Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment

Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment

Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment Stacy Weinberg 3 April 2007 What is it? It is a severe, chronic, disabling brain disease Considered to have biological origins but exact unknown 1% of population affected Schizophrenia split mind Multiple personality disorder is not schizophrenia Psychosis is more accurate

Severe mental illness where patient loses contact with reality People have problems thinking and feeling but are aware of their surroundings Types 1. Catatonic Type Either in position or speech (imitating others) Very rare

2. Disorganized Type Disturbance in behavior, speech, and thought Flat affect, eccentric 3. Paranoid Type

Delusions and auditory hallucinations Cognitive functioning remains intact 4. Residual Type Have been previously diagnosed but no longer show prominent symptoms; still have other symptoms 5. Undifferentiated Type

Positive Symptoms Disturbances of thought processes Delusions Hallucinations Erratic/extreme emotions

Very slow or fast movement, catatonia Behavioral changes Negative Symptoms Lack of interest/enjoyment in activities Low energy/motivation Blank facial expression, less facial variability Inability to make or keep friends Difficulty initiating activities Social isolation

Causes - Dopamine Hypothesis Genetic aspect Most think it involves dopamine: Elevation of D2 monomers, decrease of dimers Increased release of dopamine 2x higher When given amphetamine, 2x more dopamine is released than control Other Hypotheses Dopamine hypothesis not agreed on by

everyone Some think excitatory amino acids like glutamate could play a role One type of glutamate receptor, NMDA: NMDA antagonists (ex ketamine) can induce psychotic symptoms in non-schizophrenic patients Found increase of NMDA receptors in postmortem studies of schizophrenic brains Types of Drug Treatment 1. Typical Antipsychotics

Dopamine antagonists 2. Atypical Antipsychotics 5-hydroxytryptamine effect, also effect dopamine 3. Combination Drugs

Typical Tend to produce Extrapyramidal side effects: Parkinsonism tremors, rigidity, slowness of movement, temporary paralysis Dystonia involuntary muscle contractions Akathisia inability to resist urge to move Tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the mouth, lips, and tongue Chewing, puckering, grimacing, etc. Typical - Phenothiazines

Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists Chlorpromazine first developed from promethazine, first tricyclic antihistamine Promethazine Chlorpromazine Trifluoperazine Haloperidol Butyrophenone

Used in 1970s almost exclusively No anticholinergic effects therefore used in patients with delirium Atypicals Atypicals do not induce EPSE Block D2 receptors and 5-HT seratonin receptors (decreases EPSE) As opposed to typicals, these are more loosely bound to D2 receptors Easier dissociation Shown that higher occupation of D2 receptors

by drug, higher incidence of EPSE 5-HT seratonin receptors Blocking 5-HT seratonin receptors decreases negative symptoms and EPSE Mechanism is unknown Seratonin inhibits dopamine release Positive symptoms associated with hyperdopaminergic condition in limbic lobe more D2 receptors here, so D2 blocking prevails Negative symptoms associated with hypodopaminergic condition in frontal lobe more 5HT receptors here, so seratonin inhibits dopamine

release stabilizes dopamine level Clozapine First atypical (1990) Most dangerous atypical: risk of agranulocytosis (severe decrease in WBC count) Most effective in reducing EPSE, also in reducing negative symptoms Increases Fos-positive neurons in the prefrontal cortex (shown to affect negative symptoms)

Risperidone Low doses needed Predominantly blocks D2, then 5-HT Does not exhibit multireceptor action Lacks anticholinergic activity makes it better for youth, elderly Problem increases prolactin levels (shouldnt give to people with breast cancer)

Olanzapine Zyprexa is number one antipsychotic in sales (Eli Lilly) Exhibits multireceptor action Good for controlling mood symptoms Available in a wafer Problems: Sedation and weight gain Combinations Example is Symbyax Combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine

(Prozac) Can also treat bipolar disorder Combination of ziprasidone and clozapine Can be used to combat treatment resistance Combination of aripriprazole and clozapine

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Why did Mao launch the Great Leap Forward?

    Why did Mao launch the Great Leap Forward?

    Why did Mao launch the Great Leap Forward? LO: To examine Mao's aims of the 2nd 5 Year Plan . Key - GLF is an industrial 5YP but it has a huge impact on the countryside and agricultural workers. Recap:...
  • Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems and Membrane Trafficking

    Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems and Membrane Trafficking

    Protein Sorting & Transport Paths of Protein Trafficking Nuclear Protein Transport Mitochondrial & Chloroplast Transport Experimental Systems Overview of the Cytomembrane System
  • The Second Red Scare

    The Second Red Scare

    The events of 1949 fed an already strong anti-Communist feeling in the US. Indeed, for several years, concern had been growing about a possible Communist influence in American government. Efforts were already underway to root out disloyal people. Since the...
  • Syllabus - KSU

    Syllabus - KSU

    Syllabus 2nd Semester: 1436/ 1437 SW Project Management(CT1413) SW Project Management(CT1413) Instructor :Rabab Almobty . Website: fac.ksu.edu.sa/ralmobty .
  • Femme Fatale - Spring Cove El School

    Femme Fatale - Spring Cove El School

    Out of these streets, the hardboiled detective was born Typical Hardboiled detective Defined by their tough personality and attitude Independent of others, often having no family and few friends Cynical city-dwellers Willing to break the law to ensure justice Typical...
  • RWE Webinar October 10 2017

    RWE Webinar October 10 2017

    These OPCs could potentially be used in designing a device approval clinical trial. Demonstrate the feasibility of data extraction from a registry and lay the groundwork for a coordinated registry network (CRN). Extensive analyses are conducted:
  • ICT Think specifically about a workplace you have

    ICT Think specifically about a workplace you have

    Capabilities Links. Numeracy. The types of . Think specifically about a workplace you have worked at, visited or observed. The types of . Think specifically about a workplace you have worked at, visited or observed. Careers Q&A. Capabilities Links. Creative...
  • winteredhs.weebly.com

    winteredhs.weebly.com

    The Oath of Horatii. by David and . An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. by Wright. Verisimilitude . Controlled style and structure to writing, painting. etc. Oath of Horatii by David (1784) Neoclassical. Appropriate subject matter: Depicts...