Computing Fundamentals Module A Unit 1: Recognizing Computers

Computing Fundamentals Module A Unit 1: Recognizing Computers

Computing Fundamentals Module A Unit 1: Recognizing Computers Lesson Topic 1 Computers All Around Us 2 3 Elements of a Personal Computer Working with Storage Systems

4 5 6 7 Using Input/Output Devices Basic Troubleshooting Techniques Buying a Computer Looking at Software CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 1 Lesson 1: Computers All Around Us Personal Computer Notebook or Laptop Tablet

Server Personal Digital Assistant Pocket PC Cellular Phones Other Electronic Computing Devices CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 2 Identifying Computers Integrated in our work, home, and social environments Perform a multitude of tasks Many organizations have combination of large and small systems to manage flow of information Computers can be: Designed specifically as computing devices Embedded in products

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 3 Desktop Computers Called personal computers Sit on, beside, or under desk Process data quickly Typically used in small businesses, schools, and homes. Generally two types PC CCI Learning Solutions Inc. Mac 4

Notebooks or Laptop Computers Advantages Portability Power consumption considered greener alternative Can purchase accessories to enhance enjoyment and experience PC Notebook Mac Notebook Netbook Similar to notebook but smaller and less expensive Designed to handle wireless communications or access to Internet only CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 5

Tablets Similar to notebook for portability and connection to data Screen can swivel or fold over Uses touch screen capability for data entry With finger, pen device, or built-in keyboard CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 6 Hand-held or Mobile Computers Cellular phones more sophisticated and can include: playing and listening to music taking pictures or video text messaging paging e-mail

accessing the Internet global navigation systems (GPS) Cost varies with number of features and capabilities CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 7 Hand-held or Mobile Computers Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Specific software helps make appointments, keep contact lists, or write notes Very popular for portability and software Can be main computing device Incorporates touch screen technology

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 8 Hand-held or Mobile Computers MP3 refers to file type for music to be recognized on audio player Media player enables viewing of movies, videos, or books Provide audio and visual capabilities or access to Internet CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 9 Hand-held or Mobile Computers Game systems Embedded computing chip that enables individual to play interactive games with video technology

Many come with option to link to Internet Electronic book reader Special computing device designed with software program to download and view electronic copy of published work Can find software to read book on PDA or media player Calculators Use same type of chips in computers to perform same calculations Computer is really very large and advanced calculator that performs tasks based on binary computations of 1 or 0 CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 10 Other Types of Computers Equipment to diagnose automobile problems

Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) Point-of-sale machines Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) Robotics Medical equipment Small home appliances Each type of equipment has embedded computer chip to enable it to perform specific task Often your identity must be validated with card that opens connection to database of information Equipment failures usually

result of computer chip needing to be replaced or reset Large home appliances CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 11 Lesson 2: Elements of a Personal Computer System unit Microprocessor chip How memory is measured What ROM is What RAM is How memory works CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

12 Looking at the System Unit Often most important and expensive part Separate devices inside box perform specialized functions Notebook has same components as desktop Microprocessor chip Often called brain of computer as instructions from software programs and input received are executed here Referred to as Central Processing Unit (CPU) and processes information and instructions at different speeds Hertz (Hz) measures speed of internal computer clock in terms of frequency or number of cycles per second Dual and quad core processors contain two or four processor chips CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

13 The Microprocessor Chip Processor (CPU) MHz or GHz 8088 (XT) 4 to 10 MHz 80286 (286 or AT) 8 to 16 MHz 80386SX/DX (386SX/DX) 16 to 33 MHz 80486 (486) 25 to 100 MHz Pentium 60 to 200 MHz 6x86 120 to 166 MHz Pentium (MMX) 166 to 200 MHz Pentium PRO 150 to 200 MHz Pentium II 200 to 400 MHz Pentium III 500 MHz to 1.2 GHz Pentium 4 or Pentium M1.4 to 3.2+ GHz

Pentium 5 5 GHz to 7 GHz CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 14 Looking at Memory Computers developed using numbering system of 1s and 0s or binary system For computer to store information, must have memory chips installed Memory measured in bits and bytes Bit is smallest unit of data used by computers Group of eight bits make one byte 1 Kilobyte = 1 Megabyte = 1 Gigabyte = 1 Terabyte =

1 Petabyte (PB) 1,024 Bytes 1,048,576 Bytes 1,073,741,824 Bytes 1,099,511,627,776 Bytes = 1,125,899,906,842,624 Bytes All data made up of bytes in combinations calculated by computer Every file used in software program has specific file size Data file size increases or decreases based on contents stored CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 15 Read Only Memory (ROM) BIOS Group of integrated circuits responsible for: Starting computer

Checking RAM Loading operating system Occurs only when computer first turned on or each time you restart (reboot) computer Reads information entered and processes it during time it resides in memory When process complete, clears itself and waits for next entry Does not perform any tasks other than reads information and processes it CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 16 Random Access Memory (RAM) Located in system unit as electronic memory pool where computer holds copies of programs and data Temporarily stores software program currently using and data created in program; may be referred to as system

RAM RAM is volatile Measured in nano seconds (ns) Used in video display cards or to buffer information sent to printer CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 17 Random Access Memory (RAM) Processor (CPU) MHz / GHz Typical RAM 8088 (XT) 4 to 10 640Kb 80286 (286 or AT) 8 to 16 1 to 2Mb 80386SX/DX (386SX/DX) 16 to 33 1 to 8Mb 80486 (486) 25 to 100 4 to 32Mb

Pentium 60 to 200 8Mb plus 6x86 120 to 166 16Mb plus Pentium (MMX) 166 to 200 16 to 32Mb Pentium PRO 150 to 200 32Mb plus Pentium II 200 to 400 32Mb plus Pentium III 500 to 1.2 64Mb plus Pentium 4 1.4 to 2.2 128Mb plus Pentium 5 5 to 7 256Mb plus CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 18 Understanding How Memory Works 1. ROM BIOS takes control when computer started and loads operating system 2. When operating system gains control, see Windows

splash screen Operating system checks Windows registry, which identifies what hardware and software installed When complete, see Windows desktop 3. Certain amount of RAM used to run basic files As computer performs specific tasks, it uses RAM needed When starting software application or program, asking computer to put copy of program in RAM Close application program when not in use to make RAM available CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 19 Lesson 3: Working with Storage Systems storage systems hard disk drives optical drives

portable or removable storage devices network drives remote storage CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 20 What Are Storage Systems? RAM is temporary so you must save work to storage device Storage device you use depends on amount of storage you need and speed of data retrieval or data transfer rate Hard disk drives used most often to store and retrieve software programs and data Can use other media such as flash drive or optical disc for backup or portability purposes

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 21 Working with Disk Drives Disk drive performs three functions: Rotates disk at constant speed to access sectors on entire disk surface Moves read/write head across tracks on entire disk surface Reads data from disk and writes data to disk using read/write head Data from RAM written on disk arranged in tracks divided in sectors Process of preparing disk for use is called formatting Places special information on each track that marks location of each sector CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

22 Working with Hard Disk Drives Primary storage area for both data and programs Software programs must be installed on hard drive Hard drive stores and retrieves information at high speeds Data transfer rate (throughput) of hard drive is function of hard drive rotation speed and number of heads per surface The higher the rotation speed and/or number of heads, the less time it takes to find data Range in capacity from 100 MB to 100+ GB Also used in network servers where drives very large to accommodate requirements of whole organization and data storage requirements Data transfer rate quite fast although can be restricted by type of network interface cards and number of users or tasks to be processed

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 23 Working with Optical Drives Designed to read flat, circular disc, commonly referred to as Compact Disc (CD) or Digital Versatile/Video Disc (DVD) Read by laser device or optical drive that spins disc at speeds from 200 rpm or higher CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) or DVD-ROM drive Similar to player in audio/video entertainment system Information written or burned onto surface and retrieved with laser beam Can only read data New computers come with at least one optical drive

Usually DVD optical drive or CD/DVD optical writer drive. CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 24 Optical Writers Also known as burner drive, looks and acts like regular optical disc drive Software comes with optical writer drive to burn or write data onto a disc Formats of drives include: CD-R/ DVD-R: can write once only to blank disc, but disc can be read multiple times CD-RW/ DVD-RW: can read and write multiple times onto same disc DVD-RAM: similar to DVD-RW but can only be used on devices that support this format; usually in the form of cartridges Blank discs relatively inexpensive, with -R disks cheaper than -RW

Size of disc can be 650 or 700 MB, while DVDs can be 4.7GB to 17+GB with rapid access speeds Special software needed to manipulate or edit video before burned to DVD CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 25 Using Other Types of Storage Devices Tape drive or tape streamer uses cartridge with magnetic tape Generally used to back up large amount of data Use different formats, with tape sizes ranging from 250MB to over 80GB Other tape drives use Digital Audio Tape (DAT) format Zip drive similar to DVD-RAM drive except that disk can hold between 100MB and 750MB data Offers relatively inexpensive storage option Newer systems not compatible with original 100MB devices

Removable media systems can include flash memory cards, sticks or USB flash key/thumb drives, or external hard drives Benefits include portability, large storage size, and data-sharing capability CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 26 Using Other Types of Storage Devices Hard drives in network server similar to hard disk drives in computer Traditionally much larger than available with desktop computer May be set as disk array, as drives usually organized to work together Remote or virtual storage systems do not exist on your computer or location

Common service provided by Internet Service Providers (ISP) Drives on network or dedicated server at particular site Must login to with secure ID and password to access information Very useful for off-site backup storage of data, or as central system for people in multiple locations to share information Disadvantage can be speed of Internet connection CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 27 Lesson 4: Using Input/Output Devices input/output devices common input devices common output devices specialized devices how a device connects what a port is what a device driver is

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 28 What are Input/Output Devices? Enables communication between user and computer Three classifications of Input/Output devices: Send information to computer Display or transmit information from computer Communicate between computers Input device Anything used to enter data into computer Output device Anything used to display data on or from computer

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 29 Using the Keyboard Input device used to send information to computer Input alphanumeric data or instruct computer via series of keystrokes Escape Key Function Keys Ctrl Key Alt Key Windows Key CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

Numeric Keypad Cursor Movement Keys 30 Using the Keyboard Some keyboards ergonomically designed to reduce or prevent stress on wrists Some keyboards contain buttons to enhance multimedia experience Regardless of keyboard type, same keys are available for document processing Special keyboards can be purchased for game enthusiasts or for people with disabilities CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

31 Using the Keyboard Executes typed command, performs selected option, marks end of line, or creates blank line. Deletes one character to left of flashing cursor; may show as left arrow (). Also on numeric keypad as of flashing cursor. ; deletes character above or to right Inserts blank space between words or sentences. Cancels current selection, or generates special code for computer; called Escape key. Advances cursor to right by specified number of spaces in word processing program, or to next cell in spreadsheet program. Selects uppercase letters for typewriter keys and punctuation

symbols on number keys. Can use with other keys to perform function or task. CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 32 Using the Keyboard Locks letter keys to produce only uppercase characters. Provides secondary meaning or function for specific keys. Displays Start menu. Displays shortcut menu similar to right-clicking item. Options in menu depend on where mouse pointer was when key pressed. Provides secondary meaning or function for specific keys. Move cursor up, down, left or right. Located between typewriter keys and numeric keypad. Captures information on screen and sends to Windows Clipboard. Toggle (start and stop) scrolling display of data on screen.

+ Stop or freeze computer, then continues when any key pressed; sends Break code to computer to unfreeze or unhang computer. CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 33 Using the Keyboard Function Keys Located along top row Labeled through to Each key assigned special meaning or function in application programs

Primary purpose to provide shortcut for commonly used commands Cursor and Numeric Keypad Can toggle on and off by pressing key When on, pad becomes calculator or numeric pad When off, pad becomes arrow or cursor movement pad CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 34 Using Pointing Devices Enables you to select or activate items on screen by placing pointer arrow on item and performing required action Traditional pointer device is a mouse

Move mouse on flat surface causes mouse to initiate movement reflected by pointer on monitor Traditional mouse uses ball that rotates to initiate movement as you move mouse device Trackball has ball on side where your thumb rests; rotate ball to move pointer Newer mouse models use optical light or diode technology to move pointer on screen CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 35 Using the Mouse Click Point mouse cursor at item, then press left mouse button once and release button to select item.

Double-Click Point mouse cursor at item and then click left mouse button twice quickly to initiate programs or open files. Right-Click Point mouse cursor at item and then click right mouse button to display shortcut menu. Left Drag Press and hold left mouse button while moving mouse moves items or selects multiple items. Right Drag

Press and hold right mouse button while moving mouse moves or copies items. When button released, shortcut menu appears for further command selection. Middle Wheel or Button Customize to perform certain actions, e.g., use wheel to scroll up or down. Thumb Buttons Customize buttons where thumb rests for specific tasks. CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 36 Using Pointing Devices To select items, grasp mouse with palm down and index finger gently resting on left button

Slide mouse flat along desk and mouse pointer moves in same direction on screen If run out of space on desk, lift mouse and place in new position on desk, and continue moving To cancel any option, click left button anywhere on screen away from option being selected Available in traditional style or as wireless devices Can work with PC or Mac CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 37 Using Pointing Devices Touchpad enables you to use finger to move pointer Has two buttons that work as left and right mouse buttons

To move pointer around on screen, place finger on touchpad and glide in direction for pointer to move To select item, position pointer over item and then tap touchpad once or click left button To activate item, position pointer over item and then tap touchpad twice in quick succession or double-click left button To drag item, position pointer over item, press touchpad to required location , and glide finger on To display shortcut menu, position pointer over item and then click right button Can work with PC or Mac CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 38

Using Microphones Record sounds and convert into digital format for use on computer Specialized software recognizes voice and converts what you say into text characters on screen Very beneficial for users with special needs Not usually included with computer Large variety and quality of microphones available for purchase CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 39 Looking at the Monitor Output device that enables you to view information computer displays

All have power switch, brightness and contrast controls to adjust screen image Come in variety of sizes, resolutions, and types Resolution, or monitors ability to display images Measurement based on particular mathematical levels of sharpness and clarity Factor in price Flat screen monitors popular due to size as well for touch screen technology CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 40 Using Printers Printers convert what is on screen into print using variety of print options Many home users have inkjet-type printers for printing simple

documents Printers, ink cartridges, and paper lower in cost Print quality quite good and they can print several pages per minute For large amount of printing, laser printer set up on network for multiple users to share Can choose from black-and-white or color laser printers May contain several trays of varying paper sizes Specific types of printers include plotter, photo printer, or all-inone printer CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 41 Using Speakers Play sounds saved as digital files Different forms of sound files

Can be specific to music programs or generic for any player device File format used to save sound file determines quality of audio file Set of speakers may be included with computer as separate device to plug in, or may be incorporated into computer Can purchase variety of speakers of different qualities CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 42 Looking at Input/Output Devices Scanners Takes picture of original and then converts to digital format Software included with scanner determines degree of detail

Bar Code Reader Scanner designed to reduce amount of data entry for routine transactions or verification of product Scans or reads thin and thick lines and bar codes Game Controllers or Joysticks Designed to use with games Variety of joysticks CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 43 Looking at Specialized Devices Touch Screens Use pen or stylus to select or activate items

Digital Cameras Captures pictures and transfer directly to computer View pictures using special cable on computer or television, or print using photo printer Use flash cards to store more files Webcam Type of digital camera connected to take pictures and video to share live with others Requires Internet connection and specialized software program Some notebooks have built-in Webcam or can purchase separately CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 44 Looking at Specialized Devices Remote Control Can use to activate commands on projector or while

running slideshow Improve accessibility for people with impairments Specialized Input Devices Certain industries use specialized software Work similar to other input devices to analyze data Security Devices Biometrics handle security issues for logon process and to maintain integrity of data on computer Require unique identifier before can access computer CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 45 Looking at Specialized Devices Accessibility Devices

Numerous devices available for people with physical challenges to improve ability to use computers Voice recognition software Specialized keyboards with overlays for tasks Labels with Braille characters Wireless devices activated using head or mouth CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 46 Looking at Specialized Devices Projector Connect to display presentation on screen only, surface such as wall-mounted screen, or both Photo Printer Print photographs on special photographic paper

Plotters Specialized printers designed to print onto very large pieces of paper Specialized Output Devices Control devices to manage or control tasks Voice Synthesizer Assist people with physical challenges CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 47 Connecting Ports Parallel Network

Serial Midi (musical instrument digitized interface) SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) USB (Universal Serial Bus) Wireless devices Adapters Hubs CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 48

Using Software Device driver Mini-program tells operating system what kind of device it is, what make or brand it is, and its purpose Main purpose is to enable communication between operating system and device Plug-and-play Automatically identifies new device connected so it looks for and installs device automatically If cannot find right driver, will need to use software that came with device or search for driver on Internet Important to have correct driver for device to work properly If special features included with device, correct driver ensures features will be available CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

49 Lesson 5: Basic Troubleshooting Techniques Computer performance Care of the computer Working with hardware Basic maintenance Basic troubleshooting CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 50 Increasing the Computers Performance System resources too low to process work, especially RAM Hard drive does not have enough room to install new programs or save files Not enough space on hard drive for operating

system to handle multiple programs File is quite large and will not open or close quickly due to speed of microprocessor Document takes long time to display on screen Component of operating system, software program, or data file generating system errors but still trying to work in background Hardware component or software program recently added and causing slowdowns or conflicts with other system components CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 51 Taking Care of the Computer Use surge suppressor or UPS to protect from power surges, brownouts, or general fluctuations Avoid connecting too many electrical devices Avoid connecting electrical equipment that draw large quantities

of power on same electrical circuit When in another country with different voltage system, use converter that adapts electrical system and voltage Always turn computer off during stormy weather Position computer in location to prevent theft Purchase security cables to lock computer to fixed apparatus CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 52 Taking Care of the Computer File server should be in locked room with special entry access Do not store near heat source or cold environment Avoid liquids near computing device Refrain from eating or drinking around keyboard Ensure there are no magnetic items near computer

Turn computer off before you move it Notebook carrying case should be durable and padded Be careful when carrying notebook Be careful where you place any portable device CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 53 Taking Care of the Computer Keep cables clear of walkways Clean computer or printer of dust or paper particles Use technical support specialist to help or perform changes Always make backups of data Always ensure antivirus program is up to date and scan computer regularly

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 54 Working with Hardware If you cannot open any files from hard drive, could be problem with hard drive If you cannot read files from media, check disk for scratches or dirt If you cannot print, check printer connected and on Check cable connections Check printer exists and is active If connections active but printer does not print, check for error messages CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

55 Working with Hardware If you cannot log on the network, check you are using correct logon ID and password Ensure network connection is active If wireless connection, ensure you are connected to correct network Check cables connected and all other network hardware working correctly Age of computer can also be source of problems Newly installed hardware device may not work for number of reasons CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 56

Performing Hardware Maintenance Clean keyboard or mouse occasionally Computer Life Cycle May be able to replace items easily May be able to upgrade items such as video cards, ergonomic keyboards If printing smeared or is missing content, may need to clean printer Use care when removing paper jams and check all areas that need clearing Consider how to manage files on hard drives CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 57

Performing Hardware Maintenance Delete temporary files Generated when you install programs, use attachments, visit Web sites, or register/subscribe on Web site Consider doing defragmentation occasionally Reorganizes file contents Speeds retrieval of files Ask for help from specialist when unsure how to proceed with changes Work with specialist to learn how to make changes safely and effectively CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 58

Performing Basic Troubleshooting 1 Collecting Information Write information down for reference Keep notes about frequency of each message and what you were doing when message appeared 2 Analyzing the Information Analyze information for any patterns or common themes 3 Attempting Basic Solutions Try simple troubleshooting 4 Finding Help Seek help and advice from technical support specialist 5 Communicating the Problem Accurately Be accurate and concise when communicating problem CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 59

Performing Basic Troubleshooting 6 Analyzing and Selecting the Proper Action Provide as much detail so specialist can provide list of options 7 Implementing the Solution Follow solution provided to resolve problem 8 Confirming the Problem is Fixed Try to duplicate problem to see if error occurs again 9 Documenting and Communicating the Incident Document incident to use for future reference and share document with others 10 Avoiding Similar Problems in the Future Documenting issue can help prevent similar problems in future CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 60 Lesson 6: Buying a Computer

Hardware considerations Software considerations Price considerations Support or service considerations CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 61 Deciding What to Purchase Determining the Purpose How will this computer be used and by whom? Size and type of hard drive Desktop or notebook or netbook? Microprocessor speed, amount of RAM, quality of video card, size of monitor, and size of hard drive CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

62 Deciding What to Purchase Identifying Other Requirements If computer for organization, consider company standards If school, may purchase computers from designated vendor who can accommodate one set of standards for classroom computers and another set of standards for faculty Adequate bandwidth to search databases for specific industries CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 63 Deciding What to Purchase Selecting the Operating Platform Which is best for this environment and what is currently in use?

What application programs run and any compatibility issues Versions for multiple platforms, or customized or specialized programs Work with network administrator for decision-making process CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 64 Deciding What to Purchase Looking at Support Options Warranty Support agreements Extended warranties Useful life of new computer Best guideline is how much knowledge you possess to handle basic problems and who you can go to for help

Research what you want and how you will use it, compare specifications and price at different locations Try to work with IT specialist who can provide advice and information CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 65 Deciding What to Purchase Disposing of Computer Equipment Dealing with obsolete or unnecessary computer equipment Can incur costs to dispose equipment CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 66

Lesson 7: Looking at Software What software programs are How software programs are developed What the operating system is Which software programs are designed for specific tasks CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 67 What is a Software Program? Refers to everything that makes computer run Only functions when loaded into computers RAM Software applications Created using programming languages to create software code Algorithms are set of rules designed to complete specific tasks in specific sequences Specifies how software program identifies input type, and then proper

format for output Software choice should be based on What you need to accomplish Degree of detail and features you need What is most cost-effective CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 68 Obtaining Software All retail software programs go through thorough process before being released to public Perform quality controls on software based on most commonly used tasks When purchase software program, actually purchasing license to install and use that program on one computer only On CDs in package that includes booklet with instructions

Download software online where you pay with credit card, and then receive separate e-mails from vendor confirming purchase and providing license number Organization with large number of users usually purchase network license One media set contains software and options copied to network folder, and then installed to individual computers Cost-effective CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 69 Obtaining Software Software as a Service (SaaS) or Application Service Provider (ASP) licensing Access and use software program from your system via network, organization intranet, or

Internet using valid ID and password Once SaaS contract expires, you can no longer access software until you renew Other methods of distributing or obtaining software include Shareware are trial version software you download for free, but usually have limited functionality or provide limited amount of time to access program Freeware programs do not charge fees and are shared with others at no charge

Software can also be bundled with computer purchase Open Source is where programming code available to anyone Modify program to your needs and then share your version with others but cannot charge for it Your responsibility to ensure you observe whatever licensing rules apply CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 70 Upgrading Your Software Updates or upgrades could be created to address: Problems with software

Changes in government regulations or other external factors Known issues should not prevent users from purchasing software When you register your software license, become entitled to receive notification about updates or upgrades Users can perform software upgrades, regardless of stand-alone or network computer Web applications may be upgraded more often to address security issues Number of organizations, groups, and newsgroups share information about updates, why being provided, and whether you should install them Can check software vendors Web site to find specific updates CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 71 Choosing an Application Program Must have operating system installed before application programs can perform

specific function Important to use appropriate software program to complete tasks Choose one that best suits your needs; look closely at what you want to accomplish Many programs offer same features of another type of program Look closely at what each program does and is it flexible for all you want to do Consider that your needs may change as time passes With dedicated programs, should have some fundamental knowledge to use program to its full advantage May also need software programs that share data with other types of programs CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 72 Word Processing Can create, edit, and save documents, change

appearance or position of text or pictures, review changes made by others, or remove items no longer needed. Standard for letters, memos, invoices, faxes, basic Web pages, newsletters, forms, brochures, or flyers CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 73 Spreadsheets Perform mathematical calculations, produce what-if analyses, and display graphs, charts, and diagrams File called workbook that can have any number of worksheets or reports CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 74

Presentations Create slides with any type of content for presentations Special effects include animation, slide transitions, and theme designs Can be broadcast over Internet, to live audience, or as self-running slide show CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 75 Database Management Organized collection of related information with following structure: Fields contain individual pieces of data Collection of related fields make up record Collection of records make up table Multiple tables of related records make up database

Use queries to extract data, generate reports, use forms to access fields within table, set up key fields, and link tables to each other Can be behind the scenes to help find and purchase items on Web site CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 76 Graphics Can obtain graphics from different sources, create your own, or customize picture files Can be grouped with multimedia software programs to create or edit sounds or video Files must be in specific file formats

Include basic set of tools for drawing shapes, text, painting fill colors or patterns, changing line styles, width, color, or filling in arrowhead styles CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 77 Multimedia Add elements such as video, music, or animation Need to save multimedia files in correct file format Multimedia encompasses any software programs that incorporate graphics, music, or video CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

78 Education or Entertainment Programs now designed to entertain and educate people of all ages Integrate simulation and interaction Computer-Based Training (CBT) or eLearning Self-paced learning offered though vendors Web site May have measures built into program to track progress or assess skills Also available in form of audio or video file that can be downloaded from Web site for use in another media or location Virtual environments teach crucial skills for dealing with real-life scenarios CCI Learning Solutions Inc.

79 Utility Tools Antivirus Protection Adware/Spyware Protection Protects system from viruses that may corrupt files Finds and blocks unwanted items from the Internet Disk Compression Frees space to store more files in most accessible area

Reduces number of temporary files Disk Cleanup Backup Protection Schedule backups or copies of specific data should computer fail File Compression Reduce size of file for storage purposes or to transfer file from one location to another Widgets/Gadgets Mini-programs that provide quick access to information, services and tools from Internet

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 80 Accounting or Financial Accounting programs Automates tasks performed by bookkeepers and accountants Need accounting fundamentals to understand all features available in accounting software program Financial programs Focus on specialized areas such as small business management, investments, or personal finances Financial investment programs Can get from financial institution where you do your banking Manage financial portfolio on your own or with help of investment advisor

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 81 Electronic Mail Referred to as e-mail Process of sending e-mail similar to manual process for addressing, writing, and mailing hard copy letter E-mail requires you have email program, correct e-mail address, and Internet connection CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 82 Web Browsers Enables you to view Web sites placed online by different

companies, organizations, or individuals Must have Internet connection, and Web browser to enter address of site to visit Click links on Web site to navigate to different areas of same Web site, another Web site, or enter new Web address to go to new site CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 83 Messaging Instant Messaging (IM) Send text messages using cellular telephone or Internet Limited - only one line of communication can display text submitted by one person at time

Very useful when quick response required Can include emoticons Chat room Need to subscribe to particular group with chat room Can be included in instant messaging programs or search for Web sites of interest and join their chat rooms Will be numerous conversations happening at same time although only one line of communication displays at a time CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 84 Web Page Authoring Create and design pages for Web site with focus on options important to consider Do need some fundamentals about Web site design and maintenance

Work in combination with multimedia programs to include entertainment items such as video or pictures CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 85 Web Conferencing Similar to traditional conferencing All participants attend one physical location or are connected via telephone service CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 86

Computer Aided Design Use to design objects, or create plans or drafts Can be used to animate special effects Designs can be set up in two or three dimensions CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 87 Project Management Plan and track tasks for small and large projects using many people or resources Can then accurately estimate and track start and end dates and important milestones in between As things change, can make changes to see how timeline or resources affected

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 88 Group Collaboration Enables people to share information or coordinate activities, usually within organization although can include external people Group members go to central spot to view or find information about activities in organization Can add or modify items for own department or for themselves Includes tools network administrator can set up to look and feel like company Web site CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 89

Integrated Suites Group of programs packaged together for purchase Programs all integrated or compatible with each other Data from one program can be used in any other program without difficulty More cost-effective than purchasing programs individually CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 90 Specialized or Custom Any program that targets specific market for certain tasks Custom programs developed for specific companies with companys needs as main purpose May also be used for many tasks in other industries

CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 91 Specialized or Customize Types of Programs Examples of Tasks Schools Taking registration and attendance, completing report cards Sales people/contact management Recording sales calls, contacts, purchases, notes

Restaurants Processing food orders, bills, inventory/stock retail stores Purchasing at point of sale, reading bar code financial institutions Processing debit or credit card transactions Internet shopping sites Shopping through eBay, browsing through Yahoo! Manufacturing

Producing automobile, specifying lumber sizes Transportation Accessing airline reservation from travel agency, online, or airline counter Scientific, medical, or engineering Doing inspections, tracking patient progress CCI Learning Solutions Inc. 92

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    Answers for Zimbardo video… Def of Evil… evil is the exercise of power to purposefully harm people psychology, hurt people physically, to destroy people mortally (or ideas), and to commit crimes against humanity; The Lucifer Effect… the potential negative that...
  • Chapter 5 Socialization - asd5.org

    Chapter 5 Socialization - asd5.org

    Socialization Across the Life Course ***Socialization is a life time process-think how many societal norms, values and beliefs have changed in just your lifetime. In the US socialization is greatly influenced by age norms and time- related rules and regulations-...
  • Session 2 - WordPress.com

    Session 2 - WordPress.com

    Session 2 Interpretive Methods ... And since they had no root, they withered away. 7 Other seeds fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them. 8 Other seeds fell on good soil and produced grain, some a...