ASGARD AVIATION CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REVIEW Logan Waddell Morgan
ASGARD AVIATION CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REVIEW Logan Waddell Morgan Buchanan Erik Susemichel Aaron Foster Craig Wikert Adam Ata Li Tan Matt Haas 1 Outline 1. Project mission 2. Selected concept 3. Sizing code results Modeling assumptions 4. Major Design Tradeoffs
Center of gravity location 11.Stability and Control 12.Noise 13.Cost 14.Summary V-n diagram 2 Mission Statement To design an environmentally responsible aircraft that sufficiently completes the N+2 requirements for the NASA green aviation challenge. 3 Major Design Requirements Noise (dB)
42 dB decrease in noise NOx Emissions 75% reduction in emissions below CAEP 6 Aircraft Fuel Burn 50% Reduction in Fuel Burn Airport Field Length 50% shorter distance to takeoff * *ERA. (n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from NASA: http://www.aeronautics.nasa.gov/isrp/era/index.htm 4 Selected Concept Wing loading: 108 lb/ft^2
Hybrid Laminar Flow Control Spiroid Winglets 6 Sizing Code Using MATLAB software, first order method from Raymer Used inputs to determine the size of pre-existing aircraft for validation 7 Incorporating Drag
Drag values affect fuel fraction weights which affect the fuel weight Drag buildup equation used to predict drag Wave drag uses Locks fourth power law Included in the equation are the parasitic, induced, and wave drag 8 Component Weights Empty weight buildup from Raymer text. Component
0.0198 Cl (cruise) 0.5185 L/D (cruise) 15.4654 Thickness to Chord Ratio Sweep angle 31 13 Engine Modeling Used NASA Geared Turbofan tabular data to scale engine to desired propulsion characteristics Scale factor is based on SLS thrust from tabular data
Scale factors also implemented for technologies [ ] ( ) ( ) = = Concept Aircraft MTOW (lbs) Baseline CS300ER
2 55342 2.368 1 2 H-Tail 316240 TSL/ W0 # of Max SLS Thrust engines (lbf) Scale
Factor 14 Engine Modeling Scale Factor used to size up all performance data in NASA file Ex. = (). Technology Data Adjustment Orbiting Combustion Nozzle Performance Characteristic NOx Emissions Fuel Burn Adjustment Factor 0.75 0.85
15 Design Mission 16 Typical Design Mission Average flight in the continental United States is 650 nm Typical design mission Chicago to New York Approximately 618 nm Connects two major cities Typical route carries 212 passengers 85% load factor 17 Basic Carpet Plot 18
W0 309050 22 Other Trade-offs Geared Turbofan: Less Fuel Weight vs. More Drags Hybrid Laminar Flow Control: 12-14% Less Drags vs. 2.8% More Cost Landing Fairing: Reduce noise vs. More Weight 23 Our concept Length: 180 Wing Span: 167 Height:
51 Fuselage Height: 17 Fuselage Width: 16 787-8 186 197 56 19 7 18 11 24 Two Class System Seating 4 rows 1st Class 34 rows Economy Class 250 passengers
Seat Pitch 39 inches 1st Class 34 inches Economy Class Seat Width 23 inches 1st Class 19 inches Economy Class 25 One Class System Seating No First Class (Low Cost Carriers) 44 rows Economy Class 303 passengers
26 Airfoil Selection Supercritical airfoils to be used for all wing and stabilizer sections Still used for transonic aircraft* Reduce wave drag Increase fuel storage space Airfoil would be designed to meet design goals Cruise CL = 0.5185, L/D = 15.4654 *http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/intro/futureac.html 27 Divergent Trailing Edge Airfoil
Separation bubble employed to generate more lift at trailing edge New technology being developed with advances in CFD Not much concrete data at this time Potentially plausible for N+3 goals http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/intro/futureac.html 28 High-Lift Devices Slats, Triple-slotted flaps Used for reliability
Lift coefficients for different configurations Takeoff CL = 1.3 Landing CL = 2.5 Landing and takeoff speeds set at 175 mph (152 kts), 15% faster than stall 29 Performance V-n (Loads) Diagram Performance Summary 30 V-n (Loads) Diagram n=+2.11 n=-1 31 Performance Summary Performance Summary
Values Best Range Velocity 473 knots Best Endurance Velocity 412 knots Stall Speed 132 knots (no flaps) Maximum Speed during Climb 191 knots Maximum Speed during Cruise M = 0.8 Takeoff Distance (ground
roll) 4,500 ft Landing Distance (ground roll) 1700 ft 32 Propulsion Engine type: High-Bypass Geared Turbofan Bypass Ratio: 14.5-14.7 Fan Pressure Ratio: 1.4-1.6
Overall Pressure Ratio: 42 SLS Thrust: 49,450 lbs Dry Weight: 9590 lbs Improvement Technologies Orbiting Combustion Nozzle Improves fuel burn/reduces emissions Scarf Inlet Redirects/Decreases fan noise Chevron Nozzle Reduces low frequency exhaust noise Courtesy of Airliners.net 33 Other Technology Effects Chevron Nozzle Mixing flows can have adverse effect on thrust Scarf Inlet
Greatly increases engine nacelle weight Reduces inlet efficiency Orbiting Combustion Nozzle Thrust does not take a huge hit due to converging/diverging exit Lack of need for diffusers and stators on either end of compressor reduce weight of engine 34 Engine Performance Specific Fuel Consumption 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2
0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Partial Throttle Cruise SFC 0.55 0.5 NASA Data Rubber Engine Rubber w/Tech SFC (1/hr) SFC (1/hr) Full Throttle Sea Level SFC 0.45 NASA Data Rubber Engine Rubber w/Tech
Structures: Wing Box Wing-fuselage intersection (Wing box) 39 Structures: Engine Pylons Engine pylons 40 Structures: Landing Gear Landing Gear Integration 41 Structures: Material Selections Composite Fuselage (Carbon Laminate) Composites on leading edges for
laminar flow Aluminum and Fiberglass wings Titanium for pylons Total Materials Steel for elevator, rudder, and landing gear Composites Aluminum Titanium Steel 42 Weights and Balance Aircraft Group Weights Statement Description of Empty Weight Prediction Location of Center of Gravity 43
Empty Weight Prediction Method Equations for a/c components from Raymer Each component function of designed gross weight Summation of component weights 44 CG and Neutral Point Center of Gravity: Components included in CG calculation Fuselage, wing, horizontal tail, vertical tail, nacelles, engines, and landing gears Other weights put in center of vehicle
Crew, passengers, payload, furnishings, etc. Neutral Point: 87.6 ft from nose 45 Center of Gravity Travel 46 Stability and Control Static Longitudinal Stability Lateral Stability 47 CG and Longitudinal Stability CG from Nose [ft]
Using Raymer Equations (6.28) and (6.29) Concept 1 Tail area 815 ft2 Vertical Tail area 660 ft2 49 Control Surface Sizing Raymer Figure 6.3 Aileron Sizing Raymer Table 6.5 Elevator Sizing Control Surface Surface Area [ft2] Aileron
476 Elevator 149 Rudder 198 50 Noise Reduction Technologies Geared turbofan engine Approximate 20% in noise Engine developed twice as powerful as anything presently built, 10% reduction in noise used
Compared to Boeing 777-200ER with GE 90-90B engines, this is a 9 dB decrease Chevron nozzle Reduces noise up to 2.5 dB Due to engine size, reduction assumed to be 1 dB Scarf Inlet No concrete data could be found, noise reduction assumed to be 1 dB Landing Gear Fairings Reduce noise by 2 dB 51 Boeing 777-200LR Noise Data http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/noise/noise.html 52 Conclusion on Noise
For Stage 4 standards, noise generated must be less than 90 dB in any given test. To meet N+2 requirements, the cumulative margin between the noise generated and 90 dB must be at least 42 dB. Estimates give a 9 dB deficit from Stage 4, with a cumulative noise reduction of 27 dB. Goal is NOT met. Plenty of noise reduction technology is in development, but none would be ready by 2025. 53 Cost Prediction * the accuracy of results obtained with these models for commercial aircraft is questionable Airframe cost in 2011$, millions # A/c Non-recurring 1 10 50
Engineering Tooling Manufacturing Material Quality Assurance Increase cost by ~ 20% to account for all new technologies 2000 1000 0 0 50 100150200250300350400450 Number of aircraft produced * Analysis from NASA Airframe cost model 54 Cost Prediction Airframe cost # A/c Non-recurring 1 10 50 100
4495.35 4495.35 23703.8 39477.2 20846.05 104.23025 28199.15 43972.55 70.497875 43.97255 Example case if producing 200 A/C Would have to sell each aircraft for $104M to break even Using the modified DAPCA IV Cost Model (costs in 2011 dollars) *Increased cost by 20% to account for technologies Production of 200 aircraft RDT&E + Flyaway = $34.1208 B
Would have to sell 200 aircraft for $170.6 M each to breakeven 55 Cost: Operations and Maintenance Fuel costs Price: ~$5.50 / gallon Jet A (2011 price) Crew Salaries Maintenance Insurance Commercial: add approx. 1-3% to cost of operations *Raymer Depreciation ~ 4.0% total value per year 56 Cost: Operations and Maintenance In 2011$
Swept back wings Technologies Spiroids Laminar Flow Geared Turbofan Composite Materials 58 Compliance Matrix Design Requirements Units Target Threshold Final Design
Compliant Range Nautical Miles 4,000 3,600 4,000 Yes Payload Passengers 250 230 250
Yes Cruise Mach # - 0.8 0.72 0.8 Yes Takeoff Ground Roll ft 7,000 9,000 4,500
Yes Landing Ground Roll ft 6,000 6,500 1,700 Yes Fuel Burn lb/hr 4,250 4,500 3,841
Yes Emissions(NOx) g/kN thrust 15 (-75%) 22 21.1(-74.6%) No Noise (Cumulative) dB -42 -32 -27
No 59 Design Requirements Plausible? Fuel Burn ~ Possible Field Length ~ Possible Emissions ~ Very difficult but can be possible Noise ~ Not possible for N+2 Noise shielding Engine configuration 60 Future Work More detailed sizing code/calculations
Aircraft Model Build 3-D model Work with airlines to receive feedback Enter NASA competition 61
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