2012/12/26 To exchange ideas globally. International or national

 2012/12/26  To exchange ideas globally.  International or national

2012/12/26 To exchange ideas globally. International or national reputation

enabling collaborations To get higher education, academic development, and to get research funds. English is the international language of science Therefore publishing in English allows you to reach the broadest possible audience. Publish articles in the national level

doesnt give an international credit. Selecting journal Which factor is most important to you? Good writing is writing that clearly communicates your research. If your manuscript If youwritten cant

explain is poorly and difficult to something understand, they may not takesimply, the time to read it or cite it later. you dont understand it well. Good writing helps others to understand what Albert

Einstein youve done. Itwill also help you to better understand your own work. Good writing is simple writing. 1. The relevance and importance of the subject 2. Excellence in writing and data presentation

3. Quality of the study design organize your thoughts efficiently decide on the most effective way to present your information keep to a logical sequence of points remember all the information that must be included cut out unnecessary or irrelevant information or sentences

What is the problem that is addressed? Why is it important? How did you study the problem? What are your results?

What are the implications of the results? What do you recommend as further study for others? Accuracy Originality

Authorship credit Ethical consideration in human and animal studies Disclosure of conflicts of interest It is important to avoid: Data fabrication and falsification Plagiarism multiple submissions (refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once)

Plagiarism includes plagiarizing your own work. In fact, some journals stipulate that you cannot use more than five consecutive words from another paper that you have written. Plagiarism is very easy to identify, particularly in papers written by non-native speakers. turning in someone else's work as your own copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not A paraphrase is a restatement in your own words of someone else's ideas. Changing a few words of the original sentences does NOT make your writing a legitimate paraphrase. You must change both the words and the sentence

structure of the original, without changing the content. http://plagiarism.org/ Authors should have made significant contribution to: the conception and design analysis and interpretation of data drafting of the manuscript or revising it critically for intellectual content

final revision of the version to be published All four conditions must be met. The person taking lead in: - the design and conduct of the work - collection and analysis of the data - preparation of the manuscript Normally the first author is also the originator of the idea for an experiment or study.

The write order For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order: Methods Write during the research Results Introduction

Write after research Discussion Title Abstract Write last Edanz Group | 16

catch the eye don't under specify don't over specify in a research paper, emphasize the main novelty use keywords

avoid specialist terminology avoid unnecessary phrases and non-descriptive words self-contained outline of the paper minimize specialist terms imagine you are explaining your work verbally to of people will a colleague The overmajority three minutes

write it after only read section, must the restthis of the paperithas been completed be able to stand alone

150-250 words A well-written abstract requires time and effort. Abstract Summarizes your work Concise (100300 words) 14 sentences describe problem(s) addressed 14 sentences objectives/hypotheses 12 sentences techniques; AVOID details 13 sentences most important results Final sentence concluding statement

Introduction Why? What question (problem) was studied? The answer to this question is contained within your Introduction Beginning Middle End Introduction Beginning Sufficient background information

Puts your work into context Start with a broad background General Specific Cite reviews Introduction Middle Rationale

The reason(s) for doing this work? Why is it important? Justify your work Explain how you tried to address the problem (12 sentences) Introduction End State the methods you plan to use Clearly and explicitly state 13 specific hypotheses or objectives of your study

Methods How did you carry out your work? Subheadings Easier to read Past tense New methods must be described in sufficient detail that they can be reproduced Established methods can be referenced Save time and effort

Results What did you find? Accurate, brief, clear Use subheadings Use past tense to describe your results When referring to figures and tables, use present tense DO NOT explain your results DO NOT duplicate data among figures, tables and text Display items

Tables and figures Present a large amount of data quickly and efficiently Present most significant result as a figure or table Keep it simple use separate panels if necessary AVOID duplication with the text Label all parts of your figures Legends must be able to stand alone

Discussion Beginning AVOID repeating the results section Answer the research question(s) Emphasize the major finding(s) first What is your major conclusion, based on the results you have presented? Discussion Middle Interpret your results Compare with other studies

Same or different? Possible reasons why? Unexpected results Briefly describe any limitations Sample sizes Complementary tests How could experiments be improved? Discussion End Restate major conclusion(s)

In summary OR In conclusion Possible real world applications and implications Suggest future work References ALWAYS format your references Formatting is required in text for citations and for your references section

Use reference management software Establish where ideas came from Give evidence for claims Connect readers to other research

Provide a context for your work Show that there is interest in this field of research Never cite a publication based on what you have read in a different publication (such as a review), or based only on the publications abstract. These may mislead you and, importantly, readers. If you cant access to the original article write (Smith 1962, cited in Jones 2002). Some widely used reference management and

formatting software applications are: BibTeX EndNote (refer to the CD) Reference Manager Mendeley Papers RefWorks Zotero In a scientific manuscript, all statements must be supported with evidence. This evidence can

come from the results of the current research, common knowledge, or from previous publications. A citation after a claim makes it clear which previous study supports the claim. Ways to keep your manuscript clear, concise (brief), and precise: Only one idea per sentence Use the active voice, not the passive voice, when possible Delete unnecessary or vague words and replace

them with more specific words Avoid circular sentences and redundancies Look For: Typographical errors Errors in grammar and punctuation Deviations from the requested editorial style Inconsistencies in editorial style Inconsistencies in information Incorrect fonts or sizes Spacing errors

Incorrect cross-references Don't send the manuscript to an editor until you have it reviewed with a fresh eye. Ask two objective colleagues: one who is familiar with the research area, another who knows little or nothing about it. The former can provide technical advice, while the latter can determine whether your ideas are being communicated clearly.

Peer review improves your manuscript Few papers are accepted without revision Rejection and revision are integral to the peer review process

http://prowritingaid.com/Index.aspx http://www.grammarly.com/ http://www.paperrater.com/ http://www.languagetool.org/ http://www.springerexemplar.com/ http://www.editorsoftware.com/StyleWriter.html http://www.englishplus.com/

http://sana.tkk.fi/awe/index.html http://www.lz95.net/lzhs/wcenter/Handbook%20with%20hyperlinks.htm http://www.dailywritingtips.com/7-grammatical-errors-that-aren %E2%80%99t/ Springer Author Academy: http://www.springer.com/authors/author+academy?SGWID=0-17397130-0-0 http://www.biomedicaleditor.com/editing-tips.html http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/science/index.xml Tips for Publishing in Scientific Journals (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_magazi

ne/previous_issues/articles/2007_04_06/ caredit.a0700046) English Communication for Scientists (http://www.nature.com/scitable/ebooks/englishcommunication-for-scientists-14053993) On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, 3rd edition (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12192) Paradigm Online Writing Assistant http://www.powa.org/ Springer Exemplar

http://www.springerexemplar.com/ Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/ Purdue Online Writing Lab http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/

PowerPoint Presentation slides General English Writing (Books, PDFs) Scientific Writing (Books & relevant materials) Reference Managers (EndNote, Tutorials,)

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