Romanticism and Transcendentalism

Romanticism and Transcendentalism

+ Romanticism English III + Romanticism (1800-1860) A complete artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe. + Historical Context: an American Renaissance Romanticism began in Europe in the late 18th century This

movements spread to America marked the first true flowering of American literature, bringing forth the first internationally-acclaimed American writers Movement gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution Echoed peoples fears, hopes, and aspirations + What is Romanticism? A movement in literature and art that contained new ideas about the relationship between individuals, society, and nature.

Romanticism privileged Imagination over reason Intuition over fact Inner experiences over outer experiences The individual over the group Romantics also focused heavily on nature, emphasizing and embracing its wild, chaotic nature. They often idealized rural life and believed that many of the ills of society were a direct result of urbanization. + Romantics View of Nature Romantics

believed imagination and emotion were more important than reason and formal rules Below is a romantic view of nature Thomas Cole, A Wild + Genre & Style Romantic literature is generally fiction: short stories, novels, and poetry Often concerned with social

reform movements, such as abolitionism Often raises difficult questions about society and what people should value in the world Two important offshoots of Romanticism: Gothic literature and Transcendentalism + Characteristics of Gothic Literature Interest in the

supernatural and death Dark and gloomy landscapes Depressed or mentally unstable characters + Traits of Transcendentalism Transcendentalism also stressed the importance of individualism and drew inspiration from nature

The key difference between Romanticism and Transcendentalism is its approach to religion Transcendentalists believed that a personal relationship with God was possible through intuition and self-discovery The ability to connect with God was inherent in all people; This relationship was not solely facilitated through the Church and other external institutions + Major Writers Nathaniel

Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter Dr. Heideggers Experiment Herman Melville Moby Dick Edgar Allan Poe The Raven The Tell Tale Heart Emily Dickinson Collected Poems

Washington Irving The Devil and Tom Walker The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance Nature Henry David Thoreau Walden Civil Disobedience +

Emerson appealed to both intellectuals and the general public works were not only for entertainment but were also not only for the educated. He appealed to many readers. He did much more than poetry. Essays, speeches, philosophy, etc. Watch how Emerson uses figures of speech, imaginative comparisons of things that are basically unalike. (Emerson often compares abstract things or ideas to ordinary things)

Emerson + What does it mean to be Self- reliant? Do you see yourself as self- reliant? reliance on one's Why or why not? own powers and resources rather than those of others (AKA, DO THINGS FOR YOURSELF!) + Self-Reliance Turn to page 185.

Read Emersons self-reliance. Take short notes on a separate sheet of paper as you read. Every 3-4 paragraphs you should be writing down what you have understood or are confused about with Emersons writing. On page 187-188 answer questions 1, 3, and 4 for self-reliance

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