Simulating Retinal Images Following Refractive Surgery

Simulating Retinal Images Following Refractive Surgery

Whirlwind History of Geometrical Optics Jim Schwiegerling PhD College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Euclid

Raphaels School of Athens Euclid ~300BC Greek mathematician His book Elements used to teach geometry for over 2000 years. Also wrote about optics of the eye, but thought rays exit

the eye and we see whatever these rays fall on. Archimedes ~250BC Attributed with a heat ray which would focus sunlight onto enemy ships and set them on fire.

Mythbusters busted this theory in 2006. Alhazen ~1000AD Born in modern day Iraq and called the father of modern optics. His Book of Optics was translated into Latin and later influenced European scholars.

Described magnification in lenses, as well as spherical and parabolic mirrors. Rays from objects enter the eye. Alhazen - Camera Obscura Visby Lenses ~11-12th Century

Found in modern Sweden. Possibly used as magnifiers or to start fires. Roger Bacon - 1262AD English Philosopher and Franciscan Friar. Studied math, astronomy, optics, alchemy. Studied the refraction of light by lenses.

Spectacle Lenses Roger Bacon definitely wrote about burning lenses. He is sometimes attributed with inventing spectacles, but evidence is scarce. Marco Polo may have seen

spectacles in China in 1270. Italians may have developed spectacles in late 1200s. Fresco by Tommaso da Modena, 1352 Zacharias Janssen ~1590AD Dutch Spectacle maker

First compound microscope attributed to him in 1590. First telescope sometimes attributed to him. Caught counterfeiting coins in 1618. Hans Lipperhay ~1608AD

Dutch Spectacle maker Next door neighbor of Zacharias Janssen. First telescope is attributed to him in 1608. Telescope has positive and negative lens and upright image.

Galileo 1609AD Constructs in 1609 one of Lipperhays telescopes. Father of observational astromnomy. Observed phases of Venus, sunspots and moons of Jupiter.

Got in trouble for heliocentric views. Johannes Kepler 1611AD German astronomer Describes telescopes and microscopes in his book Dioptrics. Proposes telescope with two

positive lenses and upside down image. Willebrord Snellius 1621 Developed Snells Law of refraction n1sinq1 = n2sinq2, although Ibn Sahl describes this effect in 984 and by Harriot in 1602 who corresponded with Kepler about it.

Pierre de Fermat 1657 Fermats principle says that rays follow paths that take the least amount of time. Modern description is the ray path is stationary. Can get Snells law and the law of reflection directly from this. Isaac Newton

1666 showed white light is composed of all the colors of the spectrum. 1668 suggested all reflective telescope to avoid chromatic aberration. Didnt think lenses could be made to correct chromatic aberration. Chester Moore Hall ~1729 Developed achromatic doublet, or two lenses that correct

chromatic aberration when used together. Demonstrated telescope with achromatic lenses that corrected chromatic aberration. John & Peter Dolland 1758 Patented Achromatic lenses well after Halls invention.

Hall used an optician George Bass to fabricate lenses. Bass told Dolland about the lenses and Dolland was able to reproduce the effect. John (Father) didnt enforce the patent, but Peter (son) did after fathers death. Thomas Young British physician who had significant impact in medicine,

vision, mechanics, wave theory of light and even Egyptology. 1801 Proved light acts like a wave by demonstrating interference. 1814 Realized a Cartouche represented a name in Hieroglyphics. Augustin-Jean Fresnel

~1818 Developed the concept for a Fresnel lens for lighthouses which have large aperture and short focal length. Major impact in areas of wave optics including polarization and diffraction theory.

Nicphore Nipce ~1826 Developed heliography, earliest known photographic process for recording images in a camera obscura. Required several days to expose. Louis Daguerre ~1839 First practical and commercial demonstration of photography.

Worked with Niepce until Niepce died in 1933. Required several minutes to expose. Carl Friedrich Gauss 1840 German mathematician Published Dioptrische Untersuchungen which describes

the paraxial or Gaussian theory of optics. Imaging properties of lenses can be determined by their cardinal points. Death in 1855 Carl Zeiss German Instrument Maker

Developed high quality microscopes and later camera lenses. Philipp Ludwig von Seidel 1856 German mathematician Developed a description of monochromatic aberrations which are a deviation of light rays from the paraxial properties described by Gauss.

Ernst Abbe 1866 Research director at Zeiss Optical Works. 1868 Developed apochromatic lenses which further reduce chromatic aberration beyond what an achromat is capable of.

1871 Describes a refractometer for measure index of refraction at various wavelengths. Abbe sine condition describes requirements to reduce aberrations. Otto Schott 1884 In conjunction with Carl Zeiss and

Ernst Abbe founded what is now Schott glass. Developed new and novel forms of glass. George Eastman ~1888 Licensed patents from Peter and David Houston covering various aspects of using rolls of film in a camera.

Started Eastman Kodak company which popularized photography. Original box camera came pre-loaded with film and the customer returned camera for Kodak to make prints and reload. Thomas Edison 1891 Developed the Kinetoscope which enable one person

at a time to view motion pictures. Louis Lumiere 1895 First portable motion picture camera, film processing and projection system. Simon Lake 1902 Developed collapsible submarine periscope.

Earlier submarines had fixed periscopes. Basic concept goes back to at least 1430s. George Hale 1908 Developed 60 telescope on Mount Wilson (California). First light 1908. Biggest telescope in the world at the time.

Oskar Barnack ~1912 Worked for Leica Developed portable camera with rolls of film based on Kodaks 35 mm wide film. 24 x 36 mm images 35 mm format Roll of film as long as he could stretch his arms.

Enlarger & Dark room required. Edwin Land 1947 Established what would become Polaroid corporation in 1932. Fabricated sheet polarizers for a variety of applications. Developed the Land Camera and associated film in 1947 which introduced instant photography giving fully

developed print in 60 seconds. Boyle & Smith 1969 Demonstrated a charged-couple device where charge could be shifted along the surface of a semiconductor to storage capacitors. Fairchild semiconductor developed the technology into commercial devices.

Kodak developed a digital camera in 1975 based on the Fairchild sensor. (0.01 Mpix). Hubble Telescope First launched in 1990. Primary mirror was made incorrectly and had spherical aberration.

Repair mission performed in 1993. Corrected system now provides some of the most iconic astrophotographs ever captured.

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