Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann

Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann

Sudan: In Search of a Nation Roberta Ann Dunbar The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill For Bridges and Barriers Workshop State Department of Public Instruction Raleigh, NC--July 12, 2006 (the images have been removed and replaced by hyperlinks, with some revisions due to accessibility) 1 Overview Ancient Civilizations of the Nile Valley SudanPhysical and Human Resources Socio-Economic Indicators Nineteenth and 20th Centuries

Themes of the Independence Era 1956Present Civil Conflicts and the Search for Peace 2 The Ancient Nile Valley The Legacy of Human Diversity A New Kingdom Vision: Four principal ethnic groups: Egyptians, Assyrians, Nubians, and Libyans Haynes, J.L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdo ms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fi 3 http://www.snaithprimary.eril.net/eg1

1.htm http://www.homestead.com/wysinger /tombofhuy.html Haynes, J. L. Ancient Kingdoms of A frica. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts 4 Nubian Queens Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdo ms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fi Queen Kemsit Nubian Queen of

Mentuhote p II, 20611010 B. C. 5 Kush and the 25 Dynasty th The Sphinx of Taharqa 690664 B. C. from the Temple I at Kawa http://www.livius.org/pha-phd/pharaoh/pharaoh.htm 10th image down Taylor, John H. Egypt and Nubia. Ca mbridge, MA: Harvard U Press 100 6

Queen Malakaye A Kushitic queen of the early 6th century. Women of the ruling class held high status in the Kush Kingdom. During the later phase of the empire in Meroe, some queens were joint rulers. Haynes, J. L. Nubia. Ancient Kingdo ms of Africa. Boston: Museum of Fi

http:// www.mfa.org/colle ctions/search_art.a sp?recview =true&id=142605 7 Sudan Political Map http:// www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map /profile/sudan.pdf 8 Physical and Human Resources

About size of United States Largest country territorially Savannah Grasslands to South Seasonal Rains April-November Desert to the north Confluence of Blue and White Nile National Geographic 203, 2 (Febru ary 2003). Map., 39

http://magma.natio nalgeographic.com /ngm/0302/feature 2/ Scroll down to map and click to enlarge. Option to download printable map 9 Major Socio-economic Indicators Population 41.2 million (July 2006 est.) growing at 2.55%/year Life Expectancy: 57.69 yrs for men; 60.21 years for women

Infant Mortality Rate: 61.05/1,000 live births Total fertility rate: 4.72 children born/ woman http://www.cialgov/cia/publications/ factbook/geos/su.html 10 Cultural Features of Sudan Ethnic Groups: Muslim Peoples. Arabs. 40% of population (1990). Divided between jaali (riverine, sedentary people) and juhayna (nomads). Nubians. Largely dispersed by the construction of Aswan dam. Beja. Cushitic speaking people now largely Arabized

Fur. Agricultural people of the Jabal Marrah 11 Peoples of Northern Sudan http:// www.globalsecurity .org/military/world/ para/beja.htm Map and person Beja of the Sudan Coastal Region http:// home.planet.nl/ ~ende0098/

Tremendous variety of images warning: one on the home page is inappropriate for students Nuba Mountain People 12 Cultural Features of Sudan Muslim Peoples (cont). Zaghawa. Herding and gathering populations north of the Fur Masalit, Daju, and Berti. Cultivators speaking Nilo-Saharan languages West Africans. Largely Bornuan or Fulani in origin, constituted in 1990 6.5% of

Sudanese population. 13 Cultural Features of Sudan Non-Muslim Peoples Nilotes. 3/5 of population of southern Sudan (1990). Dinka larges of the Nilotic groups. Nuer Shilluk Bari, Kuku, Kadwa, Mandari. South and East of other Nilotes, although Bari and Mandari closely related to them. 14 Two Principal Groups of

Southern Sudan http://www.dlib.indian a.edu/collections/nuer/ slides/full/027.jpg Nuer http://www.usaid.gov/ our_work/cross-cutting _programs/transition_i nitiatives/country/suda n/cattle.jpg Dinka and Cattle 15 Cultural Features of Sudan

Non-Muslim Peoples (cont). Murle, Didinga and others. Azande. Western al-Istiwal and Bahr al Ghaza and constituting 8% of population of southern Sudan Bviri and Ndogo. Southwestern Sudan speaking languages close to Azande. Nuba. Cultivators of Nuba Mountains of southern Kurdofan 16 Economy Gross Domestic Product/Capita (in PPP): $2,100 (2005 est.) GDP Growth Rate 7% (2005 est.) Composition of GDP

Agriculture 38.7% (80% of workforce) Industry 20.3 % (7% of workforce) Services 41% (13% of workforce) Unemployment Rate. 18.7% (2002) 17 Economy Exports

Oil and petroleum products Cotton Sesame Livestock Groundnuts Gum Arabic and Sugar Export Partners: China (66.9%), Japan (10.7%); Saudi Arabia (4.4%) (2004) 18 Economy Imports Foodstuffs Manufactured goods

Refinery and Transport equipment Import Partners: China (13%); Saudi Arabia (11.5%), UAE (5.9%); Egypt (5.1%); India (4.8%); Germany (4.5%); Australia (4.1%); Japan (4%) (2004) 19 Petroleum Insert map of oil fields and pipeline to the Red Sea http:// www.lib.utexas.edu /maps/africa/ sudan_oil_usaid_20 01.pdf

http://www.sudan.n et/graphic/news/pe ople/bashier_oil_ga rang_soldier.jpg 20 Petroleum Chevron discovered oil in southern Sudan in 1978. First exported in 1999 Proven Reserves: 1.6 billion bbl Oil production: 401,300 bbl/day (2005) Oil Exports: 275,000 bbl/day (2004) Natural Gas Proved Reserves: 84.95 billion cu m (2005) but none is being produced. 21

Petroleum In 2005, Sudan had become the 7th largest oil producer in Africa after Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Angola, Egypt, and Equatorial Guinea In June 2006, Nigeria, the only African country in OPEC and holder of groups presidency invited Angola and Sudan to join OPEC. OPEC currently accounts for 42% of global oil production. 22 Political History 19th & 20th Centuries Era of the Turkiyya

under Muhammad Ali Modernization of the Egyptian state Institutionalization of slave raiding that penetrated areas of Middle and Upper Nile At first a state monopoly, then licenses to commercial merchants who wreaked havoc on areas to the south http://www.dignubi a.org/maps/timelin e/img/c1820-slaver s.jpg

Egyptian Slavers ca 1820 (link is slavers of the 19th century) 23 History of Sudan 1884-1898The Mahdiya Islamist State The Mahdi succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi Ibn Muhammad. With help of Baggara, attempted expansion into Ethiopia 24 The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Lord Herbert Kitchener conquers Khartoum and defeats the Mahdist State in 1898 Image of Lord Herbert http://www.country -data.com/frd/cs/su dan/sd01_05a.jpg Courtesy of Robert O. Collins 25

Britains Southern Policy Close off the South to northern merchants, bureaucrats, and Muslim clerics Rely on Christian missions for education and civil services Focus on development of cotton as cash crop through the al-Gezira scheme 26 Key Political Figures of Northern Sudan 1956-2005 General Ibrahim Abboud Hassan al Turabi Jaffar Nimeiri Sadiq al-Mahdi

Muhammad al-Mirghani Ali Osman Taha Omar al-Bashir < see Sudan Readings and Bibliography for images of each of these> 27 The South After Independence Agreements made at time of independence led many southerners to fear northern domination both politically and culturally

Arabic official language Bureaucratic positions open to northerners Consolidation of military under northern command led to first signs of rebellion Image of Sudans flag http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl= http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/sudanflag.gif&imgrefurl =http://unimaps.com/flags-africa/suda n-print2.html&h=599&w=900&sz=10 &hl= en&start =9&tbnid=4NhCIjaH0t9FoM:&tbnh=96 &tbnw=145&prev=/images%3Fq%3DS

udan%2BFlag%26svnum%3D10%26hl %3Den%26lr%3D 28 Era of First Civil War 1955-1972 of northern hegemony following the opening up of the south 1963. Emergence of Anya Nya as force to be contended with because of military support from outside. Despite considerable military assistance to Government of Sudan, no victory over south seemed possible Continued instability in north because of failure to resolve this crisis Nimeiris government reached peace accord with Anya Nya in 1972 29

Second War in the South 1983-1994 Declaration of SPLM/A as movement to achieve autonomy for southern Sudan 1994 Cukudum Conference. First attempts to establish formal judicial system to work with local elders Established National Congress, National Leadership Council, and National Executive Council 30 Second War in the South SPLM/A persisted as weak governance

structure in south subject to outbreaks of ethnic rivalriesespecially between the Dinka who dominate SPLM/A John Garang remained dominant in both military and civil affairs 1997 attempt to draft constitution for Southern Sudan unable to bridge gap between accountability and Garangs power. 31 Issues in Southern Politics Lack of a sound ideology of

governance within the SPLM/A reinforced militaristic nature of Garangs rule Ethiopian support ended in 1991 Split between Nuer under Riek Machar of Sudan Peoples Defence Forces (SPDF) and SPLM/A January 2002 reintegration of SPDF with SPLM/A Image of John Garang http://www.un.org/av/r adio/unandafrica/imag es/john%20garang%2 0sm.jpg John Garang

Image of Riek Machar http://www.sudantribu ne.com/IMG/jpg/Riek_ Machar_3-2.jpg Riek Machar 32 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)January 9, 2005 Beginning in 1994, Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsored peace negotiations. Formal peace process began in 2002 with additional support of the United

States, the United Kingdom and Norway. 33 Comprehensive Peace AgreementJanuary 9, 2005 Government of National Unity (GNU) to be formed for interim period of 6 years. At end of that time a referendum in the South will decide whether or not to secede. During interim, the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) will be autonomous.

President of GsSS is to be the Vice-President of GNU. Integrated military of 39,000 Oil wealth to be divided 50:50 between north and south Jobs to be split in favor of GoS in national administration and in the transitional areas. Sharia law to be applied only in northern Sudan. 34 SPLM Challenges Untimely Death of John Image of John Garang in July 2005. Garang Succeeded by Salva Kiir, former military commander without

diplomatic skills and contacts of Garang SPLM must develop a program to implement peace, and to expand political alliances 35 The Tragedy of Darfur Ancient History of close and amicable relations between Arab nomads and African cultivators Famous Sultanate of

Fur a preeminent power in central Sudan in 19th Century Hakura system of feudal land grants given to followers who then had access to collection of dues from population. Map of Dafur within Sudan destroyed villages http:// www.lib.utexas.edu /maps/africa/ darfur_villages_080 2_2004.jpg 36

Darfur Image of Jebel . http://www.sudansite. com/images/West_pics /Jebel_Mara_volcano_l arge.jpg The region incorporated into the Mahdist state and then into the AngloEgyptian Sudan where it remained a backwater

Photo of Jebel Marra, a volcanic massif in Darfur 37 Darfur http://www.sudansite.com/images/ West_pics/jebel_marra3_large.jpg The Jebel Marraat 8,000 ft, an important area of rich land of fields, orchards and pastures

Today region has population of ca 6 million Population before the war was relatively poor Historically, both nomads and cultivators would migrate 38 Darfur Map of Darfur http:// rightsmaps.com/ html/sudmap1.html

Darfurians are predominantly Muslim Many, like Ali al Haj Mohameda Bornuan, ran as an Islamist for governship of Darfur but was defeated. In 1994, when he was Minister of Federal Affairs, he divided up Darfur into the three states of today in hope that Islamists candidates might succeed. 39 Darfur

Ecological pressures first in 1960s, then in 1980spopulation pressures and drought meant that cultivators closed off some of the nomads migration routes in order to protect their fields. Many Arabs lost herds and migrated out of the country for workmany to Libya 40 Darfur By late 1980s, a group that came to be called the Arab Gathering formed close ties with Muammar Gaddafi of

Libya and began a critique of the central government for its neglect. Their ideology exhibited a racist preference for pure Arabs, the Juhayna, in opposition to the riverine groups that controlled the government 41 Darfur-1990s Following coup of Gen Omar Bashir in 1989, the government sought to strengthen ties to the Arab World and in Darfurto expand the position of Arabs by a proliferation of administrative titles that were given to Arabs and not non-Arabs. Many non-Arab groups like Masalit were disarmed and youth sent to fight

against the south. 42 Darfur Arabs in 1990s Musa Hilal emerges as important leader of the Abbala Arabs in the north from his base in Misteriha By 2000, both helicopters and weapons were amassed there.

Image of Musa Hilal http://hrw.org/imag es/050205musa.jpg 43 DarfurOrigins of Sudan Liberation Army 1996. Setting up of a secret organization in Khartoum by men who were to be important to SLA: Abdel Wahid Mohamed al Nur, the first chairman of SLA Ahmad Abdel Shafi, SLAs first coordinator Abdu Abdalla Ismail, SLAs first representative to the Ceasefire Commission set up under the African Union 44

Origins of SLA Began to raise money and armsexplicitly in response to the threats made in Arab Gathering statements about killing all Blacks; 1997. Had their first meeting with selfdefense groups among the Fur in Darfur and began the mobilization of the area around Jebel Marra http://www.iansa.org/images/front-page/slatroops-darfur.jpg possible image of troops 45 Early Days of SLA 1997-2002: Worked to expand ties with

Zaghawa and with Masalit groups all coming under pressure and direct attacks from Arabs. August 2002. Leadership conference to elect officers military commanders January-March 2003. First meetings between SLA and SPLA By 2005, SLA had 11,000 troops among Fur, Zaghawa and Masalit http://www.sudan.net/graphic/news/ conflict/darfur/SLA_Rebels.jpg troops image 46 Darfur and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) Image of dr. Khalil

1993-1997. Formation of secret Ibrahim cells to discuss http://www.sudantr reform of the ibune.com/IMG/jpg/ National Islamic Khalil_Ibrahim_dr1.j pg Front Decision taken to educate ordinary Sudaneseorganized Dr. Khalil Ibrahim to conduct research member of founding group 47 Recollections of conditions that

motivated their actions From an interview with Abubaker Hamid Nur There was too much suffering. I travelled 60 kilometres to go to primary school, in Kornoi, when I was 7; 350 kilometres to go to intermediate school, in Geneina; 400 kilometres to go to secondary school in Fasher; and 1,000 kilometres to go to university, in Khartoum. It was forbidden to speak the Zaghawa language in school. In primary school, the teacher gave us a blue ticket to pass to any boy who spoke Zaghawa. At the end of the day, anyone who had had the ticket was whipped. The whole of Kutum province, with a population of more than 551,000 had one general doctor and no specialists. Women walked more than eight hours daily to get less than 60 litres of water. We were excluded from all key posts and had no way of communicating with the international community to ask for help. Why: Because a gang in Khartoum was controlling everything. (Flint and De Waal, Darfur. 2005, 92-93. 48 JEM Philosophy

Believed that the problems of Darfur require national solutions 2003 a 5-Point Manifesto Unified Sudan Justice and equality Constitutional reform guaranteeing rights to the regions Basic services for Sudanese Equitable development of economy and human services throughout the country. 49 The War in Darfur 20032005

SLA and JEM cooperate militarily and meet with great success in 2003 By mid-year, Musa Hilal had returned to Darfur and expanded recruitment for Janjawiid 2004. Throughout the year the Janjawiid, who had become a well-heeled paramilitary group led assaults on villages throughout the region at same time that negotiations were on-going with the United Nations and the African Union 50 The War in Darfur--2005 By 2005nearly 2 million driven into camps inside Darfur 200,000 had fled to Chad

Janjawiid operated with full support of Sudan Defence Forces, the Air Force, and the State Security. The Arab Gathering could operate independently of Khartoum http://www.ushmm.org/conscience/alert/darfur/steidle/ Series of images and account by an American observer 51 International Agents The African Union April 2004. First discussion of situation in Darfur at meeting of AUs Peace and Security Council meeting Humanitarian ceasefire agreement signed in NDjamena calling on Sudan government to neutralise the armed militias

http://eur.news1.yimg.com/eur.yimg.com/xp/reuters_molt/2278372575.jpg image of African Union Soldiers/observers 52 International Agents The United States June 2004. U. S. Congress passed resolution describing Darfur as genocide September 2004. U. S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that genocide had occurred in Sudan. http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=11585 image Of US Secy of State Colin Powell testifying about genocide in Darfur 53 International Agents

United Nations. June 2004. UN Security Council Resolution 1556: Disarm Janjawiid Arrest leaders Allow access to humanitarian assistance September 2004. UN Security Council Resolution 1564 Mandate of International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (ICID) to investigate human rights and to determine if genocide had occurred. January 2005-Report of ICID 54 Agreements for Peace in Darfur

2005, July. Government of Sudan, SLA/M and JEM sign Declaration of Principles in Abuja 2006, May 5. Signing of Darfur Peace Agreement in Abuja by Government of Sudan (largely represented by the National Congress Party); and a faction of the Sudan Liberation Army under Minni Arkou Minawi (SLA/MM Image of Minnie Arkou Minawi http://www.sudantr

ibune.com/IMG/jpg/ Minni_Arcua_Minna wi_speaks_.jpg Minni Arkou Minawi 55 The Darfur Peace Agreement Political cartoon of man labeled Sudan watering a desert flower http://www.aljazeer ah.info/Cartoons/20 03%20cartoons/car toon%20negatives/ 2003/December/ar 10.jpg

by Al-Jazeerah Three Protocols Security Arrangements Power Sharing Wealth Sharing Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation 56 Sources

Africa, Justice. Sudan: Prospects for Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 489-497. Compare InfoBase Pvt Ltd. Sudan Political Map. http://mapsofworld.com/sudan/sudan-political-map.html Flint, Julie and Alex De Waal. Darfur. 2005. International Crisis Group. Sudans Comprehensive Peace Agreement: The Long Road Ahead Africa Report No 106, 31 March 2006. Seen at http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4179&l=1 (June 29, 2006). International Crisis Group. Darfurs Fragile Peace Agreement. Africa Policy Briefing No. 39. Nairobi/Brussels June 20, 2006 acceessed via http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4179&l=1 (June 29, 2006)

Library of Congress Country Study on Sudan. http://countrystudies.us Mohammed, Adan Azain. Women and Conflict in Darfur In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 479-481. Rone, Jemera. Sudan: Oil and War In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 504-510. Salopek, Paul. Shattered Sudan. Drilling for Oil Hoping for Peace. National Geographic February 2003,30-67. Young, John. Sudan: Liberation Movements, Regional Armies, Ethnic Militias and Peace In Review of African Political Economy 97, 30 (September 2003), 423-434. 57

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