AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE 2006 Pearson

AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE 2006 Pearson

AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19 The American Nation, 12e Mark C. Carnes & John A. Garraty

MIDDLE-CLASS LIFE Middle class mothers at the end of the century had two or three children 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Married later in life Practiced abstinence W.H. JACKSON FAMILY [grandchildren with nurse] 1900-1920 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

MIDDLE-CLASS LIFE Middle-class children were carefully supervised, though parents no longer interfered with the course of true love for materialistic or purely social reasons An annual income of $1,000 in the 1880s meant no need to skimp on food, shelter, or clothing A quarter of all urban families employed at least one servant MIDDLE-CLASS LIFE 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Middle-class family life was defined in terms of

tangible goodsfashionable clothes, large home crowded with furniture, books, lamps, and all manner of bibelots H. CLARK RESIDENCE INTERIOR, 1895-1910 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection SKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS Number of workers in mining and manufacturing increased 1860: 885,000 1890: 3.2 million

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. More efficient methods of production increased output and allowed for a better standard of living for workers 1860, average workday was 11 hours By 1880 only one worker in four labored over 10 hours Increasingly workers talked of 8 hour day SKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

While skilled workers improved their positions relatively, the increased use of machinery had effects Jobs more monotonous Mechanization undermined artisan pride in work and bargaining power As expensive machinery became more important, the worker seemed less important Machines increasingly controlled pace of worker which was faster and more dangerous WORKING WOMEN

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. More women worked outside their homes in factories (though half of working women were domestic servants) Women were paid substantially lower than men New jobs for women Salespersons and cashiers in department stores Nursing (especially popular with educated, middle-class women) which expanded with medical profession and establishment of urban hospitals Middle class women also became teachers Clerks and secretaries in government departments and business offices

Department store clerks and typewriters earned more money than factory workers but had limited opportunities for promotion WOMAN IN RED CROSS NURSES UNIFORM, 1900-1915 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. WORKING YOUR WAY UP Progress was result of overall economic growth combined with energy and ambition of

individual workers and public education State supported public education only became compulsory after the Civil War when growth of cities provided concentration of population and financial resources necessary for economical mass education Attendance increased from 6.8 million in 1870 to 15.5 million in 1900 Public expenditures for education quadrupled WORKING YOUR WAY UP 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Industrialization increased demands for vocational and technical training

Secondary education was still assumed to be for those with special abilities and youths whose families did not need them to work THE NEW IMMIGRATION 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Between 1865 and 1915 about 25 million foreigners entered U.S. Perfection of steamship made Atlantic crossing safe and speedy Competition between the great packet lines drove

down prices Advertisement by the lines further stimulated traffic 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. THE NEW IMMIGRATION Push pressures Cheap wheat from Russia, U.S., and other parts of the world poured into Europe with new cheaper transportation and undermined livelihood of many farmers Spreading industrial revolution and increased use of farm machinery led to collapse of peasant economy of central and southern Europeloss of selfsufficiency and fragmentation of landholdings Political and religious persecutions pushed others

Main reason remained hope of economic betterment 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. THE NEW IMMIGRATION In 1870 one industrial worker in three was foreign born By early 20th century, over half the labor force had not been born in United States Most entered by way of New York Before 1882 (when criminals, persons mentally defective or liable to become public charges and the Chinese were no longer allowed to enter) entry into the United States was almost unrestricted

THE NEW IMMIGRATION 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Until 1891, Atlantic coast states, not federal government, exercised whatever controls there were Medical inspection was perfunctory Only one immigrant in 50

was rejected INSPECTION ROOM, Ellis Island, New York, 1910-1920 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection THE NEW IMMIGRATION 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Beginning in 1880s, immigration shifted from northern and western to southern and eastern Europe Up to 1880 only 200,000 southern and eastern Europeans had immigrated but between 1880 and 1910 about 8.4 million did

NEW IMMIGRANTS FACE NEW NATIVISM 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. New immigrants were mostly peasants and were extremely clannish While some immigrants came to work only temporarily before returning to home country, many sought to save to bring over other family members Many also came as family

groups Some, like eastern European Jews, were eager to become Americans PEASANT, 1900-1920 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection NEW IMMIGRANTS FACE NEW NATIVISM Differences among immigrants 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Italians adjusted relatively smoothly to urban industrial

life because of their close family and kinship ties Polish immigrants, with different traditions, found it more difficult German American and Irish American Catholics clashed over such matters as the policies of the Catholic University in Washington Many older Americans viewed these differences and conflicts and concluded that new immigrants could not make good citizens and should be excluded NEW IMMIGRANTS FACE NEW NATIVISM Social Darwinists and people obsessed with racial purity also found new

immigration alarming 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Attributed social problems of new immigrants to supposed psychological characteristics of newcomers Workers worried about competition from people with low living standard and no bargaining power NEW IMMIGRANTS FACE NEW NATIVISM Nativism flared Disliked Catholics and other minority groups

rather than immigrants as such 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Protestant majority treated new immigrants as underlings, tried to keep them out of the best jobs, discouraged their efforts to climb the social ladder 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Established as an immigration center in 1892, Ellis Island was the gateway to the United States for more than 12 million people. In 1924 Congress enacted legislation that severely limited immigration and gave preference to northern and western Europeans.

Were there other processing centers such as this one in the United States? What types of questions were asked of new arrivals before they were admitted into the country? What kind of people were denied entry? 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Eye Examination at Ellis Island, ca. 1913

Were all immigrants welcomed to the United States during the early 20th century? Why did some Americans believe that immigration should be severely curtailed? TEEMING TENEMENTS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. As cities grew, sewer and

water facilities could not keep up Fire protection became increasingly inadequate Garbage piled up in streets Streets crumbled under increased traffic Housing was inadequate and encouraged disease and disintegration of family life FAMILY IN ATTIC WITH DRYING LAUNDRY, 1900-1910 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection

TEEMING TENEMENTS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Contest for best design for a new tenement was won by James E. Ware and his dumbbell apartment house which crowded 24 to 32 four-room apartments on a plot only 25 by 100 feet TEEMING TENEMENTS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. In 1890 more than 1.4

million people lived on Manhattan Island In some sections, density exceeded 900 persons per acre As late as 1900 about three fourths of the residents of New York Citys East Side lacked indoor toilets and had to use backyard outhouses YARD OF TENEMENT, New York 1900-1910 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection TEEMING TENEMENTS

Overcrowding impacted morals of tenement dwellers 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Number of prison inmates increased by 50% in the 1880s Homicide rate nearly tripled Youths formed gangs Slums also drove wellto-do residents into exclusive sections and to the suburbs

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Poor immigrant families often lived in tiny, windowless rooms in crowded tenement districts such as this one in New York's Lower East Side. Disease was common in such places. What does this picture tell you about the lifestyle of many immigrants? Why would people endure these conditions? 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Slum Children 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Tenement Slum Living 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. THE CITIES MODERNIZE Businesses wanted efficient and honest government in order to reduce their tax bills In many communities public-spirited groups formed societies to plant trees, clean up littered areas and develop recreational facilities Gradually basic facilities were improved Streets were paved

Lighting was added making law enforcement easier, stimulating nightlife, and permitting factories and shops to operate after sunset STREET CARS Growth of electric trolleys 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. By 1895 some 850 lines operated over 10,000 miles of track Mileage tripled in the following decade Ownership of street

railways became centralized until a few companies controlled trolleys of more than 100 eastern cities and towns BRIDGES 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Advances in bridge design, especially steelcable suspension bridge, aided flow of population Brooklyn Bridge completed in 1883 at a cost $15 million

Carried 33 million people a year SKYSCRAPERS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. High cost of urban real estate led architects to build up Chicago architects developed the iron skeleton which freed walls from being load bearing and allowed buildings to become

taller THE CITIES MODERNIZE 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pioneer of new skyscrapers was Louis Sullivan City Beautiful movement started by White City of 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair Broad vistas Open space Development of public parks such as Central Park designed by Frederick Law Olmstead LEISURE ACTIVITIES:

MORE FUN AND GAMES 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Sports moved from frivolous waste of valuable time to middle class realization that games like golf and tennis were healthy occupations for mind and body Bicycling became a fad To get from place to place As a form of recreation and exercise Streetcar companies built picnic grounds and amusement parks at their outer limits

LEISURE ACTIVITIES: MORE FUN AND GAMES Spectator sports 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Horse racing developed as upper-class sport but racetracks attracted large crowds of ordinary people who saw it as betting opportunity Professional boxing was a hobby of the rich but the audiences were overwhelmingly young working class males LEISURE ACTIVITIES: BASEBALL 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Baseball Organized teams, mostly upper-class amateurs, emerged in 1840s Became popular during Civil War After the war, professional teams developed 1876: eight teams formed the National League American League followed in 1901 First World Series in 1903 LEISURE ACTIVITIES:

MORE FUN AND GAMES James Naismith invented basketball in 1891 while a student at YMCA 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. While popular was not really a spectator sport originally since played indoors LEISURE ACTIVITIES: FOOTBALL 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Football evolved out of English rugby and

originated as a college sport First intercollegiate match was between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869 By 1880s college football was popular that women did not participate in FOOTBALL TEAM, 1895-1910 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection

CHRISTIANITYS CONSCIENCE AND THE SOCIAL GOSPEL 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Some ministers, believing cause of problems rested in environment, preached a Social Gospel that focused on improving living conditions rather than saving souls People must have enough to eat, decent homes, and opportunities to develop talents Advocated civil service reform, child labor legislation, regulation of big corporations and heavy taxes on incomes and inheritances

THE SETTLEMENT HOUSES 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Settlement houses were organized to grapple with slum problems Community centers located in poor districts and provided guidance and services Settlement workers were mostly idealistic, well-to-do young people who lived in the houses and were active in neighborhood

affairs Hull House (1889), Chicago, Jane Addams The young Jane Addams was one of the college-educated women who chose to remain unmarried and pursue a career and as urban housekeeper and social reformer, serving immigrant families in the Chicago neighborhood near her Hull House. What was Jane Addams's main contribution to urban reform? 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. What was the mission of

Hull House? Why did so many middleclass women participate in reform movements? CIVILIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. As century ended, majority of Americans remained optimistic and uncritical admirers of their civilization Blacks, immigrants and others who failed to share equitably in the good things of life, along with a growing number of reformers, found much to lament in increasingly industrialized society

More and more materialism Increasing divorce and taste for luxury Rise in heart disease and mental illness Lawlessness of modern plutocrat and disregard of rights of others 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. WEBSITES Coal Mining During the Gilded Age and Progressive Era

http://history.osu.edu/Projects/Gilded_Age/default.htm Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920 http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/detroit/dethome.html Inside an American Factory: The Westinghouse Works, 1904 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/papr/west/westhome.htm l Thorsten Veblens The Theory of the Leisure Class http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/VEBLEN/veb_toc.ht ml

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