# Reconstruction of I-94 and I-69 Interchange

RECONSTRUCTION OF I-94 AND I-69 INTERCHANGE Port Huron, Michigan G re g g A u ke m a n A n d re w D o b b s Ad a m M u e l l e r M a n u e l To rre i r a ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sponsor: Parsons Brinckerhoff Jeff Chenault, Laurie Langlois Faculty Advisor: Dr. Valerian Kwigizile Professor: John Polasek BACKGROUND AND DESCRIPTION Left-hand entrance onto I69 WB 40 mph design speed Flooding due to

wetlands (Google, 2012) SCOPE OF WORK Problems are primarily concentrated west of Michigan Road. Design is restricted to this half only. Michigan Road serves as a tie in point. Scope of design work: Horizontal Alignment Superelevation Storm Water Consideration Vertical Alignment Earthwork

Wetlands Impact Cost Estimate (Google, 2012) CONSTRAINT S Narrow right-of-way Wetlands Tie in points HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT Circular paths cause centripetal acceleration Superelevation (e) MDOT does not allow superelevation above 7% Side friction factor (f) Function of design speed (AASHTO, 2004) HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT Minimum allowable radii can be determined for

different design speeds. Friction Factor Design Speed (mph) Superelevation (%) Radius (ft) 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15

0.16 0.18 0.20 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35

30 7 2344 7 1922 7 1565 7 1263 7 1008 7 794 7 614

7 464 7 327 7 222 Begin designing alternatives. COMPARISON TO MDOT STANDARDS Friction Factor Design Speed (mph) Superelevation (%) Radius (ft) 0.09 0.10

0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.20 75 70 65

60 55 50 45 40 35 30 7 2344 7 1922 7 1565

7 1263 7 1008 7 794 7 614 7 464 7 327 7 222 (MDOT, 2012)

I-69 Severe EB bridge bridgehas skew long angles span Ramp A is close to right-ofway Ramp D exits on left Objective: Make design speeds as high as possible Severe bridge skew angles Objective: Modify alternative 1 to increase feasibility and constructability

Low design speeds Objective: Eliminate severe skew angles ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES Meetings were held with advisor and client. Alternative 1: Safety hazard due to left hand exit; does not meet design criteria. Alternative 3: Design speeds too low; does not meet design criteria. Alternative 2: Meets design criteria and is constructable. OTHER HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS (MDOT, 2012) Mainline s

Ramps Lane Width (ft) Left Shoulder Width (ft) Right Shoulder Width (ft) 12 16 8 6 12 8 OTHER HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS

Entrance Ramps Taper Length = 300 feet Parallel Length = 360 feet (MDOT, 2012) OTHER HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT CONSIDERATIONS Exit Ramps Taper Length = 300 feet Parallel Length = 360 150 = 210 feet (MDOT, 2012) SUPERELEVATION Superelevation rate (e%) and transition slope of pavement edges (%) depends on design speed and radius. (MDOT, 2012) SUPERELEVATION

Normal crown rate (NC) is defined as 2%. W is distance from the axis of rotation to the farthest outside edge. Simplified to be 12 feet for mainlines and 16 feet for ramps. D and S are the difference in elevation between the two edges of a lane. D corresponds to normal crown; S corresponds to full superelevation. (MDOT, 2012) C is tangent runout, the distance required to transition from normal crown to level. L is superelevation runoff, the distance required to transition from level to the required superelevation. Ramp D Ramp

A Ramp B (MDOT, 2012) Mainlines SUPERELEVATION MDOT allows a distance of 1/3 L after the PC or PT to fully transition to the required superelevation. All roadways are being rotated about the centerline. I-69 WB (1) I-69 WB (2) I-69 WB (3) I-69 EB (1) I-69 EB (2) I-94 WB I-94 EB

Ramp A Ramp B Ramp D Speed (mph) Radius (ft) e% % D S C L (S-D) / % *100

70 3300 5.5 0.37 0.24 0.66 64.9 178.4 - 59.5 183.8

70 1950 7 0.4 0.24 0.84 60.0 210.0 - 70.0 200.0 70

70 70 70 70 60 65 60 7639 7639 3274 2004 1922 1450 1742 1412 2.7 2.7 5.5 7 7 6.9

7 6.9 0.32 0.32 0.37 0.4 0.4 0.45 0.43 0.45 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.324 0.324

0.66 0.84 0.84 1.104 1.12 1.104 75.0 75.0 64.9 60.0 60.0 71.1 101.3 101.3 178.4 210.0 210.0 245.3 260.5 245.3

174.2 186.0 - 33.8 33.8 59.5 70.0 70.0 58.1 62.0 81.8 142.5 142.5 183.8 200.0 200.0 234.7 1/3*L 2/3*L + C SUPERELEVATION

STORM WATER CONSIDERATION 100 year storm. Minimum elevations 7% superelevation VERTICAL ALIGNMENT (MDOT, 2012) Equation for parabola: G 1 =initial grade of the back tangent G 2 =final grade of forward tangent L=length of curve y P V C =elevation at beginning of curve VERTICAL ALIGNMENT Stopping sight distance (SSD) usually governs vertical curves. Curves are often designed solely based on SSD. L=minimum length of curve

K=factor based on SSD A=difference in grades G 1 and G 2 K Values for Crest Curves Design Speed (mph) K 15 3 20 7 25 12 30 19 35 29 40 44 45 61

50 84 55 114 60 151 65 193 70 247 75 312 80 384 K Values for Sag Curves Design Speed (mph) K 15 10 20

17 25 26 30 37 35 49 40 64 45 79 50 96 55 115 60 136 65 157 70 181 75 206

80 231 (AASHTO, 2004) VERTICAL ALIGNMENT Constraints: Match existing elevations and grades at tie in points I-94, I-69, Michigan Road 163 clearance for underpassing roads assume conservative 84 bridge thickness Target elevations for 100 year storm MDOT vertical grade restrictions Ramps: -5% to 5% Mainlines: -3% to 3% VERTICAL ALIGNMENT Ramp B Elevation (ft) 640 635

630 625 620 615 0+00.00 5+00.00 10+00.00 15+00.00 Station 20+00.00 25+00.00 30+00.00 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT PAVEMENT ASSUMPTIONS Rigid pavements for entire interchange.

Long service lives Less expensive to maintain than flexible pavements Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP) Contraction Joints Tie bars and dowel bars Base Course Provides additional load distribution, contributes to drainage Open-Graded Drainage Course material Assumptions for the purpose of earthwork computation 12 inch- Surface Course 16 inch- Base Course EARTHWORK Average end area method Every station (100 feet intervals) Necessary variables: Proposed elevation Existing elevation Embankment ratios (2:1 for ramp D and eastbound I-69, 4:1 for all other roadways)

Pavement thickness (28 inches) Elevations obtained from Microstation function. 2= EARTHWORK 1=( +h ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 2 = 1 + 2 2 2= EARTHWORK 1=( +h ) ( + ) 1 ( + ) ( + ) 2

= 1 + 2 2 EARTHWORK Multiply area by station increment (100 feet) and divide by 27 to convert to cubic yards. Earthwork was excluded where bridges exist. Summary: EARTHWORK (cyd) ROADWAY WB94 EB94 WB69 EB69 RAMPA RAMPB RAMPD RAMPF TOTAL TOTAL FILL NEEDED CUT FILL

10,081 3 22,700 134,825 444 6,784 141,871 1,212 88,991 36,884 14,165 297,638 2,631 3,926 CUT FILL 215,117 547,038 331,922 WETLANDS IMPACT Slope stake lines: where embankments meet existing ground profile. Everything within slope stake lines is part of the

proposed footprint. Wetlands within slope stake lines will be disturbed. Must replace two acres for every acre disturbed (MDEQ requirement). WETLANDS IMPACT Perpendicular distance from the edge of the shoulder to the slope stake line: Embankment ratio of 2:1 for ramp D and eastbound I69. Embankment ratio of 4:1 for all other roadways. WETLANDS IMPACT Equation used at every station (100 feet). All points connected to generate slope stake lines. WETLANDS IMPACT Wetlands within footprint: 7.7 acres. Restore 15.4 acres. Within interchange or use wetlands bank. COST ESTIMATE Roadway Total

\$10,790,578 Structures S29 of 77111 - Ramp D over WB 69 \$2,977,000 S23 of 77111 - Ramp D over I-94 \$5,286,000 S15 of 77111 - EB I-69 over I-94 \$6,566,000 Total \$14,829,000 Maintaining Traffic \$25,619,578 Assumption - 8% of

Total \$2,049,566 Signing \$25,619,578 Assumption - 1% of Total \$256,196 Mobilization \$25,619,578 Assumption - 5% of Total \$1,280,979 Total Estimate Cost 10% Contingency of

\$2,561,958 Total \$31,768,277 SUMMARY Horizontal Alignment: Designed three alternatives Selected alternative 2 Superelevation Transitions Vertical Alignment: Match existing, provide necessary underclearance, hit storm water target points Earthwork: 215,117 cyd of cut, 547,038 cyd of fill Wetlands: Restore 15.4 acres Cost Estimate: \$31,768,277 ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS?

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