Rape - Department of Psychology at Illinois State

Rape - Department of Psychology at Illinois State

Rape 2009, John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University Rape Poem by Marge Piercy There is no difference between being raped and being pushed down a flight of stairs except that the wounds inside also bleed. There is no difference between being raped and being run over by a truck except that afterward men ask if you enjoyed it. There is no difference between being raped and

going head first through a windshield except that afterward you are afraid not of cars, but half the human race. Brownmillers typical definition ...The perpetration of an act of sexual intercourse with a female, not ones wife, against her will and consent, whether her will is overcome by force or fear resulting from the threat of force, or by drugs or intoxicants, or

when because of mental deficiency, she is incapable of rational judgment, or when she is below an arbitrary age of consent. Criminal Sexual Assault in Illinois The accused commits criminal sexual assault if he or she: (1) commits an act of sexual penetration by the use of force or threat of force; or (2) commits an act of sexual penetration and the accused knew that the victim was unable to understand the nature of the act or was unable to give knowing consent; or

(3) commits an act of sexual penetration with a victim who was under 18 years of age when the act was committed and the accused was a family member; or (4) commits an act of sexual penetration with a victim who was at least 13 years of age but under 18 years of age when the act was committed and the accused was 17 years of age or over and held a position of trust, authority or supervision in relation to the victim. Source: Illinois Criminal Code FBI Uniform Crime Report Began in 1929

Now covers jurisdictions 96% of US population Publishes crime index of violent crimes, crimes against property, and total offenses FBI Uniform Crime Report Forcible rapeThe carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Rapes by force and attempts or assaults to rape regardless of the age of the victim are

included. Statutory offenses (no force usedvictim under age of consent) are excluded. FBI Uniform Crime Report 90,426 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement during 2007 The rate of forcible rapes in 2007 was estimated at 59.1 offenses per 100,000 female inhabitants This represents a 2.5% decrease from 2006 Lowest prevalence since 1986 was in

1999. victims always female (by FBI definition) approximately One Forcible Rape Every 5.8 minutes Forcible Rape in the United States 1982-2007 from FBI Uniform Crime Reports 120,000 100,000 80,000

109,062 106,593 106,014 102,555 102,216 97,470 96,252 96,153 95,136 94,635 94,504 93,144 92,486 93,934

91,459 91,111 92,455 90,491 90,178 91331 89,411 90,4 87,671 84,233 78,918 78,770

60,000 40,000 20,000 19821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007 How often do the police make arrests

for rape? FBI Uniform Crime Report Arrests from 2002 data Arrests for forcible rape in 2002 were estimated at 28,288. During 2002, 16.7 percent of all forcible rape arrests were of persons under the age of 18 and 46.1 percent were of persons under the age of 25. Adults (over the age of 18) made up 83.3 percent of arrests. By race, 63.4 percent of arrestees for this offense were white, 34.0 percent were black, and the remainder were of other races. Regarding juvenile forcible rape

arrests, 62.0 percent of the juvenile arrestees were white, 36.0 percent were black, and the remainder were of other races. Rapes reported to police and arrests made for rape in 2004 Estimated number of arrests 26,066

Rapes reported to police 94,635 - 10,000 20,000

30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000

90,000 100,00 0 FBI Statistics involve women who report rapes to the police. How often is rape unreported?

Williams (1984) - Who reports rape? sample - 246 victims from rape support organizations 59% had reported to police variables related to reporting rape 1) relationship of victim to offender - more when stranger 2) how the rapist came in contact with the victim - less in social situation 3) threat of force 4) use of force 5) degree of injury

6) whether the victim received medical treatment report is more likely if the incident fits the stereotype of the classic rape situation Surveys often show many more rape victims than police reports. The National Crime Victimization

Survey. Ongoing since 1972, this survey of households interviews about 80,000 persons age 12 and older in 43,000 households twice each year about their victimizations from crime. In 2003, this survey found 223,290 instance of forcible rape. Only 39% were reported to law enforcement. Rape on College Campuses National sample of 4,446 women

who were attending a 2- or 4-year college 2.8% experienced rape or attempted rape Estimated 350 women sexually victimized each year in colleges of 10,000 students Most are not reported - less than half of those raped defined the behavior as rape Women tend to know their rapists.

STATISTICS ON SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN SOURCE: KOSS, WOODRUFF, & KOSS -- A CRIMINOLOGICAL STUDY AUGUST 1990 More than half of college rape victims are attacked by dates. More than 4 out of 5 rape victims know their attackers. 1 in 15 rape victims contracts a sexually transmitted disease as a result of being raped. 1 in 15 rape victims becomes pregnant as a result

of being raped. Relationship of Women Respondents to Men Who Forced them to do Something Sexual 0.09 0.04 0.19 Someone R knew well Someone R was in love with

Spouse Stranger Acquaintance 0.46 0.22 WHY DO MEN RAPE WOMEN? The Psychopathological Perspective The Feminist Perspective The Social Dynamics of Date Rape

The Psychopathological Perspective Assumes rapists are psychologically disturbed Cohens Typology of Rapists Aggressive Aim Sexual Aim Sex-Agressive Aim Impulse Rapists Problems with the

psychopathological perspective Psycholopathological Profiles are based upon convicted rapists A great many rapes are not reported to the police Less than half of all police reports result in arrests Many of those arrested plea bargain for lessor offences The Feminist Perspective Assumes that cultural forces promote

rape--misogynous forces, trad. sex roles... Do we live in a rape culture? Is rape a common experience for women in our culture? Is a proclivity for rape common in our culture? Malamuths LR Scale How likely is it that you would rape someone if you thought you could get a way with it? 1

2 3 4 5 Not at Very all likely likely Malamuth - 3 ways in which men who score high in the Likelihood to Rape Scale resemble actual rapists

Both tend to endorse rape myths Both tend to be sexually aroused by rape depictions Both are willing to physically aggress against women Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence Adversarial Sexual

Beliefs Endorsement of Sex Role Stereotypes Rape Myth Acceptance Likelihood of Rape Sexual Arousal 8

6 Malamuth's Study of Men's Reactions to Rape Depictions High LR Low LR 4 2

0 Mutually Consenting Sex Rape Victim Abhorance Film Types Rape Victim Arousal Are some cultures more rape prone than others?

0.35 0.18 Sanday's Cross-Cultural Study of Rape 0.47 Rape Free Rape Present, But Not Typical

Rape Prone If there are rape prone cultures, are there also rape prone subcultures? FBI Campus Watch Report Between 1984 and 1993, 93% of university-related rapes were committed by members of

fraternities. Where do rapes occur? In the FBI Campus Watch Study, more alleged rapes occured within the property lines of fraternity and sorority houses than in any other specific geographic area in the US (excluding military bases and prisons). Fraternities & Rape at UIUC

O'Shaugnessy (1990) Fraternity members represented approximately 25% of the undergraduate men enrolled at the UIUC during the spring semester of 1989. However, of the 54 sexual assaults committed by men who were reported to be UIUC students, 34 (63%) were committed by members of fraternities. Fraternities & Rape at UIUC O'Shaugnessy (1990)

Of the 56 sexual abuse cases involving men who were UIUC students, 40 (71%) involved fraternity members. Additionally, it is noted that three women reported having been sexually assaulted by more than one man during a single incident and that all of these incidents involved fraternity members. Correlates of sexual aggression Canadian study of 86 college men Self-reported sexual

aggression toward women was predicted by: 1. Having engaged in acts of physical aggression 2. Sex role stereotyping 3. Fraternity involvement Source: Lackie & de Man (1997), Sex Roles Rape-supportive beliefs 477 male university students were surveyed on a large southeastern university campus

Fraternity men reported significantly greater agreement with five statements supportive of rape and adversarial gender beliefs than did controls. Athletes reported significantly greater agreement with 14 rape-supportive statements than did controls. Source: Boeringer (1999) Fraternity Men have been found to be more likely to endorse the

use of force to get sex (Drapeau, 2003; study at Boston College) Average Endorsement Ratings 10.4 10.2 10.16 10 9.8

9.6 9.4 9.2 8.99 9 8.8 8.6 8.4 Example Item

Fraternity Members (N=127) Non-Members (N=122) Gang Rape One review of 24 alleged gang rapes found that in 22 of the 24 documented cases, the perpetrators were members of fraternities or intercollegiate athletics teams. OSullivan CS. Acquaintance Gang Rape on Campus. In: Parrot A, Bechhofer L (eds.). Acquaintance Rape: The Hidden Crime. New York:

Wiley, 1991: chap. 10. Not all fraternities are alike Fraternities vary with regard to their Hostility toward women Peer support for sexual aggression Level of sexual aggression Rape Culture at Sororities Kalof (1994)- random sample of 349 women at SUNY Plattsburg sorority women more likely to accept rape myths &

interpersonal violence sorority women were more likely to have been physically forced or threaten with force to have sexual intercourse sorority women were more likely to have had nonconsensual sexual intercourse while under the influence of alcohol or drugs The Role of Peer Influence in Rape Myth Acceptance Among Sorority Women at Illinois State University

<<>> JOY EWOLDSEN and JOHN B. PRYOR The Sample 75 women 5 different sororities 13-18 in each sorority 15 freshmen, 20 sophomores, 26 juniors, & 14 seniors John B. Pryor, 1996

The Measures Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) (Burt, 1980) Modern Sexism (MS) (Swim, et al., 1995) Feelings of Group Cohesion average RMA of other sorority members average MS of other sorority members John B. Pryor, 1996 Step 1

Modern Sexism Group RMA Group MS R=.78 Rape Myth Acceptance Step 2

Cohesion X Group RMA Cohesion X Group MS R=.82 John B. Pryor, 1996 Two Possible Explanations Self Selection Social Influence

John B. Pryor, 1996 Step 1 Modern Sexism Group RMA Group MS Step 2 Cohesion X Group RMA

Cohesion X Group MS Freshmen & Sophomores R=.62 Rape Myth Acceptance Not Significant John B. Pryor, 1996

Step 1 Modern Sexism Group RMA Group MS Juniors & Seniors R=.84 Rape Myth Acceptance

Step 2 Cohesion X Group RMA Cohesion X Group MS R=.87 John B. Pryor, 1996

Conclusions Women who felt stronger bonds to their sorority sisters were more likely to conform to the groups prevailing views about rape myths. Those in sororities where beliefs in rape myths were prevalent came to endorse rape myths over time. Those in sororities where doubts about rape myths were prevalent came to doubt rape myths over time.

Is there a pro-rape sub-culture at ISU? ISUskanks.com Rape culture that is promoted locally on the internet. Due to pressure from the university, the name of the web site has been changed.

You see a Trick waltzin down the strip and think to yourself, Where did it all go so wrong?" You almost feel a disillusioned sense of pity for them. What you don't realize is that almost all girls are whores in their own ways, at least the common street hooker has made the realization to cut out all the bullshit and demand exactly what she wants. Whores come in all shapes and sizes; they are The Social Status Whore : Most commonly known as jersey chasers or letter sluts. These girls seek out any and all guys that will improve their social standing in society. They crave any dick that can show them a Good Time," wanting to only fuck dudes that have huge parties to go to or that have a wide array of friends. The Relationship Whore : Watch out for these ones, they prey on dudes that have been, or already are in a long-term relationship. The relationship whores are usually easy to spot. They are most likely to want to: hold hands, cry (a lot), make you earn your blow jobs, display their affection publicly (to claim your dick as conquered), say I love you (expecting a positive response), and lastly always want to know where you are and what you are doing. WARNING, do not fuck around with these chicks if you want to have promiscuous sex, once a relationship whore has attached herself to

your dick it is very hard to get her off of it, she will always want to "work things out . The Dick Whore: Almost always unattractive in some way or another, the dick whore is most likely the best sex you will have. These girls are quite literally addicted to dick. You have probably seen thousands of them at parties. They stick out like a sore thumb; the dick whore will be one of the last girls to leave a party. They will milk their one to two beers all night just to get a shot at crunch time. You see crunch time happens around 2:30 to 3:30 depending on whom you hang out with. It is the only time that a man rationalizes in his head Am I going to fuck that ugly bitch over there, or am I going to go home and carve one out." The dick whore's biggest competition is your hand, so if you don't want to end up fucking around with a nasty ass slut take some preemptive measures and slice one off before you go out. CAUTION. Always wrap it up with these girls, STD's are not fun, and dick whores are almost guaranteed to have at least one. Drug Whores : You can break drug whores on college campuses into two broad groups. - Weed whores : On a college level a weed whore stems from the prissy church girl trying to go wild. You will get them high for the first time and they realize that they like it and they want to get high every day. Then they also come to the

conclusion that 50 dollars for a bag of good dope is ridiculous. So what do they do? They call you to hang out." At first you do just get high, but soon she will realize that she needs to start pulling her weight. So she can either start packing it up or start sucking it down. Most girls will make the right decision. Always make sure to lose these girls after like a month because all those late night smoking sessions will lead to one obese and pale woman. - Coke whores : This is by far the bottom of the barrel. Having sex with a coke whore is as easy as saying "Would ya fuck me for blow?" If you have ever wondered why that extremely hot chick is with that dork ass dude, cocaine is probably the answer. Watch out though, although nose candy may seem like the easy answer, that shit is expensive. The coke whore will fo sho suck your penis dry, but your wallet will get sucked dry even faster. But if you're looking for some quick ass, throw down the 50 bucks because having sex with girls for drugs is cool. Now I know that there are exceptions to these rules, but much like stereotypes these are for the most part true. I also realize that I left out money grubbin hoes, but aren't they all looking for money??????

From ISUSkanks.com The donkey punch Social Dynamics of Date Rape Shotlands 3 Types of Date Rape Beginning Date Rape Early Date Rape Relational Date Rape The Couple

is the Unit of Analysis Reasons for Sexual Miscommunication between Men and Women Many men and women do not discuss their sexual intentions openly and frankly. Men perceive people as having more sexual interest than women do. Women sometimes engage in token resistance. (40% in 1 study)

There are differing expectations concerning the course of the relationship when sexual intercourse is appropriate. (50% of men by the 5th date, only 25% of women) Psychological Responses of Rape Victims Rape Trauma Syndrome - A variety of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Three Phases:

Acute Phase - usually about a month Long-Term Reorganization Phase may last a year or longer Resolution Stage - rape is no longer a central focus of her life Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Can result from rape, child abuse, and other traumatic experiences General pattern for trauma survivors

About 1/3 seem to recover spontaneously. About 1/3 develop symptoms that remit after about 2-3 months. About 1/3 have symptoms that persist for 6 months or longer. Similar pattern is seen in rape survivors. Psychological distress is not affected by stranger vs. acquaintance rape. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Avoidance Symptoms Try not to think about it

Avoid people/places that are reminders Re-Experiencing Symptoms nightmares flashbacks Physiological symptoms easily startled/jumpy difficulty concentrating panic attacks (increased autonomic arousal) Treatment of PTSD

Challenge cognitive distortions (examples: it was my fault or all men are dangerous or I cant sleep in my bedroom anymore) Relaxation training to cope with anxiety Re-telling the story of what happened to help with cognitive & emotional processing What would happen if you reported a sexual assault to campus police?

Talk with police officer Written account of what happened Medical attention (for treatment and evidence collection) What happens to the perpetrator depends in part on what the victim wants: Record in perpetrators file If perpetrator is ISU student, campus judicial system may be involved Criminal prosecution (through states attorney)

Rohypnol - Rohypnol is used as a sleeping pill in some countries,but has never been approved for use in the U. S. Chemical Name - Flunitrazepam Street names - Roofies, Roach, R-2, Mind Erasers, Roche', Stupifi, Shays Description - Rohypnol usually comes in the form of pills Use - Tablets of Rohypnol are ingested orally, usually in a drink. After being slipped into the drink Rohypnol leaves no detectable taste, color or odor, and will take effect between 15 minutes and 1 hour. Effects - Rohypnol causes visual disturbance, drowsiness,

confusion, dizziness, motion difficulty, respiratory depression and amnesia. The effects can last for up to 8 hours after ingestion. GHB (Gamma-Hydroxybutyerate) - GHB has calming and euphoric effects which have made its use popular at clubs and raves. It is also promoted as a muscle builder although its effectiveness as one has never been proved. Chemical Name - Gamma-hydroxybutyrate, gamma-hydroxybutyramine, gamma hydroxybutyric acid Street names - GHB, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Grievous Bodily Harm, GBH, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, Liquid G,

Somatomax, Cherry Meth, Easy Lay, Gamma 10 Description - GHB is a clear odorless liquid that has a salty taste to it. Use - GHB is put into a drink which will mask the salty taste it has. Effects - GHB usually takes effect within 15 minutes of ingestion and its effects can last for several hours after ingestion depending on the dosage. The effects include decreased inhibitions, drowsiness, deep unresponsive sleep, respiratory arrest, nausea, convulsions, amnesia and loss of consciousness. When mixed with alcohol GHB can cause the cenral nervous system to shut down and can result in a coma or even death. Ketamine - Ketamine is a fast acting general anesthetic which can

be used in both humans and animals. It is often used at clubs and raves for its euphoric effects. Chemical Name - Ketaset, Vetalar Street names - Special K, Ket, K, Vitamin K, Kit Kat, Keller, Cat Valium, Purple, Super C Description - Ketamine comes in the form of a liquid, a powder or a tablet. Use - Ketamine can come in a powder form which resembles cocaine, or in a liquid form. The powder form can be snorted, mixed into drinks or smoked. The liquid form can be injected, applied to smokable materials or mixed into a drink. Effects - Ketamine can distort the sense of balance, time judgement and

ability to communicate, cause blurred vision, numbness, disorientation, trembling, hallucinations, amnesia, convulsions, respiratory depression and loss of consciousness. The effects typically last for an hour although it is not uncommon for them to last for 4 - 6 hours. Users generally don't fully recover from the drug for 48 hours.

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