All aspects of communication including: Situation pictures Triad

All aspects of communication including: Situation pictures Triad

All aspects of communication including: Situation pictures Triad of Impairments Speech and Language Therapists work with: Impaired social interaction More on communication {

language: vocabulary structure social use speech and voice stammering Impaired communication Referral Activities, behaviour and interests that are repetitive, restricted

and stereotyped Referral can come from: school, parents/carers, or others; Permission must be given by someone with parental responsibility; Take on referral if appropriate otherwise signpost to other services. Sabotage Visual Timetable [TEACCH] Structured uncluttered environment clear areas for work and for leisure; Clearly structured day using timetables; Work to be done, and work finished baskets;

Some aspects of this may be difficult to achieve in a typical primary classroom. Acronym is: Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped Children Here are some sweets Social Stories Detailed timetable FORM form phrases and sentences)

CONTENT to The assignment of meanings to words and sentences in a language Words and sentences which a person can use and understand to convey and receive information USE How language is used Functions for which a person is able to use language (for example: gaining attention, commenting, requesting information, recounting information, giving instructions)

Social use of language Ability to adjust language according to the social context Intensive interaction Follow the childs lead; This lecture will start at 11.05am, the first part of the lecture will last for 40 minutes, then we will have a break of 10 minutes. The second part of the lecture will last for 35 minutes. At 12.35pm we will

have informal questions until 12.50pm. We will leave the lecture theatre at 12.50pm. Word forms of a language Sounds used in a language Syntax of the language (how words are connected together Speech and Language Therapy Process Copy back; Draw a picture

Try adding something (e.g. an extra drum beat); Assessment Assessment What All aspects of the childs communication including: Assessment When At initial referral and at other points to evaluate therapy and re-evaluate the nature of their needs. Language comprehension; Language expression; Play, language in play; Speech

Social use of language: Assessment Why To find out if there is a problem, to determine what to work on, to assess the effectiveness of the therapy * * * * * * Could use to develop turn-taking. Assessment - how

gaining attention commenting requesting recounting information giving instructions adjustment of language according to the context Discussions with teacher, teaching assistants, parents etc. to find out the nature of their current concerns; Observation in class, and other environments: Assessment of childs skills in 1:1 situation often using toys or picture materials

Speech and Language Therapy and Autism Neil Thompson, Commtap CIC & Barts NHS trust Autism: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Roehampton University Goals/targets Functional i.e. addressing the childs needs or what they might need in the future SMART specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time limited Integrating with the school curriculum (Commtap) Always ask so what? Goals examples Use a picture to make a request; To only say nice things about what people look like; To talk about something that just happened.

Social Skills For example: proximity when speaking; turn taking; listening and responding; rules and strategies for dealing with different situations learning versus understanding social situations. [Some special considerations] echolalia; - can be immediate or delayed; - simple or quite sophisticated: learnt phrases, phrases out of context, learnt

conversations; - may have a variety of functions e.g. answering yes, requesting, maintaining conversational turn. linking symbols (e.g. spoken word) to communication; hypo- and hyper- sensitivity to stimuli (e.g. noises, movement, light, smell). Example communication behaviours During development: periods of silence or production of apparently meaningless sounds;

Child may suddenly start to use imitated utterances; Echolalia; Delayed echolalia. Difficulties integrating the form of language with language content; Difficulties in the social use of this language; In severe cases, failure to develop a link between language/symbols and communication. Eye gaze and body posture differences in interactions; Failure to integrate context into the understanding of language, literal language understanding (e.g. Pull your

socks up); Speech sound development: appears to be similar to typical development; Unusual intonation and stress patterns common. Initiating and terminating interactions; Maintaining conversational topics; Functioning within speaker and listener roles; Using behaviours for the purpose of communication. Example communication methods Cry/scream; Body positioning in relation to things he

is interested in; May take someones hand to get things done for him; Look at things he wants; Reach for things he wants; Point but not look at parent; Use joint attention; Use gestures/facial expressions/sounds/ words/ sentences; Use pictures; Use echolalia. Activities PECS Picture Exchange Communication System Aims to make the process of communication with symbols as explicit as possible;

Requests: we usually exchange a spoken word for a requested item; Spoken words are abstract and transient That words represent something and they can be directed to someone are significant learning steps for a child Picture symbols: PECS Phase 2 Travelling Have a book with the symbols inside the symbol being used is put on the front; The person the child needs to communicate with moves further away; The book is moved further away to a point where it is kept somewhere in

the classroom/home where the child needs to get it. Suggest some activities for working towards the goals. indicates no given a choice understand single words use a visual timetable make initiations to join activities to use four word phrases indicates no given a choice understand single words use a visual timetable make initiations to join activities to use four word phrases

Training/Advice Work with school staff/parents and the child, to enable them to use appropriate activities with the child; The amount of repeat visits the speech and language therapist makes will vary. PECS Phase 1 Establishing the exchange - no symbolic understanding is required at this stage Requires two adults: - One sits behind the child to prompt them - The other is the communication partner Establish motivator; Child plays with motivator for short time; Place card in front of child; Partner now has the motivating item;

Prompter physically assists child to put picture in partners hand; Immediately, partner hands item to child saying its name at the same time. PECS Phase 3 Symbolic understanding Assistant gives minimum prompts for child to achieve what they want (to get the motivating item) Time should be given so that the child has the opportunity to make a response (but not so much that they become frustrated) Use two pictures and two objects: a preferred item and an item of no

interest Always give the child the item indicated in the picture he/she passes To develop the selection of the appropriate picture you could: - Use prompts (similar to before) - Differentiate the pictures in location or size and slowly reduce the differentiation Becoming a Speech and Language Therapist 3-4 year undergraduate course, or Two year postgraduate course - Requires undergraduate degree typically second class or better: a wide range of degrees are

considered Refs YouTube Local Detailed timetable This lecture will start at 11.05am, the first part of the lecture will last for 40 minutes, then we will have a break of 10 minutes. The second part of the lecture will

last for 35 minutes. At 12.35pm we will have informal questions until 12.50pm. We will leave the lecture theatre at 12.50pm. Assessment Why To find out if there is a problem, to determine what to work on, to assess the effectiveness of the therapy Assessment When At initial referral and at other points to evaluate therapy and re-evaluate the nature of their needs. Assessment - how Discussions

with teacher, teaching assistants, parents etc. to find out the nature of their current concerns; Observation in class, and other environments: Assessment of childs skills in 1:1 situation often using toys or picture materials Online Info Local info Assessment What All aspects of the childs communication including: Language comprehension; Language expression; Play, language in play; Speech Social use of language:

* gaining attention * commenting * requesting * recounting information * giving instructions * adjustment of language according to the context Language comprehension; Language expression; Play, language in play; Speech Social use of language: * gaining attention * commenting * requesting * recounting information

* giving instructions * adjustment of language according to the context Goals examples Use a picture to make a request; To only say nice things about what people look like; To talk about something that just happened. Activities Suggest some activities for working towards the goals. indicates no given a choice understand single words use a visual timetable make initiations to join activities to use four word phrases

indicates no given a choice understand single words use a visual timetable make initiations to join activities to use four word phrases indicates no given a choice indicates no given a choice understand single words understand single words use a visual timetable

use a visual timetable make initiations to join activiti make initiations to join activiti es es to use four word phrases to use four word phrases PECS Phase 1 Establishing the exchange - no symbolic understanding is required at this stage Requires two adults: - One sits behind the child to prompt them - The other is the communication

partner Establish motivator; Child plays with motivator for short time; Place card in front of child; Partner now has the motivating item; Prompter physically assists child to put picture in partners hand; Immediately, partner hands item to child saying its name at the same time. Assistant gives minimum prompts for child to achieve what they want (to get the motivating item) Time should be given so that the child has the opportunity to make a response (but not so much that they become frustrated)

Assistant gives minimum prompts for child to achieve what they want (to get the motivating item) Time should be given so that the child has the opportunity to make a response (but not so much that they become frustrated) PECS Phase 2 Travelling Have a book with the symbols inside the symbol being used is put on the front; The person the child needs to communicate with moves further away; The book is moved further away

to a point where it is kept somewhere in the classroom/home where the child needs to get it. PECS Phase 3 Symbolic understanding Use two pictures and two objects: a preferred item and an item of no interest Always give the child the item indicated in the picture he/she passes To develop the selection of the appropriate picture you could: - Use prompts (similar to before) - Differentiate the pictures in location or size and slowly reduce the

differentiation [Some special considerations] echolalia; - can be immediate or delayed; - simple or quite sophisticated: learnt phrases, phrases out of context, learnt conversations; - may have a variety of functions e.g. answering yes, requesting, maintaining conversational turn. linking symbols (e.g. spoken word) to communication; hypo- and hyper- sensitivity to

stimuli (e.g. noises, movement, light, smell). Social Skills For example: proximity when speaking; turn taking; listening and responding; rules and strategies for dealing with different situations learning versus understanding social situations. [TEACCH] Structured uncluttered environment clear areas for work and for leisure; Clearly structured day using timetables;

Work to be done, and work finished baskets; Some aspects of this may be diffi cult to achieve in a typical primary classroom. Acronym is: Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication -handicapped Children YouTube Local Intensive interaction Follow the childs lead; Copy back; Try adding

something (e.g. an extra drum beat); Could use to develop turn-taking. YouTube Local Sabotage Here are some sweets Draw a picture Social Stories

Becoming a Speech and Language Therapist 3-4 year undergraduate course, or Two year postgraduate course - Requires undergraduate degree typically second class or better: a wide range of degrees are considered Example communication behaviours During development: periods of silence or production of apparently meaningless sounds; Child may suddenly start to use imitated utterances;

Echolalia; Delayed echolalia. Difficulties integrating the form of language with language content; imitated utterances; Echolalia; Delayed echolalia. Difficulties integrating the form of language with language content; Difficulties in the social use of this language; In severe cases, failure to develop a link between language/symbols and communication. Eye gaze and body posture differences

in interactions; Failure to integrate context into the link between language/symbols and communication. Eye gaze and body posture differences in interactions; Failure to integrate context into the understanding of language, literal language understanding (e.g. Pull your socks up); Speech sound development: appears to be similar to typical development; Unusual intonation and stress patterns common. Initiating and terminating interactions;

Maintaining conversational topics; to be similar to typical development; Unusual intonation and stress patterns common. Initiating and terminating interactions; Maintaining conversational topics; Functioning within speaker and listener roles; Using behaviours for the purpose of communication. Example communication methods Cry/scream; Body positioning in relation to things he

is interested in; May take someones hand to get things done for him; Look at things he wants; Reach for things he wants; Point but not look at parent; Use joint attention; Use gestures/facial expressions/sounds/ words/ sentences; Use pictures; Use echolalia. Cry/scream; Body positioning in relation to things he is interested in; May take someones hand to get things

done for him; Look at things he wants; Reach for things he wants; Point but not look at parent; Use joint attention; Use gestures/facial expressions/sounds/ words/ sentences; Use pictures; Use echolalia. FORM Word forms of a language Sounds used in a language Syntax of the language (how words are connected together to form phrases and sentences)

CONTENT The assignment of meanings to words and sentences in a language Words and sentences which a person can use and understand to convey and receive information USE How language is used Functions for which a person is able to use language (for example: gaining attention, commenting, requesting information, recounting information, giving instructions)

Social use of language Ability to adjust language according to the social context FORM Word forms of a language Sounds used in a language Syntax of the language (how words are connected together to form phrases and sentences) CONTENT The assignment of meanings to words and sentences in a language Words and sentences which a

person can use and understand to convey and receive information USE How language is used Functions for which a person is able to use language (for example: gaining attention, commenting, requesting information, recounting information, giving instructions) Social use of language Ability to adjust language according to the social context References Ayres, A. (1979). Sensory integration and the child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Association.

Bernstein, D., & Tiegerman, E. (2001). Language and Communication Disorders in Children (Fifth ed.): Allyn and Bacon. Bloom, L., & Lahey, M. (1978). Language development and language disorders. New York: Macmillan. Bogdashina, O. (2005). Communication Issues in Autism and Asperger Syndrome. London: Jessica Kingsley. Commtap (2012). Targets and Activities Project: Activities for Childrens Communication. www.commtap.org Malcomess, K. (2005). Care Aims. www.careaims.com/index.php?page=care_aims Potter, C., & Whittaker, C. (2002). Enabling Communication in Children with Autism. London: Jessica Kingsley. Prizant, B., & Duchan, J. (1981). The functions of immediate echolalia in autistic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46, 241-249. Pyramid Educational Consultants. (200?). An Introduction to PECS. Schopler, E., & Mesibov, G. (1984). Helping autistic children through their parents: the TEACCH model. In E. Schopler & G. Mesibov (Eds.), The Effects of Autism on the Family. London: Plenum. Wetherby, A. M. (2006). Understanding and Measuring social Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In Charman, T. & Stone, W., Social and communication development in autism spectrum disorders : early identification, diagnosis, & intervention. New York: The Guilford Press Widgit Software (2012) Software Solutions for Inclusion. www.widgit.com

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