Chapter 4 Atomic Theory and Structure OBJECTIVES: Explain Daltons atomic theory. Identify the parts of an atom, their location, charge, and relative mass. Determine the numbers of subatomic particles in an atom.
Democrituss Atomic Philosophy Democritus created the idea that all matter is made up of various imperishable, indivisible units, which he called atoma. This idea was soon
rejected and forgotten. Daltons Atomic Theory 1)All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. John Dalton (1766 1844) 2) Atoms of the same
element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. 3) Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds 4) In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged, but never changed into atoms of another element. What are the main
components of the atom? Atoms have two main regions 1. ________________ 2. ________________ One
change to Daltons atomic theory is that atoms are divisible into subatomic particles: Electrons Protons Neutrons The Subatomic Particles Location Proton
Neutrons Electrons Charge Relative mass in amu Function Atom Math
Protons: atomic number Electrons: protons charge (same as protons if atom is neutral) Neutrons: mass number atomic number protons: ________ electrons: ________ neutrons: ________
Atom Math Atomic number: number of protons (also electrons IF Atomic mass: atom is neutral) Average value of all
isotopes called mass number when rounded to nearest whole number Mass Number equals Atomic Number Atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element. Element Carbon
Phosphorus Gold Atomic Number Number of Protons Number Number of
of Electrons Neutrons Ions When an atom loses or gains electrons it is called an ion Losespositive ion Gainsnegative ion Ions-counting electrons # electrons
O -2 Al +3 +2 Be -1 Br
+1 K gain/lost Isotopes Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. Thus, different mass numbers. Naming Isotopes We
can also put the mass number after the name of the element: carbon-12 carbon-14 uranium-235 uranium-238 Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different masses, due to varying numbers of neutrons. Isotope
2 Nucleus Isotopes Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Isotopes-counting
neutrons Mass # # Neutrons Oxygen-18 Aluminum-25 10 Be
79 Br Potassium-41 Relative Atomic Mass Atoms are very small particles. It is very difficult to do calculations with the mass of an atom measured in grams.
Exmp. The mass of an atom of oxygen is 0.00000000000000000000002657 g. Instead, scientists use a relative unit of mass based on the mass of the nuclide Carbon-12 called the atomic mass unit. Exmp. The mass of an oxygen atom is amu. 16
How are atomic number, atomic mass, and charge calculated? Atomic number = ______________ Mass Number= Protons + ______________ Charge = Protons - _________________ Calculating Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Protons = _________________ Neutrons = Mass Number - ________ Electrons = Protons - __________ Complete Symbols Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic
number. Mass Superscript number Subscript Atomic number X
1. Review Subatomic Particle Counting How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in Chromium? 2.
P = atomic number = 24 N = mass # - protons = 52 - 24 = 28 e = protons charge = 24 0 = 24 How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in the element with an atomic number of 57? P = atomic number = 57 N = mass # - protons = 139 - 57 = 82
Chapter 4 Part 2Isotopes Atomic Mass The average atomic mass: is based on the abundance (percentage) of each variety of that element in nature. To calculate the average atomic mass: Multiply
the atomic mass of each isotope by its abundance percentage (expressed as a decimal), then add the results. Atomic Masses Atomic mass is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of that element. Isotope Mass #
% in nature Carbon-12 98.89% Carbon-13 1.11% Carbon-14
<0.01% negligible Carbon = 12.011 Average Atomic Mass Rubidium has two common isotopes, Rb-85 and Rb-87. If the abundance of Rb-85 is 72.2% and the abundance of Rb-87 is 27.8%, what is the average atomic mass of rubidium?
On Your Own Titanium has five common isotopes: 46Ti (8.0%), 47Ti (7.8%), 48 Ti (73.4%), 49Ti (5.5%), 50 Ti (5.3%). What is the average atomic mass of titanium? Poll everywhere response Argon has three naturally occurring isotopes: argon-36,
argon-38, and argon-40. Based on argons reported atomic mass, which isotope do you think is the most abundant in nature? Calculate the weighted average atomic mass of the following mix of isotopes: Isotope Total Number
Total Mass A 15 45 B 5
10 Percent Mass of Abundanc e one Atom (in decimal form) Beanium: Atomic and Isotopic Mass Purpose:
To illustrate the relationship between isotopic mass, isotopic abundance, and atomic mass. Data Table: Weight ed Total # averag Percen Total of
Mass of e t mass Isotopi atoms one abunda c mass atomic of in atom mass nce
sample sample for beaniu m (in decimal form) Black beaniu m White beaniu m
Spotte d Related Questions: Show all work. 1. Chlorine: a. Chlorine exists in nature as chlorine-35 (% abundance = 75%) and chlorine-37 ( % abundance = 25%). Calculate the atomic mass of chlorine. b. What is the essential difference in the structure between the chlorine atoms found in question Number 1a? 2. Oxygen: Oxygen gas consists of isotopes with atomic masses of 16.00, 17.00, and 18.00 amu. Their abundances are 99.76%, 0.04%,
and 0.20% respectively. What is the atomic mass of oxygen? 3. Nitrogen: nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, with masses of amu and amu respectively. If the atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.00674 amu, what is the abundance of each isotope? Data Table: Weight ed Total # averag Percen
Total of Mass of e t mass Isotopi atoms one abunda c mass atomic of in atom
mass nce sample sample for beaniu m (in decimal form) Black beaniu m White
beaniu m Spotte d Lab Report Related Questions 1. Chlorine: Chlorine exists in nature as chlorine-35 (% abundance = 75%) and chlorine-37 (% abundance = 25%). Calculate the atomic mass of chlorine. 2. Oxygen: Oxygen gas consists of isotopes with atomic masses of 16.00, 17.00, and 18.00 amu. Their abundances are 99.76%, 0.04%, and 0.20% respectively. What is the atomic mass of oxygen?
3. Nitrogen: nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, with masses of 14.0031 amu and 15.001 amu respectively. If the atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.00674 amu, what is the abundance of each isotope? Whats on the quiz? Vocabulary Dalton Counting Ions Isotopes Weighted average atomic mass
Friday, September 20, 2013 BR: What is the structural difference between Chlorine35 and Chlorine-37? Dalton Counting Ions Isotopes Average atomic mass Basic Atomic Theory Review Basic Atomic Theory Review
Basic Atomic Theory Review Basic Atomic Theory Review Friday, September 20, 2013 EQ: What characteristics of the atom are explained by the modern atomic theory? Quiz
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