Radiographic Errors and Artifacts

Radiographic Errors and Artifacts

RADIOGRAPHIC ERRORS AND ARTIFACTS Dr. Walid Samir Salem BDS, MS, MHPE lecturer, Oral Surgery Department Member, Dental education unit

Films with errors should be avoided due to the following reasons: Retake will lead to: Expose the patient to unnecessary radiation. Waste film & time (money).

Interfere with accurate interpretation and diagnosis. Causes of faulty radiograph The majority of the errors produced can be categorized into three groups:

I. Technique & Projection errors. II. Exposure errors. III.Processing errors. I. Technique & Projection errors:

a. Blurred Patient preparation error: image Radiopaque artifact Pressure mark

b. Film placment artifact: Reversed film Apices cut off Dropped film corner Black line

Double image Dot artifact Crown not shown Area of interest not shown c. Projection errors: Incorrect vertical

angulation. Incorrect horizontal angulation PID alignment artifact chnique & Projection errors a. Patient preparation error

Radiopaque artifact Dental appliances, body piercings, jewelry & eye glasses left in the mouth during exposure will appear as radiopaque artifact superimposed over the dental image. Correction: all these items should

be removed before placing of the film. chnique & Projection errors a. Patient preparation error Blurred image Movement of the film, patient or

X-ray tube head during exposure will result in a blurred image. Correction: the operator should explain for the patient & remind him to remain motionless during exposure.

chnique & Projection errors a. Patient preparation error: Pressure mark Pressure from the incisal edge & cusps of the teeth (mostly in the pediatric occlusal radiograph). May appear black or white.

Correction: ask the patient to bite gently. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact Double image When an exposed film is reexposed the resulting film will

have 2 superimposed images hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact Reversed film Low density with herring bone, tire-track or dotted pattern, as a

result of directing the X-ray through the lead foil side of the film back. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact Dot artifact

The identification (embossed) dot produce a circular radiolucent artifact on the final radiograph. This may interfere with interpretation of the apical areas of the teeth. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact

Apices cut off Occur when the film is not positioned apically enough to record the entire tooth. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact

Crown not shown There is no enough film extending occlusally. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact

Dropped film corner The film edge is not placed parallel to the occlusal surface of the teeth. hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact

Area of interest not shown This is the result of not placing the film to cover all the teeth in the area of interest and not centralizing the film over the area of interest. hnique & Projection errors

b. Film placment artifact Black line Due to excessive bending of the film prior to its placement inside the patients mouth (pressure causes ionization of silver halide upon processing will be darker).

hnique & Projection errors b. Film placment artifact Distortion Due to bending of the film to eliminate the patients discomfort specially in lower premolar area

and upper central incisors. norm distorti hnique & Projection errors c. Projection errors

Incorrect vertical angulation It will lead to: Elongated image due to insufficient v. angulation ( too flat), or Shortened image due to excessive v. angulation ( too

steep) hnique & Projection errors c. Projection errors hnique & Projection errors c. Projection errors

hnique & Projection errors c. Projection errors Incorrect horizontal angulation Is the appearance of the interproximal surfaces of the adjacent teeth over each other. This is due to improper H.A. due

to improper alignment of the C.R. through the contact points i.e. not // to interproximal surfaces. hnique & Projection errors c. Projection errors hnique & Projection errors

c. Projection errors PID alignment artifact If the PID is misaligned and the xray is not centered over the film, a partial image is seen on the resultant radiograph, this partial image is called cone-cut. It appear as a clear area with

curved outline. Asuan Egy. II. Exposure errors. Blank image. Low density image.

High density image. Image with high and low contrast. xposure errors Blank image A film that didnt receive radiation will have no image

and will appear clear. xposure errors Low density (faint) image xposure errors

High density image III. Processing errors Chemical errors: Light image. Dark image. Blank image. Reticulation.

Black spot or patch. Black line. White spot or patch. Yellowish brown discoloration. Film Handling errors:

Writing lines Developer cut off Fixer cut off Overlapped film Finger nail artifact Smudge. Scratched film

Static electricity Processing errors Chemical errors Reticulation When the film subjected to a

sudden temperature changes between the developer and water. Appear as cracked film.

Processing errors Chemical errors Black spot or patch Developer contamination before immersion into the developer solution.

Processing errors Chemical errors Black line Developer contamination processing hanger clips Dirty roller in automatic processor

Processing errors Chemical errors White spot or patch Contamination with fixer before processing

Processing errors Chemical errors Yellowish brown discoloration Exhausted solution or insufficient rinsing Processing errors

Film Handling errors Writing lines Appear on the radiograph due to writing on the film packet with ballpoint pen or lead pencil. It may appear black or white.

Finger nail artifact Black or whit crescent shape mark due to rough handling of the film. Processing errors Film Handling errors

Developer cut off A straight blank white border due to underdeveloped portion. The film may not be completely immersed in the developer solution. Processing errors

Film Handling errors Fixer cut off A straight black border. The film may not be completely immersed in the developer solution. Processing errors

Film Handling errors Overlapped film Film that overlap in developer are white, while that overlap in fixer are black Processing errors

Film Handling errors Smudge (finger print) When the film touched by fingers contaminated with developer or fixer Processing errors

Film Handling errors Scratched film White lines appear on the film due to careless handling of the film.

Processing errors Film Handling errors Static electricity Thin black branching lines Occurs when two surfaces are rubbed together against each other vigorously, this creates an electric

charges with visible light emitted which is capable of exposing the x-ray film, thus leading to ionization of AgBr crystals at this area. Occur most frequently during Metallic partial

denture Blurred Reverse image Apices cut off

Dropped corner Distortion Horizontal overlap Elongatio n

Double image Static electricity Low denisty

White spot or patch Yellowish brown discoloration Reverse image Developer cut off

Conecut Thank You

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