Tiltrotor Tactical Formation Maneuvering Click to Add Instructor

Tiltrotor Tactical Formation Maneuvering Click to Add Instructor

Tiltrotor Tactical Formation Maneuvering Click to Add Instructor Name This Presentation is Classified: UNCLASSIFIED Purpose The purpose of this presentation is to provide the student with the requisite knowledge to conduct tactical formation flight in the T-44C. Learning Objectives

Identify the method to determine what type of formation to choose Identify the different types of formation for the T-44C Describe tactical formation fundamentals Identify and describe tactical formation maneuvers Identify and describe division formations Outline

Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations Outline

Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations Formation Description Maneuver Element smallest element of a flight that may engage in independent maneuver during tactical evolutions

Section = 2 aircraft, single maneuver element, smallest, basic component towards construction of larger formation, easiest C&C, and most flexible Division = 3 or 4 aircraft, largest maneuver element or two sections Flight = 2 or more maneuver elements / 5 or more aircraft Formation Description

Unity of effort for mission accomplishment Maneuverability and flexibility Mutually supportive lookout doctrine Ease of control and coordination There is an optimum size for every formation Considerations METT-TSL Mission Enemy (Threat) Terrain and Weather

Troops and Fire Support Time Space Logistics Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Parade Cruise Tactical Tactical Formation Basics

Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations Formation Types Parade Fixed bearing (45) and distance Cruise Varying bearing and distance using radius of turn between the 30-45 bearings at 0.0-0.2 DME Tactical (Combat) Combat Cruise radius of turn

Combat Spread Tactical Formation Maneuvers (TFM) and flight leadership Combat Cruise 30-45 bearing on either side of lead 5 or 7 oclock Separation: 10 10

0.3 to 1.0 NM 0.1 0.1NM NM 0.3 0.2NM NM 0..5 0..5NM NM 1.0 1.0NM

NM 45 45 Transitory Transitory 30 30 Combat Spread +10 bearing either side of lead

Abeam position Separation 0.3 to 2.0 NM +10 -10 2.0 NM +10

0.5 NM -10 Combat Spread Why do we have this? Unsure of enemy location Dont want to alert enemy for a second shot More time focused on identifying threat / hazard than avoiding lead Wider field of view / mutual support One shot does not equal two kills

Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations

TACFORM Basic Principles Wingman responsible for separation Employ adequate intraflight separation to ensure single target engagement and facilitate maneuver flexibility while maintaining mutual support Maneuver in proportion to threat Wingmen are always working to maintain position. Lead is always working to facilitate wingmen maintaining position. TACFORM Energy Management

Awareness and preservation of the aircraft energy state during a series of maneuvers Potential energy Energy based upon position (altitude, Qm) Kinetic energy Energy based upon motion (airspeed) Energy continuously changes states Airspeed to altitude in climb (kinetic to potential) Altitude to airspeed in dive (potential to kinetic) TACFORM

Maneuver Contracts All maneuvers are called from Combat Spread Airspeed 180KIAS All Turns at 45 AOB (except check turns) Rollout headings will be called for every maneuver despite degrees of turn assumed Command of execution is when Dash-2 says TWO

Dash-2 is always the one who steps up when warranted (cross turn) TACFORM Successful Execution Relative positioning within the element prior to execution Geometries of the planned maneuver relative to tactical considerations (terrain, conditions, threat) Desired relative position following maneuver completion Takes SA, flight leadership, and good airwork by

both aircraft Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers

Division Formations Shackle Initiate change of sides within formation Tactical necessity (clear 6 oclock) Moderately slow downrange travel Primarily used to Assist wingman regain position (excessive separation and/or sucked) Maintain energy and course or in conjunction with a moderate course change Shackle

Turn towards flight 45 heading change May require more turn by lead and less by wing, or vice versa, so dont get set on a specific heading change Stingray 62, shackle / shackle left / right 030 Resume course at cross and judge turn to regain separation The aircraft with the most SA will call Resume In this fleet, the crew chief will do this for you Shackle

45 HeadingChange 45 HeadingChange <45 HeadingChange <45 HeadingChange Tac-Turns Change the direction of the element right / left 60120 (90 assumed) Direct the execution of a planned route turn Modify element orientation towards a more positive flight condition

Types Turns Into Wingman Turns Away From Wingman Aircraft on outside of turn always turns first Stingray 62, tac-left/right, 090 Tac-Turns C D D

B B B C A Into Wingman C

D A D C B A Away From Wingman

A Pump Immediately stop downrange closure on an obstacle, weather condition or threat system 90 left / right heading change Stingray 62, Pump left / right, 270 Normally followed by pump back to original heading No resume call

Separation retained in trail Threat Ring Pump Right Pump Left Hook Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Towards a threat in engagement

parameters in rear quadrant Away from threat outside of engagement parameters in forward quadrant Established intra-flight separation maintained Displaces element 1.5 NM right / left of original courseline Stingray 62, Hook left / right, 180 Threat Ring

Split Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Hard Turn executed away from other element aircraft Increased intra-flight separation results (3 NM or more) Stingray 62, Split, 180 3 NM+

Cross Turn Change orientation of element 120-240 Hard Turn executed towards other element aircraft Intra-flight separation based upon entrance separation Avoid 2.5-3.0 NM 1.5 NM away at initiation yields 1.5 NM separation Stingray 62, Cross, 180

Moderate AOB Avoid 2.5-3.5 NM Dig / Pinch Adjust lateral separation within element while maintaining course orientation Hard turn with 30-45 Heading change Stingray 62, Dig / Pinch

/ Resume Dig 30-45 Heading Change Pinch Check Turn Adjusts flight orientation for heading changes of 30 or less

Execute SRT, simultaneous, no change of sides Stingray 62, Check right / left 030 0 - 45 Other 45 AOB turn at 180 KCAS results in a radius of turn of approx. 1.3 NM? Cover can be added to any maneuver (Dash-2) Adjust AOB, turn, altitude to manage

position / separation Lead rollout for proper separation by .2 - .4 NM Contracts (cont) Wingman is always working towards proper bearing and separation Element aircraft will not continue a maneuver unless visual contact is established by at least one aircraft in the section If aircraft is blind call wingman; expect a: visual / continue or blind / terminate

Rollouts assume 90 / 180 turns Outline Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics

Tactical Formation Maneuvers Division Formations 0.5 NM NM Division Combat Cruise - Sections in Combat Cruise Balances Flight 45 45

Heavy Left 30 30 Fluid Four Flight in Combat Spread Sections in Combat Cruise Wingman on outside Wingman change sides

during large turns to remain on outside using radius of turn Fluid Four (-) Spread No. 1 No. 2 No. 3

No. 4 Summary Formation Description and Objectives Formation Types Tactical Formation Basics Tactical Formation Maneuvers

Division Formations Questions? Critiques This Presentation is Classified: UNCLASSIFIED

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