk with usually mean to have a conversation I was speaking to John on the phone. She enjoyed talking with her mother last night. There is no reported speech in these sentences! Reporting Verbs: Common Mistake Speak and talk with about speak / talk about can also mean the subject of a conversation
speak / talk about usually means describing or explaining What did and or your boyfriend talk about? something to ayou person group, as in giving a speech We talked about getting married. The professor spoke about his time in France. My mother talked to me about my allowance. There is no reported speech in these sentences!
Now its time to practice! See p. 81 for verb tenses and pp. 82~83 for practice exercises. Reporting Verbs: Common Mistake Always remember that speak and talk are not reporting verbs, and they are never used in reported speech! He talked that he was going to be late. He said that he was going to be late. Reporting Verbs: Common Mistake Always remember that speak and talk are not reporting verbs, and they are never used in reported speech! She spoke that she liked chocolate.
She said that she liked chocolate. Direct Reported Speech Correct punctuation and capitalization are very important in sentences containing direct reported speech! Im hungry. So am I. Tim said, Im hungry. James said, So am I. Direct Reported So am I. Lets go.
Im tired, and I want to go home. So am I, Jane replied. Lets go. Im tired, Dana said, and I want to go home. Direct Reported Speech So am I. Lets go. Or: So am I. Lets go, Dana said. Dana said, So am I. Lets go. Direct Reported Speech Reporting Verbs: Position related to the subject. After the reported clause
, John said. Correct , said John. Correct , he said. Correct , said he. Incorrect Before the reported clause
John said, . Correct Said John, . Correct (but not common) He said, . Correct Said he, . Incorrect Rule: It is usually possible to put the reporting verb either before or after the
subject, but when a pronoun is used as the subject the reporting verb is always after the subject. Example Answers to practice exercise on p.78 1. Susanna said, My homework is difficult. Or My homework is difficult, Susanna said. 2. Paula asked, Are you hungry? Or Are you hungry? Paula asked. Indirect Reported Speech Indirect reported speech can be a little bit more difficult because now you have to know what kind of speech is being reported. Are you reporting A statement?
Im going home. An order? Go home! A question? Are you going home? The grammar is different for each one! Indirect Reported Speech Reporting Statements The first thing to remember is that sentences reporting indirect speech have two clauses:
The reporting clause: expresses who spoke (usually with a name or pronoun) contains the reporting verb (most often say or tell) The reported clause is most often expressed as a that clause (statements only!) expresses what the speaker from the reporting clause said Indirect Speech: Reporting Statements Example I want to see a movie. Im too busy.
Reporting Clause Richard said Reported Clause that he wanted to see a movie. Lisa replied that she was too busy. Indirect Speech: Reporting Statements Reporting Clause Richard said Lisa replied
Reported Clause that he wanted to see a movie. that she was too busy. Notice the changes: I in the original speech becomes he or she in the reported clause. Be careful when changing these. Make sure that the reader can easily identify who the pronouns refer to. The verb tenses have changed. This is very important! The writer is reporting now the words that Richard and Lisa have already spoken. The actual speech occurred in the past. Reporting Statements: Strong Verbs IN CONVERSATION, SAY AND TELL ARE BY FAR THE MOST COMMON REPORTING VERBS; OTHERS USUALLY SOUND AWKWARD.
In writing, however, it is often helpful to express the way in which something is said. Remember that you should try to give your reader as much information as possible. Using reporting verbs creatively can help the reader understand not just what the person said, but how they said it. m t u o h m s u r
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i r l l sh e y er utt Reporting Statements: Strong Verbs My computer is too slow! said that his computer was too slow.
Paul shouted Or: screamed, yelled, hollered, bellowed, etc. There are more strong verb examples in the textbook. Reporting Statements: Verb Tenses Check your tenses carefully! It is most common to put both the reporting verb and the verb in the reported clause in simple past because we are, most often, reporting what a person has said: I dont like coffee. Ella complained that she didnt like coffee. Reporting Statements: Verb Tenses More examples: Judy: My coffee is cold. Judy complained that her coffee was cold.
Robert: I need to study for my exam. Robert mentioned that he needed to study for his exam. Stanley: My girlfriend wants a diamond ring. Stanley lamented that his girlfriend wanted a diamond ring. Reporting Statements: Back Shifting The process of changing verb tenses in reported speech is called backshifting The basic rules for backshifting when transforming direct speech into reported speech are: Direct Speech Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Present Perfect Past Perfect
Past Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Simple Future (will) Future Progressive (will be ___ ing) Future (BE going to) Reported Speech Simple Past Past Progressive Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Progressive would would be ___ ing was / were going to
Reporting Statements: Back Shifting Examples: (photocopied page has more information) From To Peter: "I work in the garden." Peter said that he worked in the garden. Peter: "I'm working in the garden." Peter said that he was working in the garden. Peter: "I worked in the garden." Peter: "I have worked in the garden."
Peter said that he had worked in the garden. Peter: "I had worked in the garden." Peter: "I was working in the garden." Peter: "I have been working in the garden." Peter said that he had been working in the garden. Peter: "I had been working in the garden." Peter: "I will work in the garden." Peter said that he would work in the garden. Peter: I will be working in the garden. Peter said that he would be working in the garden.
Peter: I am going to work in the garden. Peter said that he was going to work in the garden. Future using other modals: Peter: "I can work in the garden." Peter said that he could work in the garden. Peter: "I may work in the garden." Peter said that he might work in the garden. etc. Reporting Statements: Back Shifting If the sentence contains an expression of time,
you probably have to change it as well. Peter: I worked in the garden yesterday. Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before. Shifting expressions of time: this (evening) today/this day these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow that (evening) that day
those (days) then (a week) before the weekend before / the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day Backshifting Practice 1. Billy said that he likes kimchi. Billy said, I like kimchi. 2. Susan declared that she was going home. Susan declared, I am going home. 3. Jody mentioned that she had lost her wallet. Jody mentioned, I lost my wallet. Jody mentioned, I have lost my wallet.
Jody mentioned, I had lost my wallet. 4. Bobby claimed that he had been sleeping. Bobby claimed, I was sleeping. Bobby claimed, I have been sleeping. Bobby claimed, I had been sleeping. 5. Sherry told me that she would meet me soon. Sherry told me, I will meet you soon. 6. Tracy informed her mother that she would be studying. Tracy informed her mother, I will be studying. 7. Paul guessed that he would have to save a lot of money. Paul guessed, I will have to save a lot of money. 8. Wendy told me that she could lend me some money. Wendy told me, I can lend you some money. 9. Gabriella explained that she had been busy that morning. Gabriella explained, I was busy this morning.
Gabriella explained, I have been busy this morning. 10. Mr. Smith confessed that that car had been stolen the day before. Mr. Smith confessed, This car was stolen yesterday. 11. She said that she would meet me there the following Saturday. She said, I will meet you here next Saturday. 1. Susans dad told her, You have to call me by eleven oclock tonight. Susans dad told her that she had to call him by eleven oclock that night. 2. Edgar said, This movie seems like it is about my life! Edgar said that that movie seemed like it was about his life. 3. Cheryl told her friend Tom, Your mother is sick and she wants to see you.
Cheryl told her friend Tom that his mother was sick and she wanted to see him. 4. Wendy told her brother, You should go with me to see our parents new house. Wendy told her brother that he should go with her to see their parents new house. Reporting Verbs: Things to remember Some reporting verbs always require an object (p. 94): Dont worry about the grammar terms (direct/indirect/etc) The object of the verb is the listener It is the person to whom the speech was directed. tell is the most common verb of this type. The teacher told that the exam would be hard. The teacher told to us that the exam would be hard.
The teacher told us that the exam would be hard. The teacher told me that the exam would be hard. The teacher told the students that the exam would be hard. The teacher told Karen that the exam would be hard. Reporting Verbs: Things to remember Other verbs that always require the listener: assure convince inform notify persuade remind She told that the movie started at 8 oclock. She told me that the movie started at 8 oclock. I assured that the exam would be easy.
I assured my students that the exam would be easy. My professor convinced that she was wrong. My professor convinced her that she was wrong. Note: Remember, were talking about using these verbs to report speech So, when I say always require I mean in the context of reported speech But these verbs may have other uses/meanings. Example: The old man told of his experiences in the war. Reporting Verbs: Things to remember Some reporting verbs can be used either with an object or without: say admit
announce complain confess explain hint mention suggest With these verbs, if the hearer is mentioned, the preposition to must be added before the listener Tim complained that his pizza was cold. Tim complained the waiter that his pizza was cold. Tim complained to the waiter that his pizza was cold. See page 95 for more.
Reporting Questions The most common reporting verb used to report a question is ask. Note: Sentences reporting questions do not use that clauses! Yes/no questions: o if clause Choice questions: Julie: Is it raining? o whether clause Julie asked if it was raining. Bob: Are you studying? Bob asked if I was studying. John: Do you want coffee or tea? John asked me whether I wanted coffee or tea. Dale: Do you want to watch Fletch or Star Wars? Dale asked whether I wanted to watch Fletch or Star Wars.
Reporting Questions If the question contains a question word (who, what, where, when, why, how), the reported clause should contain the same word. Paula: Where are you going? Paula asked me where I was going. Dave: What are you doing? Dave asked Paula what she was doing. Notice the word order and punctuation! Reporting Questions Punctuation: The reporting sentence does not end with a question mark because the writer is making a statement that reports the question; the sentence itself is not a question.
Paula asked me where I was going? Word order: The word order is the same as a statement Paula asked me where was I going. Paula asked me where I was going. See page 100 for more examples! Reporting Questions Review: Different question types: As we have seen, there are three basic types of questions in English (not including questions expressed using negative constructions). 1. Yes/No questions These are reported by making a statement using an if clause
Beginning with BE o Is your room comfortable? o Are you going to class today? o I asked if her room was comfortable. o The professor asked if I was going to class that day. Check your word order. The report is a statement, not a question! Reporting Questions 1. Yes/No questions (continued): Beginning with the auxiliary DO/DOES
o Does your dog know any tricks? o Do you have any questions? o The woman asked if my dog knew any tricks. o His boss asked him if he had any questions. DO/DOES is not included in the report! Can begin with other auxiliary verbs o Can you help me? o Have you finished your homework? o I asked if she could help me. o Dad asked my brother if he had finished his homework. The auxiliary is
backshifted in the reported clause! Reporting Questions 2. Choice questions: These are usually reported by making a statement using a whether clause (sometimes if) Beginning with BE o Is your cat black or brown? o Are your shoes clean or dirty? o o
The vet asked whether my cat was black or brown. My mom asked whether my shoes were clean or dirty. Beginning with auxiliary verbs o Do you want fish or chicken for dinner? o Will we meet John or Mark at the office? Again, DO/DOES is not included in the report! o The flight attendant asked whether he wanted fish or chicken for dinner. o Samsungs CEO asked his assistant whether they would meet John or Mark at the office.
Reporting Questions 3. Wh- Questions: Beginning with a Wh- word o Where do you live? o When will I see you? o What can I do about it? o o o
Tim asked me where I lived. No do in this one. Bob asked when he would see me. Do is included here She asked him what she could do about it. because it is not being used as an auxiliary. Be careful when you see a wh-word and BE o What are you doing? o Where is she going? o Why are they running away? o o o The police officer asked me what I was doing.
Bob asked where she was going Philip asked why they were running away. Reporting Imperatives (orders) The most common reporting verbs used to report imperatives are tell and order. Instruct, command, may also be used. To report instructions or advice, advise, encourage, remind, and warn are common reporting verbs. In reported speech, almost all of these verbs are transitive (they require the direct object the hearer). Go home! Peter told me to go home. Did you notice the verb form? Reporting Imperatives Grammar
Subject + Reporting Verb + Direct Object + Infinitive Verb Form Harry: Go home! Harry told me to go home. Harry ordered me to go home. Tim: Do your homework! Tim instructed us to do our homework. Tim advised us to do our homework. Tim reminded us to do our homework. See page 25 for more ! Reported Speech in Paragraphs Imagine that you heard the following conversation at the table next to you in a coffee shop. Man: Have you heard the good news? Woman: No. What is it? Man: The price of one of our stocks is going to go up soon!
Woman: Really? Which one? Man: Tech-com. Its going to double in price by the end of the week! Woman: Thats great! Should we buy more before it doubles? Man: Definitely! Well be rich! Reported Speech in Paragraphs A paragraph about overhearing this conversation might look something like this: Yesterday, I was sitting alone at my favorite coffee shop when I heard a couple at the next table talking about investing money. The man asked the woman if she had heard the good news. She said, No, and asked what it was. The price of one of our stocks is going to go up soon! he grinned. She asked excitedly, Which one? He told her that the stock was called Tech-com and that it was going to double in price by the end of the week. She wondered if they should buy more before it doubled, and he exclaimed, Definitely! Well be rich! As soon as I heard him say that, I decided to buy as much Tech-com stock as I could afford.
Reported Speech in Paragraphs NOTICE THE PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE; WHAT DOES THE TOPIC SENTENCE DO? WHAT ABOUT THE CONCLUSION SENTENCE? THERE IS NO ME. NO ONE IS TALKING TO THE REPORTER! The Writing Process: Review PLANNING YOUR PARAGRAPH Choose your audience Who do you think will be interested in your paragraph? What can you tell them specifically? Topic and context What is the conversation about? When did you hear it? Where did you hear it? Who
was talking? What was interesting about the conversation? (Why are you reporting it /?) Purpose Why are you reporting this conversation? Why would your reader be interested in this conversation? Brainstorming / note-taking / pre-writing The Writing Process: Review Grouping Make a detailed outline Put the details that you will use in your paragraph together and omit the useless details. Make sure that you have enough reported speech to make a good paragraph, but not too much (try around 6 or 7 sentences). First draft / practice writing Start with the topic sentence this is practice only, and you may have to change it.
Write one now, so that you are clear about your audience, topic, and purpose. Write a conclusion sentence. This is to make sure that you know if it is possible to move logically from the topic sentence to the conclusion. Finally, follow your detailed outline and write a first draft of the body of the paragraph. Proofreading and editing Fix your mistakes. Read it carefully (many times if you have to) and make sure that your give the reader the best paragraph you can, not just the quickest, easiest paragraph to write.
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