Problem/Question Observation/Research Hypothesis Experiment Collect & Analyze Data Conclusion Retest/Apply the results
Problem/Question All good scientific inquiry begins with a problem or a question about a topic. This problem can be
solved through experimentation. Observations Gathered through your senses A scientist notices
something in their natural world Often called research (learning about problem) Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that
many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails Hypothesis
A possible solution to the problem. Must be testable Often written as If Then statements Based on relationship
between independent and dependant variables. Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be: The salamanders
have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live. Experiment A materials list is created A detailed procedure is developed and followed. Data is collected and measured
Analysis Analyze your data and results, confirm by retesting. Modify the procedure if needed. Conclusion
Conclusion: includes a statement that either accepts or rejects the hypothesis. As conclusion is written, include any data tables, charts, graphs and photographs Conclusion
It is usually the answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment If needed apply the answer to solve the problem. Scientific Experiments Follow Rules
An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens. Important vocabulary A Variable
Variable factor in the experiment that is being changed, watched, or manipulated. 3 types The Control Variable control variables factors that are kept constant so that they do not effect the outcome.
NOT tested Are use for comparison Other Variables The factor that is changed or manipulated is known as the independent variable. (iv)
The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable. (it changes because of iv) Example of Controls & Variables
For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the
walking yourself. What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variable The time it takes is the dependent variable Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable.
It is best to make several trials with each independent variable. Valid Experiment A valid experiment will only have ONE variable tested! Is repeatable by anyone Has detailed step by step
procedure Has precise materials list Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative other types Must be organized
into charts, tables, or graphs Retest In order to verify the results, experiments must be
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