Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS PDCP GRADE 10 WHAT IS AN STI?? An STI is a sexually transmitted infection that is

contracted through unprotected sex. Unprotected includes oral sex as well as intercourse. NEED TO REALIZE THAT You can contract some STIs more than once and you can have more than one STI at a time. STIs

can become very dangerous if ignored. HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED? Germs cause STIs. These include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Germs require certain things in order to grow and multiply. Things that include warmth, darkness, moisture, mucous lining, and a good blood supply.

TYPES OF STIS Parasitic STI Pubic Lice (Crabs) Bacterial STIs Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Viral STIs Herpes

AIDS/HIV HPV (genital warts) PUBIC LICE (CRABS) WHAT ARE PUBIC LICE? Tiny crab-like insects that nest in pubic hair. They bury their heads into the skin and live off human blood, laying

their egg sacks (nits) near the base of the pubic hairs. A substance they secrete into the skin can cause intense itching, and the bites of adult lice turn small patches of skin to a bluish-grey colour.

Unlike head lice, pubic lice have small, wide bodies and arms that resemble crabs. These lice can also be found in chest, armpit and facial hair, eyebrows and eyelashes. HOW DO CRABS/LICE SPREAD? Pubic lice can be spread during intimate contact. They do this by crawling from one person to another, since they have no wings. Pubic lice also can live for one to two days in bedding, towels and clothing belonging to an infected individual,

and these items can be a source of transmission. It is most common among sexually active people and in situations where individuals are in close contact. SYMPTOMS Skin irritation and inflammation accompanied

by itchiness and redness. Small blue spots on the skin where lice have bitten. Louse feces: fine black particles, in the infected persons undergarments. TREATMENT Non-prescription shampoo that can be purchased at a pharmacy, clinic or doctors office. Usually one wash is

all it takes. A fine-toothed comb or the fingernails can be used to scrape the eggs off the hairs. Clothes, bedding, and other possible contaminated items should be washed in hot water or dry cleaned, or bagged for a week. Items that cannot be washed or bagged should be vacuumed. Shaving may not necessarily get rid of the problem.

**It will not go away on its own. VIRAL STIS CHLAMYDIA FIGURE 1 - CHLAMYDIA, NB

INCIDENCE RATE BY GENDER AND YEAR, 2000-2009 1200 1000 800 N 600 400 200 0

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

319 311 367 343 328

434 371 347 395 483

Female 911 887 940 822 832

1060 955 891 993 1086

Male Yearreported CHLAMYDIA Greatest number affected with Chlamydia are people 1529 years old. Chlamydia rates rose 74% between 1997

and 2004. Sometimes the symptoms are so mild that a person may not notice them which leads to more infections. Symptoms exposure.

may occur from 2 6 weeks after initial CHLAMYDIA: WHAT TO LOOK FOR Females: -a new or different discharge from the vagina -a burning feeling when urinating -pain in the lower abdomen - fever and chills -pain during sex

-vaginal bleeding between periods -vaginal bleeding after intercourse CHLAMYDIA: WHAT TO LOOK FOR Males: - a watery or milky drip from the penis -an itchy feeling inside the penis -a burning feeling when urinating -pain or swelling in the testicles

- Infection of the anus SWOLLEN/TENDER TESTICLES TESTING You will need to go to your doctors office and ask for testing to be done for Chlamydia.

Urine Also, test conducted at your doctors office. a swab will be done on your throat, anus, penis or vagina. TREATMENT

Chlamydia can be cured if treated with an antibiotic taken by mouth. Unfortunately, the disease is often missed because it frequently presents no symptoms.

Effects if untreated: Women: Sterility due to pelvic inflammatory disease. Passing the infection on to their child during childbirth. Men: Infection of the urethra causing low sperm count and/or sterility.

GONORRHEA (THE CLAP) GONORRHEA Second most common STI in Canada, rates have doubled between 1997-2004.

2/3 Can of reported cases in Canada are men. affect the cervix, urethra, rectum, throat, and occasionally the eyes. GONORRHEA Symptoms,

if any, include burning sensation during urination, and thick yellow discharge for both men/women. Rectal/vaginal It bleeding and pain are also symptoms.

may take 2-21 days after sex to notice symptoms URETHRAL DISCHARGE FROM GONORRHEA VAGINAL DISCHARGE FROM GONORRHEA EFFECTS/TREATMENT

Individuals with gonorrhea are at an increased risk for contracting HIV. EFFECTS Men & Women: Infertility & Infection in the bloodstream, joint & skin problems. TREATMENT Multiple oral anti-biotics are available as there are

several strains of gonorrhea requiring various treatments. SYPHILIS SYPHILIS An infection sometimes called the great imitator because symptoms are similar to some common

medical conditions. Infectious in the first year after contraction. This disease was rare in Canada, but is now becoming more common, with a definite increase in Atlantic

Canada.(rose 904% between 1997-2004) TESTING AND TREATMENT A blood test or a swab of the infected area is used to determine if you are infected.

Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics but you are never immune. 3 STAGES OF SYPHILIS 1st Stage SIGNS & SYMPTOMS 3 days 90 days after contracting A chancre (sore or ulcer) will appear where the infection entered the body. A chancre is firm, round and small. It is painless and my go unnoticed.

A chancre can heal without treatment, but the disease will still progress to stage 2. STAGE 1 - SYPHILIS CHANCRE ON A VAGINA CAN BE INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL 3 STAGES OF SYPHILIS Stage 2 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Develop 2 6 months after exposure. The chancre may still be present or may be healed. A rash may appear as rough, with reddish brown spots. Other symptoms: fever, sore throat, patchy hair loss, weight loss, muscle or joint aches. 2ND STAGE - SYPHILIS PIDMIOLOGIE DE LA SYPHILIS AU NB

ASPECTS CLINIQUES ET TRANSMISSIBILIT (SUITE) CHEST TONGUE HAND BACK

FOOT 3 STAGES OF SYPHILIS 3rd Stage 2nd stage symptoms subside (go away). Disease can now damage organs like the heart, liver, brain, nerves, eyes, blood vessels, bones, and joints.

Over time, it can cause paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, dementia, and even death. VIRAL STIS HERPES

BEFORE WE DISCUSS HERPES Two types of Herpes: HSV1 & HSV2 HSV1 Commonly referred to as cold sores. Contagious, but is not contracted through sexual activity. HSV2 Genital Herpes Contagious, and is contracted through sexual activity. Can occur on the lips, mouth, genital or anal areas. A person can be infected with both HSV1 & HSV2 at the same time.

HERPES Herpes is a virus. Many people who've been infected with HSV may never know they have the disease.

For some people symptoms are very mild and go unnoticed. For some people symptoms are severe and painful. HERPES SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Pain or itching around your genital area, buttocks or inner thighs 2 - 20 days after exposure Several days later-small red bumps appear They blister and rupture, becoming ulcers that ooze or bleed. 3-4 days later they form scabs that later heal THIS DOES NOT MEAN THE VIRUS IS GONE!!

HOW DO GENITAL HERPES SPREAD? Direct Can skin to skin contact spread to other parts of the body, including the eyes and from the mouth to

the genitals during oral sex when one partner has cold sores. TREATMENT There is no cure! There

are antiviral medications (pills and ointment) available by prescription that will help reduce the number, duration and severity of the ulcers. Medications can help with suppressing outbreaks and symptoms.

HEPATITIS B A virus that affects the liver. In up to 50% of people, there are no outward signs of infection.

Symptoms can include: Tiredness, nausea, vomiting, a rash and joint pain. These symptoms are similar to the flu. 90% of people are able to fight off the infection.

Antiviral agents are the best known treatment, but there is no instant cure. Hep-B can be spread though sex, childbirth, needles and other personal items like razors

and toothbrushes. HPV HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS WHAT IS HPV? Human Papillomavirus

Transmitted Affects through skin to skin contact. cells inside and outside the body. These

include surfaces of the skin, lining of the mouth, tongue, throat, tonsils, vagina, penis, cervix, and anus. Most common type of HPV is genital warts although there are 80 other different types. HPV VACCINE An

HPV Vaccine is available for girls to prevent the contraction of HPV which causes cervical cancer. The vaccine fights against those strains of HPV which cause cancer, but does not protect against all forms. If you have received the vaccine, you must still practice safe sex to prevent contracting an STI.

HPV (GENITAL WARTS) FEMALE MALE GENITAL WARTS VERY contagious

66% of people who come in contact with genital warts will become infected. Symptoms include itching and burning. The cauliflower-like growths are unsightly and

embarrassing and associated with a high incidence of depression, sexual dysfunction and disruptions to long-term relationships. TREATMENT/ COMPLICATIONS Antibiotics and having warts frozen or burned for removal.

Genital warts can re-occur common even with treatment. Definite potential for cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and other cancers if left untreated.

HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV/AIDS HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS

> Serious condition that compromises a persons immune system. People can have the virus and be completely healthy. Only

way to diagnose is through blood test. HOW IS HIV TRANSMITTED? Unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex.

Shared needles or other drug equipment Household items such as toothbrushes and razors that have touched infected blood. It CAN NOT be transmitted by insects, saliva, sweat,

tears, urine or feces unless blood is present. AIDS AIDS is a collection of symptoms and affects that occur together once a persons immune system had been compromised by HIV.

Since 1981 over 20 million people have died from AIDS. Right now over 35 million people are infected with HIV. THE BOTTOM LINE Know the risks

Know your partner Do not engage in unprotected sex Realize that having sex just because someone wants you to or because you feel pressured has huge consequences. And reallywho wants to have to worry about having a sexually transmitted infection? BEST WEBSITE.

http://www.sexualityandu.c a/

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