Repeat - Boston College

Repeat - Boston College

INDO EUROPEAN ROOTS History of the English Language Indo-European Roots Focusing On: Various Modern English Words which Derived from the Following Indo-European Roots Indo-European Roots Theme: Assorted Parts of the Human Body __ BHRU Eyebrow Originally contracted from *bhru -. 1. brow, from Old English br

2. eyebrow, eyelid, eyelash, from Germanic *br s Could possibly also mean in the sense of a beam of wood or a log bridge. 1. bridge, from Old English brycg(e) 2. bridge from Germanic *brugj (with cognates in Celtic and Slavic). DENT Tooth Originally * 1d-ent-, biting, present participle of ed- in the earlier meaning to bite.

A second form involves d t 1. tusk, from Old English t sc, t x 2. canine tooth, from Germanic *tunth-sk- A third form involves *dent 1. tooth, from Old English t th 2. tooth, from Germanic * 1. dental, dentate, denti-, denticle, dentist; dandelion, edentate, edentulous, indent1, indenture, trident, from Latin d ns The last form involves *dont, ultimately becoming odont- in Greek 1. odon, odont, odonto-; ceratodus, mastodon, from Greek od n, odous

EL Elbow (Forearm) Extended form *el-in -, elbow. A second form involves *ol-en -. 1. uilleann pipe, from Old Irish uilenn, elbow A third form involves * l-en -.

1. ell2, from Old English eln 2. forearm, cubit, from Germanic *elin 3. elbow, from Old English elnboga, 4. elbow, from Germanic compound *elino-bug n-, bend of the forearm, elbow 5. ulna, from Latin ulna, forearm 1. olecranon, from Greek len , elbow The last form involves *el-in-. 1. arshin, from Old Persian ara n-, 2. ell, from Indo-Iranian *aratn(i)-, probably from a variant *el-etn- of *el-in-. / GENU Jawbone (Chin) Oldest form * enu-, becoming *genu- in centum languages.

The first form involves *genw-. The second form involves *genu-. 1. genial2, from Greek genus, jaw, chin. The third form involves *gn -dho-. 1. chin, from Old English cin(n) 2. chin, from Germanic *kinnuz.

1. gnathal, gnathic, gnathous; agnathan, chaetognath, from Greek gnathos, jaw. The last form involves *g(h)enu-. 1. hanuman, from Sanskrit hanu, jaw. KAPUT Head Multiple derivations include: 1. head; behead, forehead, from Old English h afod, head 2. hetman, from Old High German houbit, head Both 1 and 2 from Germanic *haubudam, *haubidam 3. caddie, cadet, cape2, capital1, capital2, capitate, capitation, capitellum, capitulate, capitulum, capo1, capo2,

caprice, captain, cattle, caudillo, chapiter, chapter, chef, chief, chieftain, corporal2; achieve, biceps, decapitate, kerchief, mischief, occiput, precipitate, recapitulate, sinciput, triceps from Latin caput, head LEB Lip (To Lick) Multiple 1. lip, from Old English lippa 2. lip, from Germanic *lep- The second form involves *lab-, or *lab-yo-. 1. labial and labium, from Latin labium, lip The

derivations include: Last form involves *lab-ro-. 1. labellum, labret, labrum, from Latin labrum, lip MAN Hand Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure. 1. manacle, manage, mange, manner, manual, manubrium, manus; amanuensis, maintain, maneuver, manicotti, manicure, manifest, mansuetude, manufacture, manumit, manure, manuscript, mastiff, mortmain, and quadrumanous, 1. manqu, from Latin mancus, maimed, defective.

Another derivative includes emancipate, 2. maniple, manipulation, from Latin manipulus, handful The first form involves *man-ko-, maimed in the hand. from Latin manus, hand 1. from Latin compound manceps, he who takes by the hand, purchaser The last set of derivatives contains mandamus, mandate, Maundy Thursday; command, commando, commend, countermand, demand, recommend, remand, from Latin compound mand re, to put into someone's hand, entrust, order

NAS Nose Multiple derivations include: 1. nose, nuzzle; nostril, from Old English nosu 2. nose, from Germanic zero-grade form *nus 3. ness, from Old English nss 4. headland, from Germanic *nasja- One particular form involves *n s-. 1. naris, from Latin n ris, nostril

2. similarly, the form *n ss- is used for the derivatives nasal, naso-; nasturtium, pince-nez, from Latin n sus, nose 3. nark2, from Romany n k, 4. nose, from expressive Indo-Aryan form *nakka-. Works Cited "Indo-European Roots Index." 2000. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 21 Sept. 2008 .

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