Focus group discussion: a way to unpack ELT teachers conceptions of ELT teacher research Chan Narith KEUK PhD student, Department of Linguistics Principal supervisor: Dr. Stephen Moore Associate supervisor: Dr. John Knox 1 Outline Background Overview of the literature Methodology Findings Discussion
Conclusion 2 Background: An overview of ELT teacher research in Cambodia Individual English teachers Micro ELT Institutions Broader ELT Organizations (CamTESOL) Meso
Macro 3 Background: Cambodian ELT professionals participation in research, compared to international presenters (CamTESOL conference series). Presentations International Cambodian Cambodian + Int. Year presenters 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010* 2011 2012 2013
7 100 5 Review of the literature 1) Current teacher research in language teaching Research on language teacher research have been undertaken worldwide: Language Teacher Research Series (Series Editor Thomas S. C. Farrell) published Language teacher research in Australia and New Zealand, Asia, the Americas, Africa, and the Middle East. 6 Review of the literature (Cont.) Recently, more studies on language teacher research have been conducted in - China (Barkhuizen, 2009; Barkhuizen
& Gao, 2010; Gao, Barkhuizen, & Chow, 2011; Borg & Liu, 2013), - Cambodia (Moore 2011a, 2011b; Keuk, 2014), 7 Review of the literature 2) Current ELT teacher research in Cambodia Moore (2011a): ELT teacher research in Cambodia can be viewed through two perspectives: a. insiders view: ELT teacher research is seen as an organic growth. b. non-Cambodian outsiders view: ELT teacher research is seen as a case of intentional and 8
Review of the literature (Cont.) 3) Teachers conceptions of teacher research in language teaching: Moore (2011b) and Borg (2009) commonly identified features of good research in language teaching: large samples, variables, hypothesis, objectivity, statistics, generalizability 9 Review of the literature (Cont.) Borg (2009, p.377) Teachers may have inappropriate or unrealistic notions of the kind of inquiry teacher research involves. Borg (2013, p. 70) Understanding the conceptions of research held by teachers is important in attempts to engage them with and in research. 10
Review of the literature (Cont.) 4) Focus group discussion What is focus group? Focus groups are a research method based on open-ended group discussions that examine a particular set of socially relevant issues. (Markov et al., 2007, p. 32) 11 Review of the literature (Cont.) Why focus group discussion? A focus group interview is for an indepth exploration of a topic about which little is known. (Stewart et al., 2007) The purpose of using focus group is to collect rich, detailed data. (Carey & Asbury, 2012) 12
Aim of presentation The aim of this presentation is two-folded: (1)to share the findings of Phase 1 of my PhD thesis, Cambodian ELT professionals conceptions of ELT teacher research from a macro perspective; and (2)discuss how a focus group, a tool used to collect data, can contribute to rich and detailed data, which allowed indepth analysis. 13 Methodology Phase 1: Macro views of ELT research In this phase, I adopted an interpretive paradigm using a focus group discussion (and two supplementary individual interviews). Research Duratio No. of Pseudony Age
Occupation instrume nt n Focus Group 2hrs 24mins Individual interview 60mins participan m ts 4 K1, K2, K3, K4
20s=1 30s=3 2 K5, K6 30s=1 40s=1 University ELT professional s 14 Methodology (Cont.) The focus group was divided into five parts: Par t Tas k
1 1 The participants reported their research background. 1 The participants defined teacher research with their own opinions. 2 The participants discussed 10 pairs of research scenarios, adapted from Borgs (2009) baseline scenarios. 3 The participants considered one of five published definitions of teacher research. 3
1 The participants shared their beliefs about the current ELT teacher research. 4 1 The participants discussed their conceptions of communities of practice of ELT teacher researchers in Cambodia. 5 1 The participants discussed their future plan for participating in doing research. 2 Description
15 Methodology (Cont.) Data analysis The data were transcribed using Nvivo software. The analysis of the focus group data followed Markov et al.s (2007) analytical approaches focus group as dialogism. the focus group method provides rich material, but the way in which focus group data are analysed (if analysed at all) often reduced this richness to a list of contents which participants have discussed. (Markov et al., 2007, p. 51) 16 Data analysis Thus, this analysis will examine (1) what is said; (2) how it is said; (3) for whom it is
said; and (4) in which communicative activity types. This way of analysis will achieve a triangulation of data analysis. 17 Analysis: communicative activity types 1) Focus group task The participants discussed 10 pairs of research scenarios, each of which has two sets, i.e. set a and set b. Set a scenarios were Borgs (2009) research scenarios, and Set b scenarios were contextualised and adapted with some different features from those in set a 18
Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) The participants were asked to provide their own opinions about the research scenarios in turn to avoid overlapping in recording, and they were required to mention their pseudonyms before sharing their opinions. However, the task did not explicitly state that they should come up with a shared decision. 19 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) The scenarios were adapted on the basis of some of characteristics of Borgs (2010) basic definition of teacher research in language teacher. The scenarios were contextualised basing on the local context; that is, the contextualisation was based on the context of Institute of Foreign Languages (IFL), from which three of
four participants graduated BEd (TEFL) and two of these three graduated MA (TESOL). 20 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Borg (2010): basic definition of teacher research A systematic inquiry (quantitative/qualitative), being conducted by teachers (individually/ collaboratively) in teachers own contexts, to enhance teachers understanding about their practice and perhaps to inform this 21 Analysis: communicative activity
types (Cont.) An example of a pair of research scenarios. Scenario 1a A teacher noticed that an activity she used in class did not work well. She thought about this after the lesson and made some notes in her diary. She tried something different in her next lesson. This time the activity was more successful. Scenario 1b A teacher at IFL noticed that an activity she used in class did not work well. She thought about this after the lesson and made some notes in her diary. She discussed these notes with her colleagues and learned new teaching techniques. She tried these new techniques in her next lesson. This time the activity was more successful. She practiced it in several lessons and realized that it worked effectively. She started to write up a paper to publish in a local ELT journal. (See some more examples in the handouts) 22 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 2) Participants
The participants were all ELT lecturers at different tertiary ELT institutions (universities) in Phnom Penh. All participants hold Master degrees from either overseas or domestic universities. Three of them were former IFL graduates, two of whom were classmates in the IFLs MA (TESOL) program. They know the moderator/researcher. 23 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Recruitment of participants -The recruitment was based on recommendation of the head of the English department of each selected ELT institution, i.e. three participants were recommended from each institution.
-Then an EoI letter was sent to the first participants, and when they agreed to participate in 24 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 3) Task duration The discussion took around one hour, including a period of time for reading the scenarios, so the discussion of each pair of the scenarios took around 10 minutes. 4) Task material A printed text comprising ten pairs of the research scenarios was given to the participants. 25 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 5) Task sequence
The FGD presented here is part of a larger FGD. The participants were given the overall purposes of the large FGD and, specifically, the purpose of this (part) FGD. In the introduction of the whole FGD, two important terms, engagement with (reading) research and engagement in (doing) research (Borg, 2010) were explained to the participants. 26 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) In this (part) FGD, after the moderators instruction, the participants were allowed around 15 minutes to scan through the scenarios. Then each scenario of the pair was discussed in turn. Any participant could begin the discussion, but the moderator sometimes invited the quiet participants to give their opinions to balance the
discussion/ sharing opportunities. 27 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 6) Participants social roles The participants, especially K1, strongly perceived their role as ELT professionals. As seen in excerpt 1 of K1s explanation of scenarios 1a, K1 clearly spelled out this role as ELT lecturers, and what they should do, i.e. observing and reflecting their own teaching, and making their own decision to improve their teaching, as reflected through his use of we, referring to the participants themselves, distinguished from she, referring to the teacher mentioned in the 28 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Later, this role as ELT lecturers was transformed to a role as ELT teacher researcher when K1 discussed scenario
1b. This new role was perceived to have related with another role of a third party, which is also involved in the topic being discussed; that is, a role as an ELT journal manager, evaluating the quality of the draft paper of a research project for publication. 29 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Excerpt 1 ok I'm K1. I want to share a little bit about er (.7) scenario 1 (.) a and b. (.8) 1a like previous er er K1 (.) ((addressing himself)) K2, K3 and K4 said (.) it's about our own observation (.) ((clearing his throat)) our own (.) I mean reflection in the classroom we reflect what (1.1) what we should improve (.) and then we do our own er i mean (1) i mean decision [(.)] and then for "b" we (.) we have to discuss with (.) er (M:hmhm) other colleagues so we have more samples we have more (.) i mean broader solutions (.) for not only for a class maybe for (.) the whole school (.) and that's why she can come up with er (.)
a paper to the ELT journal (.) and then they will discuss more I think maybe the (.) the ELT journal er manager or he can check (.) and then follow up later [(.)] so it becomes a fully research full research (.) (K1, 1a -1b, Lines 90-102) 30 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Excerpt 2-Participants brought in their experiences Im K1 (.) I want to share about er scenario (.) 3a and b (.9) er from my experience (.) 3a is also research (.8) we call this er library research because we do most of the work (.) I mean reading a lot in the (.) documents in the library only they dont need to go to the field (.) they do in the library (.) and they can come up with their own findings or yes summary yes (.7) I think that that the main focus we have the finding (.8) from the library (.) he read many books and then he come up (.) with his own assumption (.) or own finding thats (.) about the research (.7) but in the library only (1) he did not have interview observation and so on (1) like previous (.) like (.) 1a 1b we have we have we observation in a classroom (.) in Cambodian context I think even observation we also call research but I think sometimes its not really a research and for 3b I support its real its a real research
31 (.8) 3b (.) thank you (K1, 3a, 3b, Lines 228-244) Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Excerpt 3 Participants brought in their preferences I I may ((giggling and laughing)) er K2. I think so. I think (.) yes scene (.) scenario er 2a (.) and 2b are similar to er (.7) er scenario 1a and 1b (.8) yes er (.8) er scenario 2b is more [(1.3)] a research [(.)] Yes, more but but I'm not saying that er (.) 2a is not a research its [also a research too] er (2.1) and I like 2b because er I look at the experiment you know his experiment is to compare (.8) er (.) the the learners' written work produced er (.) before and after [(1.6)] and compare comparison [(.)] this is what I like. (K2, 2a, 2b, Lines 136-146) 32 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 7) Activity role In this FGD, the participants appeared to
have played a role as formal group discussants who shared their opinions about each research scenario. Ex. ok let me start first again (.) I am 4K (.8) (K4, !a, 1b, Line 28) ok I'm K1. I want to share a little bit about er (.7) scenario 1 (.) a and (K1, 1,a, 1b, Line 90) They also played a role as analysts, i.e. they 33 analysed the research scenarios. Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) This role was later developed to a more debater-like role when the participants were defining some relevant terms such as report, paper, and esp. teacher research. (See their discussions of scenarios 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b) Im K4 (.7) I think if we (.) we look at the term research so (.) they (.) (K4, 6a, 6b, Line 411)
just wanna share with with er (.) the word (.) especially I find some find confusing about the word (.) be submitted to an educational journal ((K3 laughing)) (K1, 7a, 7b, Lines 510512) thats why I say 7b is not really a research ((laughing)) (K4, 7a, 34 7b, Line 536) Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 8) Interactional and referential analysis The participants did not only interact with the moderator, but also with other FGD members. In their discussions, they referred to each others discourses and to their previous discourses. er I am K4 er I I agree with K2 they are both researches just er they (K4, 5a, 5b, Line 373) (.8) er like we have talked previously about er teacher research like K4 said right (.) (yes ((soft voice; unidentified speaker))) our own research for our classroom to improve our teaching materials or (.) (K1, 8a, 8b, Lines 561-563)
35 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 9) Moderators role The moderator was also a researcher. He was also a former lecturers of the participants who graduated from IFL. In this FGD, the moderator stated the overall aim of the FGD and the aim of this (part) FGD. He provided instructions, as well as reminded the participants there were no right or wrong definitions of research. He also provided back channels and when a participants opinions could not justify whether or not the scenario was research, he clarified the participants decision. He also balanced the participants talking turns. 36 Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) Summary: My analysis has so far revealed:
1) This FGD is not a focus group interview; its an interactional discussion as dialogism (Markov et al., 2007) 2) The participants framed their discussions, i.e. discussion framings/positionings/participation frameworks (Markov et al., 2007) in ways that they were ELT professionals, showing their responsibilities for their own teaching and students learning; group discussants, providing opinions and explaining about the research scenarios and reasoning their decisions; debaters, defining relevant terms and arguing for their own opinions by referring to others 37 discourses and their previous discourses. Analysis: communicative activity types (Cont.) 3) We can see that the participants brought into the discussion of the different research scenarios their personal preferences, experiences, and
knowledge, which formed their socially shared knowledge of the topic being discussed; that is, the knowledge of English language teaching and research. 38 They did Analysis: content (what is said?) Participants opinions about scenario 1a 1a: A teacher noticed that an activity she Quantitative Not Research K1 used in class did not work well. She thought about this after the lesson and made some
notes in her diary. She tried something different in her next lesson. This time the activity was more successful. Teacher research K3 Research K4 1a 1a K2 1a Qualitative 39 Analysis: content (Cont.) Participants opinions about scenario 1b
Scenario 1b: A teacher at IFL noticed that an activity she used in class did not work well. She thought about this after the lesson and made some notes in her diary. She discussed these notes with her colleagues and learned new teaching techniques. She tried these new techniques in her next lesson. This time the activity was more successful. She practiced it in several lessons and realized that it worked effectively. She started to write up a paper to publish in a local ELT journal. Quantitative Not Research Research K1 K4 K2 K3 1b Qualitative 40 Analysis: content (Cont.)
Participants opinions about scenario 8a Scenario 8a: Mid-way through a course, a teacher gave a class of 30 students a feedback form. The next day, five students handed in their completed forms. The teacher read these and used the information to decide what to do in the second part of the course. Quantitative K3 K2 8a Not Research K1 K4 8a Teacher research Research
Qualitative 41 Analysis: content (Cont.) Participants opinions about scenario 8b Scenario 8b: Mid-way through a course, a teacher at IFL spent half an hour talking with his students in order to elicit some feedback on her teaching. He noted what the students shared and used the information to decide what to do in the second part of the course. Quantitative Not Research Teacher research Research K3 8b
K1 K2 8b K4 Qualitative 42 Analysis: content (Cont.) Participants opinions about the research scenarios Borgs (2010) definition of TR 43 Findings The participants distinguished teacher research from research ELT teacher research Research
Research is conducted by teachers. Research is not necessarily conducted by teachers. In what context? Classroom context Classroom context and outside classroom context What research paradigm? More likely following qualitative research paradigm. More likely following quantitative research paradigm
Systematic? Less systematic. Not necessarily sharing, but if sharing happens, oral sharing with colleagues is stated. More systematic. Presented at any conference or written publication in any journal. Who? Sharing? Scale? What purpose? A narrow scope. A large scope. To improve teaching and learning Expanding purposes to within the classroom.
outside the classrooms. What is it related to? Classroom observation, reflection Anything unconstrained action research, classroom research 44 Discussion 1) The participants conceptions of ELT teacher research show that teacher research in the Cambodian ELT context is confined to an informal action (self-reflection, observation) undertaken by teachers for teaching improvement. Teacher research was distinguished from research. Their conceptions of ELT teacher research lagged behind what Freeman (1998) and Borg (2010) suggest that teacher research should be made public. 45
Discussion (Cont.) 2) In this FGD, some of Borgs (2009) research scenarios were only viewed as teacher research (see Table 1, scenarios 1a, 3a, 7a, 8a, and 9a). 3) Some scenarios were likely to be viewed as not research in Borgs (2009) survey but were likely to be viewed as teacher research in the current study (see Table 2, scenarios 8a and 9a) . 46 4) Some scenarios were likely to be viewed as Discussion (Cont.) 47 Discussion (Cont.) Table 2: Participants opinions compared with the respondents perceptions in
Borgs (2009) and Moores (2011b) surveys 48 Discussion (Cont.) 5) In the current FGD study, at least six times the participants identified the scenarios as research but attached to them with some qualifications (see Table 1, scenarios 1a, 2a, 4a, 7a, 9a and 10a). 49 Discussion (Cont.) An examination of these research scenarios reveals that they do not comprise a full description of a research process, i.e. covering from planning a research project; taking actions such as selecting samples, collecting data, analysing data, an interpreting the findings; and making the research public. The participants, to
most extent, did not infer the scenarios covering a complete research process. If the aim is to clearly understand teachers conceptions of research through their responses/ opinions about these scenarios, 50 these scenarios need revision. Discussion (Cont.) This (part) FGD has provided supplementary data of ELT professionals conceptions of (ELT) teacher research which have been informed in the previous studies (Borg, 2009; Moore, 2011b). Following Markov et al.s analytical approaches, focus group as dialogism, to analyse these FGD data does not only help us examine the participants conceptions of teacher research in terms of what they said but also how they said it and in what communicative activity types. It helps us triangulate our analysis of the FGD data. 51 Conclusion The participants had different views of ELT
teacher research at the beginning of the discussion of the different scenarios, but as the discussion developed, they had clearer conceptions of ELT teacher research , which is distinguished from research. Therefore, a clear and widely accepted definition of ELT teacher research would be helpful to conceptualise ELT teacher research in Cambodia if the aim of tertiary ELT institutions is to promote Cambodian English teachers active engagement in undertaking research. 52 Thank you! Questions or comments? Contact: [email protected] 53 Some useful references
Borg, S. (2009). English Language Teachers' Conceptions of Research. Applied Linguistics, 30(3), 358-388. Borg, S. (2010). Language teacher research engagement Language Teaching, 43(4), 391-429. Borg, S., & Liu, Y. (2013). Chinese College English Teachers' Research Engagement. TESOL Quarterly, 47(2), 270-299. Carey, M. A., & Asbury, J.-E. (2012). Focus group research. California: Left Coast Press. Freeman, D. (1998). Doing teacher research: from inquiry to understanding Toronto: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Gao, X., Barkhuizen, G., & Chow, A. W. K. (2011). Research engagement and educational decentralisation: problematising primary school English teachers research experiences in China. Educational Studies, 37(2), 207-219. Markov, I., Linell, P., Grossen, M., & Orvig, A. S. (2007). Dialogue in focus groups: exploring socially shared knowledge. London: equinox.
Moore, S. (2011a). The Struggle to Develop a "Research Culture" in a Developing Country. TESOL Quarterly 45(2), 334-343. Moore, S. (2011b). Cambodian English teachers' conceptions of and engagement with research. Selected Proceedings of the International Conference: Doing Research in Applied Linguistics (pp. 83-98). Bangkok: School of Liberal Arts, King Mungkut's University of Technology Thonburi. Stewart, D. W., Shamdasani, P. N., & Rook, D. W. (2007). Focus Groups: Theory and Practice (Vol. 20). Thousand Oaks: SAGE. 54
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