Sleep - Napa Valley College

Sleep - Napa Valley College

Psychology 001 Introduction to Psychology Christopher Gade, PhD Office: 621 Heafey Office hours: F 3-6 and by apt. Email: [email protected] Class WF 7:00-8:30 Heafey 650 Sleep In the first half of todays class, were going to talk about one type of altered consciousness sleep. Well first discuss theories about why we sleep.

Biological theories Evolutionary theories Cognitive theories After that, well discuss the different stages of sleep. The Purpose of Sleep The Repair and Restoration Theory: The purpose of sleep is to enable the body to recover from the exertions of the day. But what needs to

recover??? Muscles Brain systems The Randy Gardner exception The Evolutionary Theory: Evolution equipped us with a regular pattern of sleeping and waking for the same reason to conserve fuel and to prevent us from walking into dangers. What would the purpose of functioning at night be? Little visual capabilities Scarce resources and opportunity to find food. Dangerous predators

A huge amount of energy is required to maintain alertness and to function well in the night environment. What about todays world? Lighting is available Resources are abundant Fewer/no predators Equal amounts of energy are required in both day and night in order to maintain alertness and function well in the night Information Consolidation Theory: Our need for sleep is a result of the brains need to consolidate the information obtained throughout

the day into memories. Whats the proof? High levels of brain activity during sleep Increased levels of learned responses Ferret maze experiment Is there any proof against this theory? Memories can obviously be established without sleep Brain activity measures taken during human sleep seem extremely random. What happens while we sleep?

In the mid 1950s researchers discovered that during sleep, people display an extremely unusual pattern of behavior several times throughout the night. REM (rapid eye movement) or paradoxical sleep. Question: 1950s??? From this REM discovery, researchers began observing and defining the different sleep cycles that we go thorough. Measures of Sleep EEG

(electroencephalogra ph) Video recordings Intermittent waking fMRI The Stages of Sleep Awake Sleep stages 1 2 3 REM

4 0 1 2 3 4 Hours of sleep 5

6 7 Stage 1 brain waves patterns that closely resemble waking patterns. Attentive to outside stimuli and can easily be woken. Will report still being awake when woken in this stage. Later replaced by REM sleep after the first sleep cycle of the night.

Stage 2 Brain waves begin emitting sleep spindles. These spindles are random bursts of high amplitude EEG waves. There are also K complexes found in this stage of sleep. People woken in this stage report having been asleep. Dreams can also occur in this stage, but they were (are?) considered less rare. This stage makes up the majority of our sleep after the first two sleep cycles that we go through in a night.

Stage 3 This stage is represented by very slow and erratic brain waves. Believed to have some form of recuperative effect on the body. Dreams??? Stage 4 The deepest level of sleep that we encounter. It is represented by long, slow waves on EEG measures.

Very difficult to wake people in this stage. The stage of sleep that a lot of little children are in while they sleep walk. Occurs only in the first (or first two) cycle(s) of sleep. Considered THE recuperative stage of sleep for our bodies. Stage 5 (REM) AKA paradoxical sleep The majority of our body is paralyzed during this stage. Our eyes are highly active. REM sleep and stage 2 sleep are the two most

common stages of sleep after we experience our first two sleep cycles. Neural activity resembles a waking state during REM sleep. Associated with memory consolidation and emotion regulation (new studies have contested this idea). Dreams were originally believed to come only from this stage. Waking experiments Added Notes:

These sleep cycles and theories of sleep do not depict an exact replication of everyones sleep patterns. Each individuals sleep patters vary from the population as a whole, and their sleep need vary as well (some of us need a lot, some of us need a little). Various sleep abnormalities have a strong impact on the sleep patterns of a number of individuals in the population at some point in time during their lives.

Read up on sleep abnormalities and about different causes for our becoming tired in the text. Now were going to discuss Dreams! What can we discuss about dreams? The meaning of dreams The purpose of dreaming (from a more modern perspective)

The content of dreams (read about this one in your text) Dreams are a window to our unconscious thoughts, motivations, and desires. Freud believed that dreams needed to be broken down into two distinct types of content. Manifest content the information in our dreams

that appear on the surface (e.g. the story, the people, and the places in our dreams) Latent content the hidden themes and symbols (which tell us about the unconscious thoughts, motivations, and desires) that can be abstracted from the Freud Freud (cont.) Freud also argued

that some manifest content in our dreams actually had no latent content in it. Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar. What is the significance of this statement? Cognitive Theory (Activation Synthesis Theory) The prominent theory in our day about what is going on during our dreams.

While we sleep, our brain is producing large numbers of random neural firings. Our primary cortex (frontal lobe) attempts to make sense of this information. We create a vivid and relevant story from this. Dreams appears meaningful because the majority of our neural links are from our prevalent thoughts and common experiences. Thus, were more likely to have dreams about

things we know. The Purpose of Dreaming What can our dreaming actually do? Allow us to generate insights into problems that we are faced with Restore/retrace/ establish neural connections Act out fantasies/obstacles in What insights can our dreams reveal to us?

Elias Howe Dreamt that he was about to be eaten by cannibals Was taken back by the spears that the cannibals held, which had a hole at the tip Used this design to invent the needle Dmitri Mendeleyev (1869) Elemental table was thought up through a dream What does this tell us? Dreams might actually be used as a tool to help us solve problems that we are faced with every day.

Question: How many of you have experienced a math problem, visual-spatial task, or major life question that was impossible to achieve the day it was presented to you, but it became easy when you attempted to overcome the obstacle the next day? But is this just the result of an illusionary correlation? Question: How many of you have experienced a math problem, visual-spatial task, or major life question that was impossible to achieve the day it was presented to you, and it was still impossible to overcome the next day?

Side note: It is important to note that the problems solved in these examples were problems that the figures had already been struggling with. These were not merely moments of random insight about unknown topics. What can that tell us? Maybe our brains are just working through the stuff that we already know a lot about during our sleep. Restore/Retrace/Establish Neural Connection Theory (same as Information Consolidation Theory)

During sleep, almost every part of our brain is activated at some point in time. Studies have shown that specific brain areas in animals that have been overly active during the day, display higher activity during dreaming. Ferret maze example revisited Research has also shown that response time at newly learned tasks, as well as processing speed, is greatly increased after just one days sleep.

Problems with the RRE (IC) Theory We dont have sophisticated enough tools, and we dont know enough about the brain to determine with certainty if the firing of neurons during sleep are random, or if they are truly restoring, retracing, and establishing new neural connections. Studies have shown that our lack of sleep doesnt have a direct impact on REM sleep. In fact, the percentage of REM sleep we get only increases when we get an abundant amount of sleep. One final possibility...

Sleep might just have developed because theres nothing to do at night. Dreams might actually just be something that developed through evolution as a result of our need to move our eyes at some point in time during the night. Computer example (from the text) And then Next lecture

were going to address other forms of consciousness. So until then, keep studying

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • what is a tesla coil A two stage

    what is a tesla coil A two stage

    Title: PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: Jonathan Dowling Document presentation format: Custom Other titles: Times New Roman MS Pゴシック Arial Bitstream Vera Serif StarSymbol Office Theme what is a tesla coil PowerPoint Presentation basic schematic - classic spark gap coil...
  • Review questions

    Review questions

    Review questions * Part of the cell that prevents most molecules from diffusing into and out of the cell. Cell wall molecule that prevents cells from exploding when in hypotonic environments.
  • The effect of carboxylic acid additives on the structure and ...

    The effect of carboxylic acid additives on the structure and ...

    Hard-ion carboxylates readily form complexes with Al3+ to form insoluble metal soaps that are incorporated onto the surface of the anodic coating. Ideally, this thin film promotes protection of the metal, and even more so when coupled with a finishing...
  • Assessing Reading Fluency as a Specific Learning Disability

    Assessing Reading Fluency as a Specific Learning Disability

    Assessing Reading Fluency as a Specific Learning Disability Presented by: ... (QRI) DIBELS Choosing Assessments of Reading Fluency A caution about "Fluency" cluster scores Be sure that the cluster or composite score used from a standardized assessment measures the one...
  • Two Racial Revolutionaries: David Walker and George Fitzhugh

    Two Racial Revolutionaries: David Walker and George Fitzhugh

    Two Racial Revolutionaries: David Walker and George Fitzhugh Paradoxes: Racist Abolitionism "Antebellum America thus faced three interrelated paradoxes regarding slavery. First, although many Americans believed slavery was a heinous crime, they simultaneously feared that freeing the slaves would be even...
  • Procedural Quality Best Practices for the Pediatric Cath

    Procedural Quality Best Practices for the Pediatric Cath

    The Pediatric Cath Lab Procedural Quality Program is summarized in this module. The program describes 10 steps to assess procedural quality and achieve quality improvement to attain procedural outcomes that are at par with accepted standards of care.
  • Computing Power (in Apollo Control Computer Units)

    Computing Power (in Apollo Control Computer Units)

    BUGTRAQ:20000802 Local root compromise in PGX Config Sun Sparc Solaris. CVE-2000-0698. Minicom 1.82.1 and earlier on some Linux systems allows local users to create arbitrary files owned by the uucp user via a symlink attack.
  • ATMS 316- Mesoscale Meteorology  Packet#10  Interesting things happen

    ATMS 316- Mesoscale Meteorology Packet#10 Interesting things happen

    On the mesoscale, Terms II-V easily can be an order of magnitude larger than their synoptic-scale magnitudes. Other large-scale CAPE and CIN modifications. Mean large-scale ascent . always. reduces CIN. Dramatic increases in low-level moisture (Fig. 7.3)