Recruitment and Selection What this topic is about
Recruitment and Selection What this topic is about Need for workforce planning The recruitment and selection process Advantages and disadvantages of recruitment methods Reasons to Recruit Staff Business expansion due to
Increasing sales of existing products Developing new products Entering new markets Existing employees leave: To work with competitors or other local employers Due to factors such as retirement, sick leave, maternity leave Business needs employees with new skills Business is relocating and not all of existing workforce want to move to new location
Changes in Employment Patterns The way we work is changing rapidly: Increase in part-time working Increases in numbers of single-parent families More women seeking work Ageing population Greater emphasis on flexible working hours
Technology allows employees to communicate more effectively whilst apart (teleworking) People rarely stay in the same job for life Businesses need to understand and respond to these changes if they are to recruit staff of the right standard and keep them! Part-time Staff + Flexible Working Increased numbers of people in the UK are working part-time Advantages Cheaper to employ as entitled to less benefits
More flexible workforce (easier to reduce labour hours when sales fall or add hours when demand increases) Wide range of potential recruits (e.g. working mothers who want to restrict the number of hours they work) Disadvantages Employees feel less loyal to business and therefore less motivated Harder for managers to control and coordinate workforce What is Workforce Planning? Workforce planning is
about deciding how many and what types of workers are required Steps in Workforce Planning The workforce plan establishes what vacancies exist Managers produce a job description and job specification for each post Job description Detailed explanation of the roles and responsibilities of the post advertised Most applicants will ask for this before applying for the job Refers to the post available rather than the person
Job specification Sets out the kind of qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate should possess. A vital tool in assessing the suitability of job applicants Refers to the person rather than the post Recruitment Methods Internal recruitment Jobs given to staff already employed by business Involves promotion and reorganisation External recruitment
Job centres Job advertisements Recruitment agencies (offline and online) Headhunting Personal recommendation Internal Recruitment Advantages Cheaper and quicker to recruit People already familiar with business and how it operates Provides opportunities for promotion with in business Disadvantages Business already knows strengths and weaknesses of
candidates Limits number of potential applicants No new ideas can be introduced from outside May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled External Recruitment Advantages Outside people bring in new ideas Larger pool of workers from which to find best candidate People have a wider range of experience Disadvantages
Longer process More expensive process due to advertisements and interviews required Selection process may not be effective enough to reveal best candidate The Recruitment Process Stages of Recruitment Process Preparation Identifying what jobs need filling and what role and specification of job is
Finding possible candidates Various methods (e.g. advertising) to encourage potential candidates to apply for job Selection Interviews and other selection processes to choose best person for job Completing contractual employment of that person Induction Introducing selected candidate to business
Job Description and Specification Job description Detailed explanation of roles and responsibilities of post advertised Most applicants will ask for this before applying for job Refers to post available rather than person Job specification Drawn up by business Sets out qualifications, skills, experience and personal attributes a successful candidate should possess Vital tool in assessing suitability of job applicants Refers to person rather than post
Contents of a Job Description Job Title: this indicates the role/function that the job plays within an organisation, and the level of job within that function Reporting responsibilities: who is the immediate boss of the job holder? Subordinates: who reports directly TO the job holder? Main purpose: what is involved in the job overall Main tasks: description of the main activities to be undertaken and what the job holder is expected to achieve Employment conditions (e.g. basis of payment; fringe benefits, holiday, period of notice, disciplinary)
Objectives of Recruitment Advertising Inform audience of potential candidates about opportunity Provide enough information to both inform and interest possible applicants Help screen or dissuade unsuitable applicants Obtain most number of suitably qualified applicants for post advertised Note recruitment adverts can be published internally and externally Placing a Job Advertisement
Internal recruitment Notice boards Staff magazines & newsletters Email External recruitment Newspapers and magazines Job centres Employment agencies and Headhunters Direct contacts (e.g. with employees in a competitor business) Internet recruitment websites
Role of a Recruitment Agency A recruitment agency works to provide a link between the employer and employee Potential employees register with the agency and provide personal details Employers approach the agency for shortlists of potential candidates Recruitment agencies charge a fee for the service Main fee is to the employer Usually a percentage of the employees wages and salary in the
first 6-12 months Often an expensive option Some agencies specialise in particular employment areas E.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment What to Consider When Advertising Type of job Senior management jobs merit adverts in the national newspapers and/or specialist management magazines Many semi-skilled jobs need only be advertised locally to attract sufficient good quality candidates
Cost of advertising National newspapers and television cost significantly more than local newspapers etc Readership and circulation How many relevant people does the medium reach? How frequently is the publication published? Frequency How often does the business want to advertise the post?
A Good Job Advertisement Accurate Describes the job and its requirements accurately Short Not too long-winded; covers just the important ground Honest Does not make claims about the job or the business
that will later prove false to applicants Positive Gives the potential applicant a positive feel about joining the business Relevant Provides details that prospective applicants need to know at the application stage (e.g. is shift-working required; are there any qualifications required) Contents of a Job Advertisement
Details of the business (name, brand, location, business activities) Outline details of the job (title, main duties) Conditions (special factors affecting the job) Experience / qualifications required Rewards (financial and nonfinancial) Application process (how should applicants apply, how to; deadlines) Contents of a job application form Personal details (name, nationality etc)
Educational history & qualifications Previous employment history (periods, positions, roles, achievements) Suitability and reasons for applying for job A chance for applicants to sell themselves Names of referees Curriculum Vitae A written document Often on one or two sides of A4
Designed by the job applicant Covers similar ground as job application Advantages of a job application versus a CV Business can tailor questions and format to exact needs An application form forces candidates to answer same questions and provide information in a consistent format CVs often come in many different formats, with key information either missing or presented in different ways
Encourages the applicant to consider the specific needs of the employer e.g. respond to questions relevant to the employer More likely to get up-to-date information from the applicant Reasons for Rejecting Candidates at Application Form Stage May not meet standards set out in job specification Wrong qualifications Insufficient experience May not have completed application form
to a satisfactory standard May be unlucky Employer has set a limit on number of candidates who progress through to interview stage The Shortlist Long list = total pool of applicants Shortlist = small number of suitable applicants that meet the job criteria Should ideally be drawn up by two people, acting independently Important not to only include perfect or ideal candidates
Recruitment Interview Interview is a crucial part of the recruitment process Chance for an employer to meet applicant face to face Can obtain much more information on: What person is like Whether they are suitable for job Whether they will fit into the business Interview is also an important for the candidate Obtain information about job Assess the working culture of a possible new employer Recruitment interviewing is a hard skill often it is
done very poorly! Information to Obtain During a Recruitment Interview By the employer: Information that cannot be obtained on paper from a CV or application form Conversational ability- often known as people skills Natural enthusiasm or manner of applicant See how applicant reacts under pressure Queries or extra details missing from CV or application form By the employee Whether job or business is right for them
What is culture of company like What are exact details of job that may be omitted from job description Selection Tests Formats Aptitude tests Intelligence tests Personality tests Why used Basic interview can be unreliable as applicants can perform well at interview but not have qualities or skills needed for job
Selection tests increase chances of choosing best applicant and so minimise high costs of recruiting wrong people References What are references? Written character statements from people who know the applicant well An important safety check A chance to learn more about the strengths and weaknesses of an applicant Final check that all information given by
candidate is correct Good honest reference from an independent source can also reveal good or bad incidences from candidates past or particular traits that may have been missed Test Your Understanding http://www.tutor2u.net/business/quiz/recruitmenttraining/quiz.html Recruitment and Selection
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