Module 2 What Leaders Need to Know about Learning to Read Assoc Prof Deslea Konza Director Fogarty Learning Centre Edith Cowan University Module 2 What leaders need to know about learning to read Purpose
To develop instructional leadership for literacy To present findings of evidence-based research To distill important elements of reading development rather than make principals literacy experts Your role Engage and participate (Ill let you know when you really have to listen) Ask questions Remember that this presentation is about
teaching Standard Australian English Think about how this relates to low achieving students in your school (but not exclusively) Come back after breaks! Overview of sessions 1 2 3 4
The evidence base The Big Six (part 1) The Big Six (part 2) The Literacy Practices Guide (LPG) First some definitions Phonological awareness Phoneme Phonemic awareness Phonics/alphabetic
Rime The Literacy Wars Essentially between two opposing theoretical approaches A meaning first, look-say or whole language approach vs A decoding, phonics or skills-based approach Over a century of of debate
In the beginning Children were taught the alphabet before engaging in reading Reading seen as a hierarchy of skills Reader analyses letters, then words, etc Higher order comprehension processes then engaged to integrate meaning Use of primers rather than childrens literature Bottom up model
(Gough, 1976; Samuels, 1977) Originally thought of as a decoding exercise Reading seen as a hierarchy of skills Reader analyses letters, then words, etc Higher order comprehension processes then engaged to integrate meaning Weaknesses of bottom-up model Too simplistic Decoding doesnt necessarily lead to
understanding Good readers read more quickly than decoding alone suggests Beginning of sentence would be forgotten before end of sentence reached Context often decides pronunciation and comprehension Top Down model (Smith, Goodman) Reader uses background knowledge,
inferences and hypotheses to interpret text Reader predicts what will appear and monitors to confirm predictions Decoding is the least emphasised Reader only samples print Reading is presented as being as natural a process as learning to speak Weaknesses of top-down model Previous slide demonstrates that it is oral language that children master by 5 years Too simplistic
Eye movement technology has revealed we do more than dip into print Demonstration of points of fixation and saccades Van Ordens research How important is context? Explanation of research How erroneous conclusions can result in longterm misunderstandings This is not a context problem!!
Use of context demands about 90% word recognition to provide context Beginning/poor readers do not have sufficient word recognition skills to use context Interactive model (Rumelhart, 1977) Reading combines both bottom-up and top-down processes, interacting within working memory
Usually letter configuration will precede information about meaning, but not always Without decoding skills/rapid word recognition, too much attention has to be focused on this aspect Little cognitive capacity left to focus on meaning Interactive/Compensatory Model (Stanovich, 1980) When reader can't use bottom-up
processes, will rely more heavily on topdown When reader can't use top-down, will rely more heavily on bottom-up Beginning/poor readers need focus on word recognition skills to facilitate context, which then facilitates meaning Research into Reading Acquisition Learning to Read: The Great Debate (Chall, 1967) Becoming a Nation of Readers (Anderson, 1985) Project Follow Through (1967-1995)
Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print (Adams, 1990) Report of the National Reading Panel (2000) National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy (Rowe, 2005) Review of the Teaching of Early Reading (Rose, 2006) Conclusions Importance of preschool years and oral language development Continuing importance of vocabulary
Understanding that letter-sound knowledge is built on phonemic awareness Need for explicit and systematic phonics instruction Need for both direct skills instruction and exposure to interesting reading Conclusions Emphasised need for teacher training and teacher professional development to reflect scientific evidence regarding
beginning reading Identified 5 broad areas of development required for reading All underpinned by early literacy experiences The Big Six
Early language and literacy experiences Phonological Awareness Letter-sound Knowledge (Phonics) Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension 1. Early language and literacy experiences Enormous differences at school entry between children from different language backgrounds
(Beck & McKeown, 2002) Bottom 25% of students begin school with 1000 fewer base word meanings than top 25% (Biemiller, 2005) Gap never completely closes Need to directly teach vocabulary, especially to those who read little Discussion in groups - 10 mins
What social and cultural factors have an impact on language and reading development in your school? How do experiences before school affect your school populations Feedback session 2. Phonological awareness Phonological awareness - a broad term that includes phonemic awareness but also refers to other aspects of language such as awareness of words, of syllables, and of individual sounds
Phonemic awareness a subset of phonological awareness; the ability to attend to, identify and manipulate the individual sounds in speech Onset and rime intra-syllabic units onset refers to the initial phoneme(s) kiss slap rime refers to the following vowel and remaining part of syllable kiss slap
Phonological awareness Significance only recognised in mid 1980s Children have to learn what a sound is (ie not the same as an environmental noise) Sounds (phonemes) in words are compressed (1015/sec) so we can process them We receive words as one pulse Disguises segmental nature of words If children cant hear separate sounds, they cant attach a letter to a sound, which is what an alphabetic system demands They cant map sounds onto paper
Alphabetic system doesnt make sense to them Phonological awareness Assessment of phonological awareness Not related to intelligence! About 20% of people have some difficulties Strongly related to early literacy experiences
Essentially nothing to do with phonics but phonics builds on p.a. Relates to sounds of language If the sounds the child is hearing are not standard English, s/he will be disadvantaged from beginning Empathy task Phonological awareness Skills develop in broad sequence Word awareness Syllable awareness (rhythm)
Awareness of onset/rime division (rhyme) Awareness of individual phonemes phonemic awareness (alliteration, isolation, segmentation) Ability to blend and segment phonemes Ability to manipulate phonemes 3. Letter-sound knowledge A difficult language - different spellings of or (18) - different pronunciations of ough (9)
To be independent, readers need to know Letter sounds and letter names When should you begin? How quickly should you go? Should letter shapes be related to animals, etc? Should sounds be related to actions and songs? How should they be taught? Synthetic versus Analytic approaches Synthetic (synthesising) approaches entail
explicit and systematic instruction of letters and their sounds in an order that promotes blending Emphasis on blending very early Using knowledge in reading asap, so practice with cvc words in simple stories, etc Analytic/embedded approaches entail Looking for common patterns in words read in stories Analysing patterns in words Synthetic versus Analytic approaches
Explicit, systematic instruction in letter-sound knowledge has been demonstrated by many studies to be more effective than embedded or analytic approaches for beginning (R/1) and struggling readers (Johnston & Watson, 2003, 2005; NRP, 2000; Rose Review, 2006) Synthetic versus Analytic Gender differences disappear (Johnston & Watson, 2003) To be independent, readers also need to know
Common letter combinations digraphs, blends, prefixes (esp. un-, re-, in-, dis-), suffixes Common rimes Poor consistency at individual letter level (except initial) More consistency at letter cluster level Some very common letter strings Human brain hard-wired to recognise patterns Following Rimes make > 500 words
-ock -oke -op -ine -or To be independent, readers also need to know Base words and how to build on them Etymological roots High frequency words Oxford Word List
Contractions TO THE POINT OF AUTOMATICITY IN ORDER TO BUILD A LARGE SIGHT VOCABULARY Dual route theory (Coltheart) Two ways of accessing words Visual route Phonological route Need to build a large mental lexicon of words that can be recognised immediately,
i.e. a large sight vocabulary This reduces cognitive space needed for decoding and assists fluent reading for meaning A very useful website http://www.oup.com.au/primary/learning/th esuccessfulteacher
The Oxford Wordlist the 307 most frequently used words by students in their first three years of school and the Oxford Wordlist research summary The Oxford Wordlist Interactive Tool allowing educators to access frequently used words according to demographic characteristics Oxford Wordlist Classroom Resources including Bingo, Flashcards, Memory Snap and Take Home Words IWB Number Line Sample an interactive teaching resource for the maths class designed to explore big numbers.
Two potent strategies Ensure students know short vowel sounds Teach students to syllabify Long words then become largely a series of CVC words put together Helps with decipherable (not conventional) spelling Discussion point Barking at print
4. Vocabulary Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency in particular and school achievement in general (Beck, 2007, p.1). Beginning readers have a much more difficult time reading words that are not already part of their oral vocabulary. Very important to reading comprehension - chn cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean
Types of word knowledge Learning a new meaning for a known word e.g. reflection Learning the name of a known concept e.g. cube for box; rhombus for diamond Learning a new word for a new concept e.g. quotient, isosceles Elaborating a concept
through learning new words to add precision to meaning e.g. creep + tiptoe, sneak, slink, skulk Levels of word knowledge 1. Have never seen or heard it 2. Have seen or heard it but unsure of meaning 3. Vaguely know meaning; can associate it with concept or context 4. Know meaning well enough to explain it
Problems with traditional approaches Dictionary gives multiple meanings - ground has 14 meanings Dictionary definitions often not child-friendly; e.g. devious - Straying from the right course, not straightforward (compared with child-friendly sneaky); ally - one associated with another (compared with someone who helps you especially when other people are against you) Words in sentences are not always useful Although Stacey was very thin, her sister was obese (based on this sentence, obese has been
interpreted by chn as normal not jealous) Problems with traditional approaches Combining definitional and contextual still may not provide meaning The balloon expanded as she blew air into it (Burst? Became tight? Became more transparent?) (Domino, 2005) Selecting words to teach Tier One words are basic, everyday words; should be known by most (but should be taught if not
known) Tier Two words are understood by mature users. These should be targeted for instruction; will differ depending on age of group; should increase text comprehension Tier Three words are low-frequency, specialised words limited to certain fields of knowledge; should only be taught as required Vocabulary instruction (Isobel Beck) Should be Fun
Frequent - referred to often Rich - beyond definitional; need to get students actively involved in using and thinking about word meanings; explore different facets of meaning to make student learning flexible e.g. examples and non examples Extended - to provide enough practice Fun 5. Fluency occurs When the magic happens
When learning to read turns into reading to learn Fluency requires automaticity All subskills of reading from decoding to semantic understanding must occur automatically must be completed without overt attention Unit of focus is the whole word not digraphs or word parts ( Samuels,1992) Attention can then be focused on
comprehension Automaticity Fluency requires automaticity All subskills of reading must be completed without overt attention, including understanding text structure, referents, visualising the text (Samuels, 1992) Attention can then be focused on comprehension Reading rates
By end Year 1 60 words/min By end Year 2 90/100 words/min In Years 3-6 100-120 words/min with < 3 errors with material
getting progressively harder Table Discussion What are the costs and benefits of extensive independent reading (SSR/DEAR) ? 6. Comprehension Involves Understanding the purpose of reading Actively engaging with the text
Connecting with prior knowledge Monitoring comprehension Adjusting reading strategies Developing deep level comprehension, not just answering questions Between session activity Literacy Practices Guide
Audit of literacy practices in three classes R-Yr 1 Years 2-4 Years 5-7 Four components Classroom visit
Examination of student work Examination of literacy planning documents Teaching observations Literacy lesson Other content area
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