Energy Champions Training Module 6.0 Heating and Cooling

Energy Champions Training Module 6.0 Heating and Cooling

Energy Champions Training Module 6.0 Heating and Cooling Energy Theme 4 Learning Objectives/Agenda Understand what comprises heating & cooling loads for facilities Traditional HVAC systems New technology How to save energy 2 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential Why do we care? Within the built environment, we are consuming 72%-75% of the total energy consumed. The mechanical systems represent 35%-40% of the energy consumed within the built environment 3

02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Heating & Cooling Loads A buildings heating and cooling load is broken into two (2) parts: External IM Internal 4

02/07/2020 IM Cummins Confidential E G A E G A Heating & Cooling Loads External Loads consist of:

Roof (conduction) Walls (conduction) Glass (conduction & radiation) Conduction: Btu/Hour = U*A*T Radiation: Btu/Hour = A*SC*SHGF*CLF 5 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Heating & Cooling Loads External Loads consist of: Infiltration & Ventilation Ventilation:

Btu/Hour = 1.08*CFM*T (sensible) Btu/Hour = 4750*CFM*w (latent) In general, peak heating and cooling loads are determined by the amount of glass and area of the roof 6 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Heating & Cooling Loads Internal Loads consist of: Lights:

Btu/Hour = watts* 3.413*CLF People: (sensible) Btu/Hour = No.*SHG*CLF (latent) Btu/Hour = No.*LHG*CLF Equipment: 7 02/07/2020 Btu/Hour = heat gain*CLF Cummins Confidential

Heating & Cooling Loads The peak cooling loads are added together to determine the capacity of the cooling HVAC equipment 12,000 Btu/Hour = 1 ton of cooling capacity The peak heating loads are added together to determine the capacity of the heating HVAC equipment 1,000 Btu/Hour = 1 MBH 8 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential

Traditional HVAC Equipment Airside (rooftop units, air-handling units, exhaust fans) Cooling medium (electric, direct expansion-DX) Air Water Heating medium (electric, fossil fuel) Air Water 9 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential

Traditional HVAC Equipment Airside (rooftop units, air-handling units, exhaust fans) Constant Volume Variable Air Volume (VAV) Cooling (electric, direct expansion-DX) Air and Water Heating (electric, fossil fuel) Air and Water Boilers Fossil fuel, heating water, steam 10

02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment Airside Equipment 11 Rooftop Units Air-Handling Units Roof-mounted Fans

Utility Fans 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment Airside Systems Constant Volume Variable Air Volume ASHRAE 90.1 (Energy Standard) requires economizer control and VAV systems Baseline energy modeling systems are VAV with reheat air

distribution systems 12 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment Cooling Equipment (Water-cooled) Water-cooled Chiller Cooling Tower 13

02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Air-cooled Chiller Chilled Water Pumps Traditional HVAC Equipment Chilled Water System Schematic 14 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment Cooling Equipment (Air-cooled) Condensing Unit Compressor 15 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential DX Cooling Coil

Condenser Traditional HVAC Equipment DX System Schematic With traditional equipment; water-cooled systems were 20%-30% more efficient than air-cooled systems 16 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment Boilers

17 02/07/2020 Cast Iron Watertube Firetube Flex-tube Cummins Confidential Traditional HVAC Equipment

Boiler Schematic 18 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Decoupling the space heating and cooling from the ventilation load Ventilation Dedicated Outside Air Systems (DOAS) Demand controlled ventilation w/ CO2 sensors Air supplied at neutral temperature Delivered directly to the space or to air terminal device

Supplied where the people are Used to maintain the space pressurization Can be used to maintain the space dewpoint temperature 19 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment DOAS Equipment 20 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Space heating and cooling Traditional AHUs and RTUs Fan coil units Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Fan coil units Chilled Beams Radiant Panels These new space heating and cooling systems can between 15%-30% due to reduction in fan energy 21 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment VRF Systems 22 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Chilled Beams 23

02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Radiant Panels 24 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Compressor technology

Modulating scroll compressors Magnetic bearing compressors Evaporative condensers New compressor technology has brought the efficiencies equal to water-cooled systems In some cases, when the cost of water treatment is included, the air-cooled (DX) systems have a lower cost of operation 25 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential

New Technology and Equipment Boilers Modulating, condensing type Heating water supply temperatures at a maximum of 140F Thermal efficiencies of 95%-99% 26 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential

New Technology and Equipment Building Automation Systems (BAS) Integration at a much higher level Converged Network Due to open protocol controllers, able to integrate all HVAC equipment operation as well as all lighting and other energy consuming operations Ability to sub-meter all operations 27 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential New Technology and Equipment Site Renewable Technology Geo-exchange Solar Thermal Wind Solar Photovoltaic From existing site process 28 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential

How to save energy Perform an energy assessment with energy modeling Improve the buildings envelope - Add insulation to walls and roof - Add film to existing glass to reduce solar heat gain - Reduce infiltration around doors Reduce the dependency on steam for space heating - Use heating water systems; utilizing modulating condensing boilers - Use heating water or gas-fired equipment for heat loss at large openings 29 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential How to save energy Upgrade air-handling systems - Look at de-coupled systems - Incorporate VFDs on all fan systems - Incorporate energy recovery Upgrade lighting systems - Eliminate incandescent lighting - Use fluorescent or LED - Include occupancy/vacancy controls; daylight harvesting Improve compressor technology - Replace older compressor technology with modulating or

magnetic bearing type compressors 30 02/07/2020 Cummins Confidential How to save energy Add additional BAS controls - Converge control of all energy consuming systems - Sub-meter various processes 31 02/07/2020

Cummins Confidential

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