Skills Improvement System - Rating Scales (SSIS-RS): A Test ...
Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales (SSIS-RS): A Test Review EDPS 612.02 Andrea Nardi Stephanie Poole Sue Friesen (Gresham & Elliott, 2008) Outline Test Overview Test Organization Administration, scoring, & interpretation Psychometric Properties: Analysis & Evaluation Standardization Sample and Norms Reliability
Validity Strengths and Limitations Summary Test Overview : Use/Purpose Multi-rater (teacher, parent, student) Screening and assessment Strengths Acquisition and performance deficits Intervention Identify candidates for intervention services Track progress Pre-and post-treatment comparison Provide longitudinal data for research Test Organization Social Skills Learned
Learned behaviours behaviours that that promote promote positive positive interactions interactions and and discourage discourage negative negative interactions interactions Specific Specific to to social social situations situations Rated
Rated by by Student, Student, Parent, Parent, & & Teacher Teacher Problem Behaviors Interfere Interfere with with the the acquisition acquisition or or performance performance of of socially
socially skilled skilled behaviours behaviours Academic Competenc e Competence Competence in: in: Reading Reading Math Math Motivation Motivation Parental Parental support support General General cognitive
cognitive functioning functioning Rated Rated by by Student*, Student*, Parent Parent & & Teacher Teacher *Students 8-12 dont rate importance of problem behaviours Rated Rated by by Teacher Teacher
Test Organization Socia l Skills Communication Cooperation Assertion Responsibility Empathy Engagement Self-Control
Test Organization Problem Behaviour s Externalizing Bullying Hyperactivity/Inattention Internalizing Autism Spectrum Administration Straightforward administration Four forms:
Student 8-12 years Student 13-18 years Parent (3-18 years) Teacher (3-18 years) Time: 15-20 mins per form Reading ability Gr. 2 for student forms, Gr. 5 for parent *Dont need to use all forms, but authors strongly encourage as childs behaviour is influenced by setting. Administration This is from the Student 13-18 form From the Student 8-12 form Scoring Computer scoring: Links to relevant
instructional units in SSIS Intervention Guide Standard, Multirater, and Progress Reports Includes response pattern index and response consistency index Scores are Standard Scores (mean 100, SD=15) or Percentile Ranks Hand scoring: Instructions in manual Must deal with: adjustment values for missing items F index for negative style Make summary table of raw scores choose norm group confidence interval select appropriate behaviour
level for each scale. Interpretation Requires extra training Can obtain three kinds of reports to interpret (Standard, Multirater, or Progress) Begin with score interpretation for each scale and subscale. Look for overall pattern of strengths and weaknesses Uses Model of Social Behavioural Strengths and Weaknesses Interpretation: Model of Social Behavioral Strengths and Weaknesses Model Descriptor Best Case -------------------------------- Needs Work
Social Skills Strengths Social Skills Performance Deficits Social Skills Acquisition Deficits Conditions Actions & Interventions Social Skills above average Reinforce to maintain High frequency and belief of Use student as model behaviours.
Social Skills below average Lower frequency of important or critical behaviours in subscale Use behaviour techniques to increase practice and performance of desired social skills Social Skills below average Very low or no frequency of some important behaviours in subscale. Direct instruction of desired social behaviour using SSIS
Intervention Guide or other interventions. Problem Behaviors above average Problem behaviours are high frequency even if important. Collect further information about problem behaviours and use behaviour techniques to reduce. Competing Problem Behaviors SSRS to SSIS Revision of SSRS (feedback from 2 focus groups)
Update norms and improve measures ages 3-5 Added four new subscales: Social Skills (2 new subscales) Problem Behavior (2 new subscales) Improve alignment of content across all raters forms Improve psychometric properties Add validity scales Add Spanish version Connect assessment results to interventions Psychometric Properties Standardization September 2006- October 2007 Data collected from nationwide sample totaling 4700 children, aged 3-18 assessed at 115 sites across 36 states Two versions of the teacher form were standardized (preschool and elementary/secondary ) One parent form Two student forms (elementary and secondary) (Spanish forms (parent and student) were also used in standardization)
Psychometric Properties Norm Sample Based on the Current Population Survey (March 2006, U.S. Census Bureau) Applied to the 3 norm groups preschool (age 3-5) two school-age groups (age 5-12, and 13-18) Each age group sample was designed to Have equal numbers of male and female Match the U.S. population with regard to geographic region, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity Inclusion of special populations Analysis Standardization Sample and Demographics Good sample size (4700 students) Large number of sites (115 sites in 36 States) Three norm groups set up by ages according to 2006 data Stratification of sample on various factors
Census Not enough rationale for why some states left out and how it could affect the outcome. 5-year olds were used in both preschool and elementary forms Not enough information about special education program placement Analysis Execution of Norming Procedures Site coordinators had a good level of training and qualifications. Attempt to control teacher rating skewness Recruitment of participants limits generalization of norms to those unlikely to have been recruited. Compensation issues Issue of unreturned forms Parents who filled out forms overwhelmingly mothers Missing data and unusual scores did they keep or not? Confusing to sort out numbers of children who were rated by
all three forms, two forms, or just one form. Analysis Norm Group and Score Construction Overall good description of standard score construction from mean raw scores for each subscale. Especially good description of why they couldnt normalize the distribution of Problem Behaviours and Social Skills. Percentile ranks created to allow for correct placement of scores even considering sampling fluctuations. Overall were able to separate norms for boys and girls, and had good representation in age bands except: Preschool parents slightly over-represented Developmental Delay and Speech/Language Impairment 13-18 yr. band ADHD slightly over-represented by teachers Specific Learning Disabilities underrepresented Analysis Size of Special Populations Groups Good ADHD
(30-60 cases) Gifted/Talented (30-60 cases) Specific Language Disability (20-40 cases) Mediocre Autism Spectrum Disorder (only 9 student forms, but 40+ for T & P) Poor Developmental Delay (no student forms, <20 for T & P) Emotional / Behavioural Disturbance
(9 student, <20 for P & S) Intellectual Disability (<20 for all forms) (Crosby, 2011; Lee-Farmer & Meikamp, 2010) Psychometric Properties Reliabilty Test-Retest Internal consistenc y Inter-rater Reliability Internal Consistency Reliability Median Scale Reliabilities (high) Social skills: mid- to upper .90s for all age groups (3-5, 5-12, 1318) Problem Behaviours: mid- to upper .90s for all age groups Academic competence: upper .90s for (5-12, 13-18)
Median Subscale Reliabilities (satisfactory) Teacher form: high .80s Parent form: mid .80s Student form: near .80 Internal Consistency Reliability Median Scale Reliabilities are considered high and indicate that the scale scores are relatively free from the influence of random error Median Subscale Reliabilities are satisfactory, sufficient for analyzing strengths as weaknesses and aiding development of intervention plans Behaviours comprising each subscale generally reflects a common dominant trait Are lower reliability coefficients (e.g., student subscales) adequate for purposes other than intervention planning Test-Retest Reliability Teacher r Adj rb
Parent r Adj rb Student r Adj rb Social Skills .84 .82 .86 .84 .80 .81
Problem Behaviour Academic Competence Median Scale Correlation Median Subscale Correlation .81 .83 .87 .87 .74 .77
.93 .92 .84 .83 .87 .86 .77 .79 .82 .81 .83
.80 .68 .71 Test-Retest Reliability Confirmed with average scores remaining stable following second administrations of the instrument with teachers, parents, and student completers Each sample was representative Includes adjusted correlation coefficient Mean interval (teacher-43 days, parent-62 days, student 66 days) Student Form: subscale reliability coefficients range from .59 to .81. May suggest that students interpret the behavioural statements less consistently across occasions Inter-Rater Reliability Teacher r
Adj rb Parent r Adj rb Social Skills .70 .68 .62 .62 Problem Behaviour Academic Competence Median Scale
.56 .56 .58 .58 .59 Inter-Rater Reliability Most subscale coefficients for both forms were in the upper .50s to .60s (moderate-good reliability) Each sample included students from each of the demographic categories of sex, race/ethnicity, parents education, region of country Low frequency behaviours might not be well represented and skew distribution and result in smaller correlations Relationships between raters and students varied widely Generally, several weeks elapsed between ratings (mean interval; teacher-63 days, parent-58 days). How might this have impacted ratings? What was the reason for it?
Content Validity Established using a developmental team Content guidelines and key terms/items used to develop items for the Social Skills scale DSM-IV-TR and individual expertise used to develop Problem Behaviors subscales Used only items with a moderate to strong relationship with respective subscales AnalysisContent Validity Scales based on a broad survey of empirical literature Previous research in the area of social behaviour and its relationship to student achievement support the division of classroom behaviours into: social skills, problem behaviours and academic competence Little information about who made up the development team and their qualifications The Behaviour Problem scale describes only a narrow range of problem behaviours Construct Validity: Internal
Structure SSIS-RS designed to assess social behaviours that affect student-teacher and parent-child relationships, peer acceptance and academic performance Social Skills subscale correlationspositive and moderate to high Problem Behavior subscale correlationspositive and high Correlations between Social Skills and Problem Behaviors scales were moderate and negative (-.42 and -.65) Teacher Forms: Academic Competence was correlated positively and moderately with the Social Skills scales (.50 to .53) and moderately, negatively between Academic Competence and Problem Behaviors scale scores (-.41 to -.44) AnalysisConstruct Validity Pattern of inter-correlations among scales and subscales consistent with test authors predictions Individual with a high score on the Problem Behaviours scale should obtain a low score on Social Skills scale Social Skills scale and Academic Competence scale should have a positive and moderate correlation Academic Competence scale and Problem Behaviours scale should correlate moderately and negatively
Scale items reflect an adult perspective Less representative of peer interactions Validity Studies The SSIS-RS was also compared to several other measures: Behavior Assessment System for Children2nd Ed. Teacher Form: Social Scales highly correlated (.76-.78) Problem Behaviour scale and BASC-2 Behavioral Symptoms Index highly correlated (.71-.95) Parent Form: Correlations are moderate to high on the Social Skills scale (.57-.80) and high for Problem Behaviours (.80s) Student Form: None of the scales corresponded closely Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition Teacher Form: Social Skills correlated moderately with the Socialization domain (.64) and the Daily Living Skills (.68) Vineland Communication Domain correlated moderately with the Academic Competence scale
(.75) Parent Form: Social Skills scale showed a low to moderate correlation with the Socialization Domains (.48) AnalysisValidity Studies In general, correlations were as expected across the forms with scales measuring similar behaviours correlating more highly than scales measuring dissimilar behaviours The student forms on the BASC-2 show very little correlation despite the BASC-2 including 4 scales of prosocial behaviour This trend is particularly noticeable in the younger age groups Strengths and Limitations Strengths Limitations Administration and scoring-- straightforward and quick Low readability level
Parallel Teacher, Parent and Student forms Option for re-administering the scales every 4 weeks Scales within a multi-tiered model Special Population studies have small sample sizes Relatively small sample for the Spanish version of the SSIS-RS Adult perspective reflected in scale items Problem Behaviour scale limited to behavioral concerns related to social interactions Conclusion The SSIS-RS is a quick and straightforward rating scale that is used to gather information about a childs social skills and
problem behavior. The design renders it easy to administer and score. However, caution must be used when interpreting the Special Population studies due to small sample size. The SSIS-RS is particularly appealing because of the use of a multi-tiered system that links to specific interventions for the child. References Crosby, J. W. (2011). Test Review: F. M. Gresham & S. N. Elliott Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson, 2008. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(3), 292-296. doi:10.1177/0734282910385806 Doll, B., & Jones, K. (2010). [Review of the Social Skills Improvement Rating Scales.] In The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/ Gresham, F. M. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social skills improvement system: Rating scales manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc. Lee-Farmer, J., & Meikamp, J. (2010). [Social Skills Improvement Rating Scales]. In The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/
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