Influence of Grey water on Properties of Mortar

Influence of Grey water on Properties of Mortar

Influence of Grey water on Properties of Mortar and Concrete Mixes Dr. Ayoup M. Ghrair1, Dr. Othman Al-Mashaqbeh1, Dr. Mohamd Sarairah2, Eng. Nidal Alkoz1, Eng. Muath Kronz3 1 Royal Scientific Society, Knowledge, Scientific Research Center, Amman, Jordan; 2 Tafila Technical University, 3Kingdom Concrete Company 2nd World Congress and Expo on Recycling, SHERATON BERLIN GRAND HOTEL ESPLANADE, Luetzowufer 15, Berlin, Germany July 25-27, 2016 wrrc.arizona.edu 1 Table of Content General Introduction - Water situation in Jordan - Research problem - Project objectives Development and installation of a Grey Water filtrationsystem Using Jordanian Natural Resources

Materials and Methodology Results Conclusion wrrc.arizona.edu 2 Introduction and Background: Water situation Jordan is located in an arid to semi arid area (50 mm to 600 mm), Approximately 92.2% of the rainfall evaporates and considered as one of the top water scarce countries in the world. Therefore, water reuse is a high priority. Recently, the problem of water shortage in Jordan has been become worse as a result of high natural population growth, influxes of refugees, rural to urban migration and increased standards of living. wrrc.arizona.edu Research problem

Currently, Construction activities world-wide are expected to expand over the coming years and will consume more fresh water annually one billion tons of mixing water In Jordan, around 4 Mm3/y of fresh water is needed to prepare ready mix concrete. In addition, another 4 Mm3/y for washing activities and wet curing. According to JS it is a must to use fresh water for concrete production The treated wastewater is estimated to be around 117 MCM/year in 2020 [1]. Between 50% and 80% of the domestic household wastewater is grey water. Therefore, grey water treatment and reuse for concrete industry is a high priority and rational action. Such research type is important in order to change people attitude and the legislations. wrrc.arizona.edu 4 Grey water Definition is all types of wastewater collected from household activities except toilet wastewater Project objectives

This study aimed to - Provide a new water resource to sustain the construction activities in Jordan. - evaluate the potential of reused grey water in concrete and mortar in order to save the fresh water for drinking purposes. wrrc.arizona.edu Development of a Grey Water filtration-system Using Jordanian Natural Resources Study area \ Deir Alla (Um-Ayyaash area) which is located in the Middle Ghor, wrrc.arizona.edu (rainfall 100 to 150 mm) and (temperature varying from 19 to 36.5C) Installation of multi layer filter in Field The pilot plant is running automatically The system running cost is zero There is no rejected waterwrrc.arizona.edu (Filtration efficiency is 100%) Materials and Methodology - Two types of Grey water samples were collected from the pilot plant

(RGW and TGW) and analyzed . - Coarse and fine aggregates and cement were collected and characterized - Concrete and mortar mixes using RGW and TGW as well as Distilled Water (DW) were prepared and casted in cubic and prisms moulds . - Fresh properties of mortar and concrete were tested directly. Other properties were tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days). wrrc.arizona.edu Mixing, Casting, and Curing, testing for Concrete 8 Mortar and Concrete Mix Design Table (1). Proportions of mortar mixes. Mix Designation Fine Aggregate(g Cement (g) ) Water (g) RGW

1350 550 280 TGW 1350 550 280 DW 1350 550 280 Table 2. Concrete Mix designation contents. Mix Contents

Median Particle Quantity size (mm) (kg/m3) 9.5 Coarse Aggregate (Hemseyeh) 514.728 kg Coarse Aggregate (Adaseyeh) 4.7 370.3 Kg Coarse Aggregate (Semsmeyeh) 2.4 252.1 Kg Fine Aggregate (Swealeh Sand) 0.3 502.7 Kg

Cement Water (RGW, TGW, or DW) 418.18 kg 233 kg wrrc.arizona.edu 9 Results Table 2 Grey water quality and the mixing water permissible limits for concrete Parameter Unit RGW TGW *Maximum concentration TSS mg/L 436 2 2000 TDS mg/L

980 803 2000 COD mg/L 900 6.97 500 BOD5 mg/L 536 2.98 Cl mg/L 243 208 500 mg/L 222 137 2000 SO4 NH3 mg/L

24 4.5 No specific limit pH 7.5 7.9 6-8 ** E-Coli MPN/100ml 1.70E+05 1 200 * Mixing water permissible limits according to ASTM C94 [30] or EN 1008 [34], [31], and [29]. **The maximum limits for an open system application of wastewater [15]. Although the initial raw grey water has high bacteria and organic wrrc.arizona.edu 10 content, the filtration system

was capable to remove all of it Mortar properties Table 4 Fresh properties of cement paste Water Wt. of Water Water/Cement Initial Setting type Cement (CC) (%) time (gm) (minutes) RGW 500 147 29.4 200 TGW 500 148 29.6 205 Control

500 146 29.2 180 * Standard consistency is 6 2 mm [32]. * Needle Penetration (mm) 4 4 6 Soundness (mm) 1 1 1 1 -11%

-9% ASTM C109: water is suitable for concrete if mortar made with it have comp. strength at 7 days equal or less than 10 % reduction than of control sample made with distilled water. Figure 1 Influence of RGW and TGW on mortar compressive strength at various wet curing ages (7. 28, 120, and 200 days). 1 wrrc.arizona.edu 11 Mortar Stereomicroscope images Figure 2 Stereo microscope images of mortar specimens performed with A: TGW, B:

RGW, and C: Distilled water. The image was taken at 30X magnification. 1 wrrc.arizona.edu 12 Concrete Results Figure 3 Slump of concrete using RGW, TGW and Distilled water as mixing water. wrrc.arizona.edu 13 Dilution effect of RGW on concrete compressive strength Figure 5 The effect of dilution ratio of RGW ((RGW : Distilled Water); 1:0, 3:1, 1:1) on the development of concrete compressive strength at curing age 7, 28, 120 and 200 days. wrrc.arizona.edu

14 Conclusion - Based on of grey water quality and the Mixing water permissible limits for concrete, the TGW is suitable for concrete production. However, the RGW should be pretreated to reduce the microorganism content before the water can be in direct contact with humans. - According to ASTM C94, ASTM C109 requirements and the IS 456, TGW and RGW are suitable for concrete production. - In conclusion, TGW and RGW are a potential alternative for fresh water in concrete industry. wrrc.arizona.edu Four Scientific Papers and one Patent 1http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/4/3/580 2- 3-

Performance of grey water pilot plant using a multi-layer filter of natural materials for agricultural purposes in the Jordan valley. Clean-Soil, Air, Water Wiley-VCH, 43 (3), 351359. DOI: 10.1002/clen.201300488. Ghrair, A.M, Almashaqbeh, O., Megdal S. (2015). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/clen.201300488/abstract A portable device for converting grey water to potable water Jordan/Ministry of industry and trade/Directorate of industrial property Patent No. 2924 Year 2015 4-Influence of Grey water on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Mortar and Concrete Mixes. Ain shams Engineering Journal (Submitted ) 5-Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and FullScale Implementation. Water Journal(Submitted)

wrrc.arizona.edu Thank you! Acknowledgments This study is funded by an EU funded project titled Support to Research, Technological Development & Innovation in Jordan (SRTD II), managed by the Higher Council for Science & Technology. wrrc.arizona.edu 17

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