Genetics & The Work of Mendel TEKS 6 Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics, including the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian Genetics. The student is expected to: 6F predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses and nonMendelian inheritance; Prerequisite Questions 1. How does DNA store information in our genes? 2. In what process do we make gametes? 3. Where does an organisms get its genes from? Essential Question #1 What is the role of nucleic acids in genetics? Vocabulary
(F1 generation) (F2 generation) Locus (preAP) somatic gamete Phenotype Genotype True-breeding Probability Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment Vocabulary Gene portion of DNA that codes for a trait or protein Trait inheritable characteristic Allele number of alternative forms of the same gene or same genetic locus (spot)
Complete Dominance The following genetics slides cover the concept of Complete Dominance. Vocabulary Dominant allele/trait trumps other alleles (hides them) and is written with an uppercase letter ex. Not blue/green eyes are dominant = B Recessive allele/trait hidden if dominant allele is present and is written with a lowercase letter ex. Blue/green eyes are recessive = b Vocabulary Homozygous both forms of the allele are the same (also known as purebred, true-breeding) ex. Homozygous dominant eyes = BB Homozygous recessive eyes = bb Heterozygous forms of the allele are different (also known as hybrid) ex. Heterozygous eyes = Bb
What is genetics? Genetics studies heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Who is Father of Genetics? Gregor Mendel in mid-1800s, Austrian monk who was the first person to succeed in predicting how traits passed from parent to offspring He used garden peas in his experiments. Mendels Experiments He controlled his experiments to ensure accurate results: Self-Pollination pea plant would pollinate itself Cross-Pollination one pea plant would pollinate another
Mendels Monohybrid Crosses Mendel selected a white-flower plant and a purple-flower plant. He crossed them to produce new plants. Hybrid offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait (ex. Tall and short height) Monohybrid looking at one trait of a hybrid Mendels Work (do not copy into notes, but understand) Parent generation (P): White plant x Purple plant Pollen transferred from white flower to stigma of purple flower P
First generation (F1 ): Produced all purple plants F = filial anthers removed all purple flowers result F1 Second generation (F2): Self pollinate F1 generation Purple plant x purple plant produced 3 purple plants & 1 white plant. self-pollinate F2 Looking closer at Mendels work P
F1 true-breeding purple-flower peas X (Do not copy, but understand) true-breeding white-flower peas 100% purple-flower peas 100% generation (hybrids)
self-pollinate F2 generation 75% purple-flower peas 25% white-flower peas 3:1 What did Mendels findings mean? (Do not copy, but understand) Traits come in alternative versions: Purple vs. White flower color Alleles - a number of alternative forms of the same gene or same
genetic locus (spot) some difference in sequence of A, T, C, G purple-flower allele & white-flower allele are two DNA variations at flower-color locus different versions of gene at same location on homologous chromosomes What did Mendels findings mean? (Do not copy, but understand) Some traits mask others: purple & white flower colors are separate traits that do not blend purple x white light purple purple masked white Purple Allele Dominant Trait
White Allele Recessive Trait Dominant allele = purple flower color Recessive allele = white flower color homologous chromosomes Genotype vs. Phenotype Difference between how an organism looks & its genetics: 1. Phenotype - description of organisms trait Phenotype = Physical (genes that are expressed) 2. Genotype - description of organisms genetic makeup Genotype = Genetics X P
Explain Mendels results using dominant & recessive phenotype & genotype purple F1 all purple white Making Crosses Can represent alleles as letters: **when choosing letters, pick letter where uppercase looks different then lowercase flower color alleles F or f true-breeding purple-flower peas FF true-breeding white-flower peas ff X P
purple F1 all purple FF x ff white F F f Ff Ff f Ff
Ff Looking closer at Mendels work P true-breeding purple-flower peas X true-breeding white-flower peas ff FF 100% purple-flower peas F1
generatio n 75% purple-flower peas ? ? ? 25% white-flower peas ? 3:1 What are genotypes of F2?
Punnett Squares Ff x Ff F1 Aaaaah, phenotype & genotype can have different ratios!! generatio n (hybrids) male / sperm female / eggs F F f
FF Ff f Ff ff Genotype Phenotype FF = 25% Ff = 50% ff = 25% Purple = 75% White = 25% 1:2:1 ratio
3:1 ratio Mendels Laws of Heredity Law of Segregation: Alleles for SAME trait separate into different gametes during meiosis. Ex. Height T TT TT tt T t tt
t Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles for DIFFERENT traits separate independently of each other during meiosis. Ex. Blonde hair does not mean you have blue eyes. Traits inherited independently. Essential Question #2 How can you predict the outcomes of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses? Monohybrid Crosses Practice
Every genetics problem you work must include: 1. Key 2. Cross (Parent x Parent) 3. Punnett Square 4. Results (Genotype & Phenotype) Monohybrid Crosses Practice 1. Black-colored (B) bear is dominant over brown-colored (b) bear. Cross a homozygous dominant bear with a heterozygous bear. Give phenotypic and genotypic results of F1 generation. Key B = black b = brown Cross: BB x Bb B B
B BB BB b Bb Bb Genotype BB = 50% Bb = 50% 1:1 Ratio Phenotype Black = 100% Monohybrid Crosses Practice
2. In human, dimples (D) is dominant over no dimples (d). Cross a hybrid woman with a man who does not have dimples. Give phenotypic and genotypic results of F1 generation. What are the chances the couple will have a child with no dimples? Key Cross: Dd x dd D = dimples d = no dimples d Dd d Dd D d Genotype
Phenotype dd Dd = 50% dd = 50% Dimples = 50% No dimples = 50% dd 1:1 Ratio 1:1 Ratio 50% chance of child with no dimples 3. Curly hair (H) is dominant over straight hair (h). Cross a purebred curly haired woman with a true-breeding straight haired man. Give phenotypic and genotypic
results of F1 generation. Then, cross F1 offspring to show phenotypic and genotypic results of F2 generation. Key H = curly h = straight Key H = curly h = straight H H Cross: HH x hh h Hh h
Hh F1 H h HH Hh Phenotype Curly = 100% Hh h H Cross: Hh x Hh
Dihybrid Cross Is the crossing of two traits. Instead of looking at probability of inheriting 1 trait, we are now going to analyze inheriting 2 traits at the same time. Setting up the Parent Alleles Remember: every trait in a dihybrid cross has 2 alleles (one from each parent) When setting up a dihybrid cross make sure each possible gamete has 2 alleles (one for each trait.) Setting up the Alleles Possible allele combination for all 4 possible gametes ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? FOIL Once you know the parents Genotype, you can set up the alleles for the dihybrid punnett cross. Ex: AaBb Using the foil method looks like this F O I L
First Outside Inside Last Foil Method First AB First Set Outside A b Inside aB Last Set AaBb Inner Set
Last ab Outer Set FOIL the gametes for the dihybrid cross 1. AABb x AaBb 2. TtRr x TTRR 3. AaBb x AaBb 4. DDEE x ddee 5. QQRr x qqRr LJ. 46 1. In werewolves, sharp fangs are dominant (F) and round fangs are recessive (f). Long hair is dominant (H) and short hair is recessive (h). Cross a heterozygous sharp fanged, hybrid long haired werewolf with a hybrid sharp fanged, heterozygous long haired werewolf. Give the genotypic and phenotypic percentage and ratios of the F1 offspring.
Key FfHh x FfHh F = sharp fangs f = round fangs FH Fh fH fh H = long hair h = short hair FH FFHH FFHh FfHH FfHh Fh FFHh FFhh FfHh Ffhh fH FfHH FfHh ffHH
ffHh fh FfHh Ffhh ffhh ffHh Key F = sharp fangs f = round fangs H = long hair h = short hair FH FfHh x FfHh
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