Rocks - North Rose-Wolcott Central School District
Rocks and Minerals http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Mineral_Sandstone_93c3955.jpg http://www.beg.utexas.edu/mainweb/publications/graphics/granite.htm http://www.gccaz.edu/earthsci/imagearchive/gneiss.htm
Minerals In order for a substance to be consider a mineral, it must have the following 5 characteristics:
Must be solid Must be inorganic Must be naturally occurring Must have a definite chemical composition Must have a definite crystal
shape Minerals are the basic building blocks of all rocks. Oxygen is the most abundant by mass and volume (46%, 94%)
Silicon is second in mass (28%) Mineral Properties All mineral properties are determined by the
INTERNAL ARRANGEMENT of ATOMS Please grab the three (3) pieces of paper on the side of the room.
Using a blue or black pen, please fill out the STEM survey. Properties Color easiest property to identify but the most
useless Many minerals have the exact same color but are completely different. Properties
Luster the way the mineral shines in reflected light Two types Metallic Looks like metal, gold or silver in color Nonmetallic Doesnt look
like metal Properties contd Streak color of the minerals powder when rubbed on a streak plate.
Will not always be the same color as the mineral sample Example Pyrite is gold in color but has a green/black streak Properties contd
Cleavage the tendency of a mineral to break, or cleave, in a flat plane - Properties contd Fracture Irregular breakage
Looks a lot like breaking apart a clod of dirt or a cookie. No pattern of breakage Properties contd Hardness resistance to being scratched
Follows Mohs Hardness Scale Types of Minerals Silicates made up of primarily silicon and oxygen Silica Tetrahedron basic building blocks
of all silicates (SiO4) Other types of Minerals Carbonates Iron Oxides -
Common Uses Feldspar used in ceramic and glass products, fertilizers, and soaps Gypsum used in drywall and plaster applications, cement, and fertilizer
Quartz used in electronics, jewelry, and in powder form can be used as a thickening agent Mica- used as electrical insulators, and as bonding agents in paints and flux in welding rods Fluorite used to make hydrofluoric acid, and
powdered as a fluorine agent in municipal water systems and toothpaste Sulfur used in manufacturing processes, such a drug production and vulcanization of rubber IGNEOUS ROCKS
Form by solidification and crystallization of melted minerals Plutonic formed underground -Also known as intrusive - Cools slowly- LARGE CRYSTALS - texture will be considered coarse
Volcanic forms aboveground - also known as extrusive - Quick cooling means fine to no crystals - Texture is considered fine or
glassy Obsidian Natural volcanic glass Forms when lava
cools very quickly Usually dark, but small pieces may be clear Fractures along curved (conchoidal)
surface Used as spear and arrow points, knives Types of Magma - Felsic
- light in color - low in density - contains a lot of feldspar - Rocks include granite, pegmatite, and pumice
-Mafic - dark in color - high in density - contains a lot of iron - Rocks include Gabbro, Basalt,
Vesicular gas pockets Rock Texture- texture is determined by crystal size not how the rock feels
-NO ONE CARES HOW YOU FEEL when it comes to texture Igneous Characteristics-MEMORIZE ME 1. Visible Scattered Crystals 2. Glassy texture
3. Visible gas pockets (vesicular) Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rock- - formed from compaction and cementation of sediments or living organisms
THREE MAJOR TYPES Sedimentary Rocks - Clastic (fragmental) made of sediments of other rocks that have been broken down - Classified by the size of the sediments that
make up the rock Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Chemical(crystalline)- forms when water
dissolves minerals, evaporates and leaves the mineral behind Sedimentary Rocks Bioclastic (Organic) made from the parts of
living things, such as plants and animals Sedimentary Rocks Processes that create sedimentary rocks
- Compaction- pressing of sediments together by force Sedimentary Rocks Cementation- gluing sediments
together with some sort of natural process Super Cool Totally Groovy Cementation Animation
Sedimentary Rocks Stratification- when sediments pile up in layers Sedimentary Rocks
Fossils evidence of life, often found in sedimentary rocks Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks
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