"High impact teaching, real learning" T&L at DGGS

"High impact teaching, real learning" T&L at DGGS

Thinking Hard High challenge for all students to meet the challenges of reformed A Levels Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection Skills over content Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level How do you ensure that the level of challenge is correct? How do you ensure that each lesson leads to progress? Developing language for learning

High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection Skills over content Is it pitched at the right level? Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning How do you ensure that all pupils have the language they need to access the lesson? How do you ensure that all pupils have the language they need to express their ideas? High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection Skills over content Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning High participation and challenge How do you ensure that pupils can not be passive in their learning? How do you make all pupils accountable for their learning? Metacognition and reflection Skills over content

Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection How do you ensure that pupils reflect on their learning and make improvements? How do you ensure that pupils think about their own thinking? Skills over content Most discussions of assessment start in the wrong place. The most important assessment that goes on in a school isnt done to students but goes on inside students. Every student walks around with a picture of what is acceptable, what is good enough. Each time he works on something he looks at it and assesses it. Is this good enough? Do I feel comfortable handing this in? Does it meet my standards? (P103, An Ethic of Excellence) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bojaoVYrBmE Thinking Hard Habits

Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection Skills over content How do you ensure that pupils have the skills required for the exam? How do you ensure that teaching time is focused on skills and that content does not dominate? Thinking Hard Habits Pitching at the right level Developing language for learning High participation and challenge Metacognition and reflection Focus on skills over content

Thinking Hard High challenge for all students to meet the challenges of reformed A Levels The challenges of reformed A levels Increased challenge, increased synoptic approach. Increased content, including increased mathematical content in many subjects. It is now more important than ever to promote active thinking. The Thinking Hard Process In todays session Key question: How can we ensure that all students we teach are Thinking Hard and challenged beyond their learning comfort zone? Key objective: To introduce you to high challenge; low preparation techniques that can be used across a range of A Level subjects Explain a time in a lesson recently when students had to think hard. What was it about the activity that caused deeper thinking? Learning happens when people have to think hard Prof. Robert Coe Durham University

The Thinking Hard Process The thinking devices provide high challenge for all students in every lesson Use of think-pair-share to make thinking audible Active thinking helps students to memorise key information Reading strategies to support thinking outside of lessons Low preparation for teachers The challenges of reformed A Levels What are the main challenges for our students? What are the implications of these challenges for our planning and delivery of lessons? The challenges of reformed A Levels Challenge 1: Theyre harder! Increased synoptic approach More challenging concepts and questions Increased mathematical content for many subjects Challenge 2: Theres more stuff to remember Increased content Exams at the end of two years The challenges of reformed A Levels Challenge 1: Theyre harder! Solution: application of the THINKING HARD DEVICES Challenge 2: Theres more stuff to remember Solution: ACTIVE THINKING to improve students memory and recall skills; emphasis on regular practice and testing

Once upon a time a tawndy rapsig named Gub found a tix of pertollic asquees. So chortlich was he with his discovery that he murtled a handful to show Kon, a cagwitzpat. Pagoo! cried Kon. With these you could treeple a frange! No, smiled Gub, I think I'll just paible a catwicine. 1. What did Gub find? 2. How was Gub feeling with his discovery 3. After Kon cries Pagoo, what does he suggest to Gub? The role of the government in the economy during the First World War Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of

working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%.

As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Option 1 Make notes Option 2 Highlight important points Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and

rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Low thinking options Understand ? Able to revise from notes Thinking and challenge ?? Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough

wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Option 3 Comprehension questions High challenge, low preparation Increase amount of active thinking for all and improve the chances that students will remember the material. All of this without increasing my workload Thinking Hard Process Knowledge and understanding Analysis and application Flexibility of thinking Shared language about thinking

1. Reduce 2. Transform 3. Deconstruct 4. Derive 5. Prioritise 6. Categorise 7. Criticise 8. Trends and patterns 9. Practise 10.Make connections 11.Compare 12.Extend 12 Thinking Hard devices The Thinking Hard Process Knowledge and understanding Reduce Transform Deconstruct Derive Analysis and application Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Practise Flexibility of thinking

Make connections Compare Extend Knowledge and understanding Reduce Transform Derive Deconstruct Analysis Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Application Practise Flexibility of thinking Compare Make connections Extend

Knowledge and understanding Reduce Transform Derive Deconstruct Analysis Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Application Practise Flexibility of thinking Compare Make connections Extend Knowledge and understanding Reduce

Transform Derive Deconstruct Analysis Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Application Practise Flexibility of thinking Compare Make connections Extend The Thinking Hard Process Knowledge and Understanding Reduce Transform Deconstruct

Derive Analysis and application Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Practise Draw conclusions Flexibility of thinking Make connections Compare Extend Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers

from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and

from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Understanding and knowledge Reduce Reduce the paragraph on CONTROL OF INDUSTRY to two bullet points. 12 words maximum for each point. Explain DILUTION AGREEMENTS in 12 words. Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women

to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for

farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Understanding and knowledge Reduce Reduce the paragraph on CONTROL OF INDUSTRY to two bullet points. 12 words maximum for each point. Transform Change the information about WAR PRODUCTION into four pictures or images. No words allowed. Explain DILUTION AGREEMENTS in 12 words. Conscription:

Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and

produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Understanding and knowledge Reduce Reduce the paragraph on CONTROL OF

INDUSTRY to two bullet points. 12 words maximum for each point. Analysis Transform Change the information about WAR PRODUCTION into four pictures or images. No words allowed. Explain DILUTION AGREEMENTS in 12 words. Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Prioritise Underline the three most important sentences here. Rank 1-3. Briefly explain number 1. Cross out the least important sentence. Which policy would have done most to alter the lives of citizens

on the Home Front? Explain your thinking. Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90%

of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Understanding and knowledge Reduce Reduce the paragraph on CONTROL OF INDUSTRY to two bullet points. 12 words maximum for each point.

Analysis Transform Change the information about WAR PRODUCTION into four pictures or images. No words allowed. Explain DILUTION AGREEMENTS in 12 words. Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Prioritise Underline the three most important sentences here. Rank 1-3. Briefly explain number 1. Cross out the least important sentence. Which policy would have done most to alter the lives of citizens on the Home Front? Explain your thinking.

Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs.

Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Criticise Explain why many Liberal MPs would criticise the governments conscription policy. Criticise the governments policy of borrowing money from the USA. Understanding and knowledge Reduce

Reduce the paragraph on CONTROL OF INDUSTRY to two bullet points. 12 words maximum for each point. Analysis Transform Change the information about WAR PRODUCTION into four pictures or images. No words allowed. Explain DILUTION AGREEMENTS in 12 words. Conscription: Until 1916, the British armed forces relied on me nvolunteering to serve. Between 1914 and 1916, volunteerism was very successful. 2 million men volunteered. Recruitment posters and propaganda encouraged young men to join up. Volunteerism, however, could not supply new recruits in sufficient numbers. In January 1916, the first Military Service Act introduced conscription for single men aged 18-41. Following the terrible casualties on the Somme in the summer of 1916, the second Military Service Act extended conscription to married men. In February 1918, with Russia pulling out of the war, a third Act extended conscription to 50 year olds. Men refusing to sign up could be imprisoned. Prioritise Underline the three most important sentences here. Rank 1-3. Briefly explain number 1. Cross out the least important sentence. Which policy would have done

most to alter the lives of citizens on the Home Front? Explain your thinking. Flexibility of thinking Control of industry: Although there were some trade union-led anti-war demonstrations in 1914 against a capitalist war, it soon became obvious that most workers supported the war effort. From 1915 onwards, the government and unions signed dilution agreements (to allow semi-skilled and unskilled workers and women to be trained to do jobs previously reserved for skilled craftsmen). These agreements were particularly important for the increased output of munitions. Trade unions were expected to work closely with employers and avoid strikes. In return, trade unions demanded state controls on profits and rents, safeguards so workers would get their old jobs back when the war was over, and exemption of highly-skilled workers from conscription. Industrial relations were not always harmonious (there were major strikes on Clydeside (1915) and South Wales (1917), however, the number of working days lost to strikes fell from 10 million in 1913 to under 3 million in 1916. Overall, the war enhanced the reputation of the trade unions. War production: 2 million shells had been produced by early 1915; by 1918, shell production had reached 187 million. 270 machine guns had been produced in 1914; 120,000 were made in 1918. 1915 Neuve Chapelle (failed British offensive) - failure blamed on a shortage of shells: Lloyd George then persuaded Parliament to extend the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) in order to increase state powers over industry. He also successfully campaigned for a Ministry of Munitions to oversee the purchase, production and supply of all war materials. He was also appointed to head this new ministry himself. The Ministry of Munitions set up a central purchasing system for buying essential war materials. It organised British science to help the war effort and encouraged the development of new weapons (such as, mortars and the tank). It encouraged factories to convert from peacetime to wartime production and set up many of its own factories (e.g. a MoM factory in Leeds employed 16,000 workers and

produced 25 million shells by 1918). By 1918, the MoM directly managed 250 state factories, supervised another 20,000 factories and controlled almost 4 million workers. It encouraged women to enter jobs previously dome by men. It controlled prices, wages and profits, rationed essential foods, bought 90% of imports and had charge of transport and fuel. Key industries came under state control (railways, docks and coal mines). The state altered clocks by introducing BST, reduced the strength of alcoholic drinks and limited opening hours for pubs. Feeding soldiers and workers: Problem: there was a shortage of agricultural workers; German U-boats were sinking merchant ships bringing supplies to Britain. A Department of Food Production was set up to increase the amount of homegrown foodstuffs. The government paid farmers to plough wasteland, allocated scarce fertilisers, supplied prisoners of war to work on the land and encouraged women to volunteer for farm work. Raising money: The cost of the Great War was staggering. Government spending rose from 200m in 1913 to 2,600m in 1918. Old ideas about balancing the budget had to be abandoned. Instead the government had to borrow money from its own people and from neutral countries.. During the war, Britains national debt increased by 1,200%. As well as borrowing, the government also had to increase income taxes on the affluent middle classes and manual workers. Reliance on the USA: Many traditional export markets were blocked off by the war. One obvious solution was to rely on the growing economic power of the USA. Britain bought huge amounts of war materials from American suppliers, much of it financed through the New York banking firm, JP Morgan. In 1915, Britain secured a loan of $5,000m. The war cost Britain $5m per day, of which $2m was raised in the USA. Criticise Explain why many Liberal MPs would criticise the governments conscription policy.

Criticise the governments policy of borrowing money from the USA. Extend Compare the governments approach to the wartime economy with its war on poverty in the pre-war years. Write a knowledge style essay question that could be asked by the examiners on this topic. Simplify (a) (25)2, (1) (b) 2. 2 , giving your answer in the form a + b, where a and b are integers. 2 5 3 2 (4) Solve the simultaneous equations

y 2x 4 = 0 4x2 + y2 + 20x = 0 (7) 3. Given that y = 4x3 (a) 5 x2 , x 0, find in their simplest form Moving from dy , dx (3) Increasing challenge in mathematics and the sciences, without increasing time required for preparation

(b) y dx . (3) 4. (i) A sequence U1, U2, U3, ... is defined by Un + 2 = 2Un + 1 Un, n 1, U1 = 4 and U2 = 4. Find the value of (a) U3, (1) 20 (b) U Answer all questions

n . n 1 (2) (ii) Another sequence V1, V2, V3, ... is defined by Vn + 2 = 2Vn + 1 Vn, n 1, V1 = k and V2 = 2k, where k is a constant. (a) Find V3 and V4 in terms of k. (2) To 5 Given that V n = 165, n 1 (b)

find the value of k. (3) 5. The equation (p 1)x2 + 4x + (p 5) = 0, where p is a constant, has no real roots. (a) Show that p satisfies p2 6p + 1 > 0. (3) (b) Hence find the set of possible values of p. (4) Simplify (a) (25)2, (1) Knowledge and understanding

(b) 2. 2 , giving your answer in the form a + b, where a and b are integers. 2 5 3 2 (4) Solve the simultaneous equations y 2x 4 = 0 Make a flow-chart to show the steps required to complete Q4. 4x2 + y2 + 20x = 0 (7) 3. Given that y = 4x3 (a) 5 x2

Flexibility of thinking Make a five-step guide to support a Year 12 student encountering these questions for the first time. , x 0, find in their simplest form dy , dx (3) (b) y dx . (3) 4. (i) A sequence U1, U2, U3, ... is defined by Flexibility of thinking

Un + 2 = 2Un + 1 Un, n 1, U1 = 4 and U2 = 4. Find the value of (a) U3, (1) 20 (b) Analysis and application U n . n 1 (2) (ii) Write your own exam question and markscheme for this topic. Another sequence V1, V2, V3, ... is defined by Vn + 2 = 2Vn + 1 Vn, n 1,

What are the two most difficult questions here? Why are they so hard? Answer the most difficult. V1 = k and V2 = 2k, where k is a constant. (a) Find V3 and V4 in terms of k. (2) 5 Given that Flexibility of thinking V n = 165, n 1 (b) find the value of k. (3)

5. The equation (p 1)x2 + 4x + (p 5) = 0, where p is a constant, has no real roots. (a) Show that p satisfies p2 6p + 1 > 0. (3) (b) Hence find the set of possible values of p. (4) One of these questions cannot be answered. Which one and why? Using the Thinking Hard Process: A Level English Literature Analysis Knowledge and understanding Prioritise: Act 1, scene 1: create a short-list Act 2 scene 3: Lines 40-55 - read through of Iagos complaints and rank them in order

Iagos plan, reduce each sentence to a key of seriousness phrase and then reduce his plan to 3 key Transform points. Animal imagery is used by Shakespeare throughout the play. For example, Othello uses imagery around hawks in his soliloquy about Desdemona in Act 3 scene 3. Add your own metaphors based on animals, nature or the cosmos, to present ideas about characters or their relationships at chosen points in the play. Reduce Take any soliloquy and reduce it to 10 key words. Share your words with your partner and discuss why you have chosen these words. Choose 5 more that may give a different view of Iago or emphasise a different theme. Summarise the function of the soliloquy in 15 words (your own words). Act 1 scene 3: Read Iagos speeches and consider what seems to be his attitude to human relationships. Reduce it to 6 key sentences or phrases and consider how these lines should be spoken. Act 2 scene 1: lines 212-235 here Iago persuades Roderigo why Desdemona and Othellos relationship must fail. Summarise his argument in 5 brief bullet points. Act 2 scene 3: Lines 40-55 - read through Iagos plan, reduce each sentence to a key phrase and then reduce his plan to 3 key points. Write a title or headline for each scene, capturing what is most important in terms of character development. Film trailer: construct a storyboard depicting key moments and accompanying key quotations from the play, to convey what you consider to be the main ideas about love which the play explores. Decide upon the music that would accompany the trailer and explain why your choice is appropriate. Act 3 scene 3: read lines 178-206. In a pair, agree what seem to be the key words in each line. Now, working only with these words, experiment with different ways of presenting the exchange between Iago and Othello. Flexibility of thinking Prioritise Select one stand-alone quotation from each soliloquy that epitomises Iagos thoughts at that point and, when compared to his speeches to others, will help to illustrate Make the use of dramatic irony elsewhere. connections:

Tennessee Act 1, scene 1: create a short-list of Iagos complaints and rank them in order of seriousness Rate/rank the success of these villains (define your criteria first): Iago (Othello), Wickham (Pride and Prejudice) and Alec (Tess of the DUrbervilles). Williams gave notes for images to be Act 3 scene 3: read lines 178-206. In a pair, agree what seem to be the key words in each line. Now, working only with these words, experiment with different ways of presenting the exchange between Iago and Othello. Flexibility of thinking projected on stage during The Glass Make connections Extend: Iago on the psychiatrists couch: imagine Iago is Link Othello thematically to texts from your wider reading. For example: Menagerie. Select 3 key scenes from How would you connect Othello to Wuthering Heights? being questioned byTessaof psychiatrist about his obsession with What connects Desdemona to Tess from the DUrbervilles? Othello and decide what should be Othello

and Cassio. What questions you would ask him, Extend projected background. Explain Othello and the marriage guidance counsellor: take Othellos soliloquy in Act 3, scene 3, lines 260-279 as a starting point for his thoughts at this stage. One person reads the soliloquy while thein otherthe punctuates it where appropriate with suitable, downto-earth words of advice. use lines from his soliloquies to help answer these Any scene freeze the action and voice Iagos true thoughts. Eg Act 3 scene 3, Act 3 scene 4 or Act 4 scene 2. your choices. Act 3 scene 3: direct Iago and Emilia and experiment with presenting different views of their relationship through how they interact during lines 302-321 questions. Tennessee Williams gave notes for pictures/visual images to be projected on stage during The Glass Menagerie. Select 3 key scenes from Othello and decide what should be projected in the background. Explain your choices. Decide upon the music that should accompany the first entrance and last exit of each character and explain your choices. Select a passage that should be used on paper 1 of the exam and explain your choice. Sketch a design for a new book cover for Othello which quotations should be included and what should be in the blurb? Knowledge & Understanding Deriving from first principles: What do we already know about the gradient of straight lines?

How can this be used to define the gradient of a curve at a point? What are the outcomes when applied to different functions? Application Practice the general rules with increasingly more complex functions Terms: x3, 5x-2 Expressions with indices: x(x2 3) Complex expressions: 2 _ + 3 x2 3 x Analysis Identify patterns and criticise findings: Is there a pattern in the results? Can you generate a general rule? Can you prove it? Will it always work? Why does it work? Flexibility of thinking Connecting differentiation to practical situations e.g. Given the volume (V) of an expanding sphere is related to its radius (r) by the formula V = 4/3 r3 find the rate of change of volume with respect to the radius when the radius is 5. Extending by using differentiation as a stepping stone to solve a more complex problem e.g.

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x3 3x2 + 2x -1 at point (3, 5) Thinking Hard: No prep-quick win strategies for A Level lessons Arts-Humanities: complex text Science-Mathematics: worksheet of Qs Identify three messages contained in this text. Explain each message in 15 words max. Transform the argument of paragraph 2 into an image. No words allowed. Break this text into five chunks. Explain why the information in each chunk might be true/criticise each chunk. Underline the three most important sentences. Briefly explain your no. 1. Cross out the least important sentence here. Explain your thinking. Sort this information into three categories. Highlight and think of a suitable title for each category. Write down three questions youd like to ask a professor about this text.

Make a flow-chart to show the steps required to complete Q4. What are the two most difficult questions here? Why are they so hard? Answer the most difficult. Which is the easiest question here? Why is it so easy? Which skills will you require to answer these questions? Group together questions that require the same technique. Highlight in three different colours. One of these questions cannot be answered. Which one and why? Make a five-step guide to support a Year 12 student encountering these questions for the first time. Write your own exam question and mark-scheme for this topic. High challenge, low preparation No new resources required No additional preparation required beyond careful lesson planning to ensure students become active in their thinking

Prof. Coe Learning happens when people have to think hard Prof. Willingham Memory is the residue of thought When students Think Hard they learn and remember Thinking Hard outside of lessons Reading strategies Approaches to revision Practice and testing Thinking Hard outside of lessons Reading strategies Approaches to revision Practice and testing Thinking Hard outside of lessons Reading strategies To improve retention when reading get students to use the WHY DRILL. After every sentence/paragraph/section students must ask themselves or discuss in pairs WHY that statement/information might be true. Another reading strategy is the HIERARCHICAL DIAGRAM. This works well for longer extracts. Chapter theme / topic Main idea 1

Specific detail A Main idea 2 Specific detail D Specific detail B Specific detail C Main idea 4 Main idea 3 Specific detail F Specific detail G Specific detail H Specific

detail E Specific detail I Specific detail L Specific detail J Specific detail K Thinking Hard 12 THINKING HARD devices to enhance thinking in lessons for all students + READING STRATEGIES to support thinking hard outside of lessons In your groups Think: Reflect on what you have just heard about the Thinking Hard Process. Consider a lesson you taught this week. How could you have increased thinking by using one of the methods? Pair: Share your thoughts and ask questions to clarify understanding Share: What is your best point to share with the group? Prof. Coe Learning happens when people have to think hard Prof. Willingham Memory is the residue of thought

When students Think Hard they learn and remember Creating a climate for Thinking Hard: the importance of high quality student talk and expert questioning Final reflection What have you thought hard about during this session? What have you especially agreed with? What have you disagreed with? What have you found challenging? What actions will you take forward to enhance your classroom teaching tomorrow? Thinking Hard Planning Sheet Knowledge and understanding Reduce Transform Derive Deconstruct

Analysis Prioritise Categorise Criticise Trends and patterns Application Practise Flexibility of thinking Compare Make connections Extend Thinking Hard Planning Sheet The Thinking Hard Process Questions that unlock thinking Explanation Why might that be the case? How would we know that? Who might be responsible for? Hypothetical What might happen if? What would be the possible benefits/impact of X? Evidence - How do you know that? What evidence is there to support this view? Clarification - Can you put that another way? Can you give me an example? Can you explain that term? Linking and extending - Can you add to what X just said? How does this idea support/challenge what we explored earlier in the lesson?

Summary and synthesis What remains unknown at this point? What else do we need to know or do to understand this better? Metacognition What was the most difficult part of that task? How would you do it differently next time? How could you approach this question? Think-Pair-Share Teacher asks a question Students are given time to think about their responses Students pair up and discuss their responses Think-Pair-Share Various Perspectives State a question and ask pairs to think in terms of a different perspective e.g. A character in a story, a particular scientist or thinker, a person from history. Etc Think-Pair-Share (Listen) When students are sharing ideas in their pairs remind them to listen to their partners ideas. When are asked to share, students share the idea of their partner not their own. Think-Pair-Silent Share The students share their ideas as a silent written dialogue in the form of a spider diagram. This allows students to deepen thinking by taking time to present information in a written form. Knowledge and Understanding: Reduce

Reduce the key argument into a tweet (140 characters) OR 12 words. Reduce the paragraph to three key points Reduce this paragraph to 6 words. In pairs compare your words, add to of the best to your list Explain in a maximum of 12 words Knowledge and Understanding: Transform Change this image into six words/a paragraph. Transform this paragraph into a diagram/chart/sketch. No words allowed. How does this text/image/performance make you feel? Change this idea/event/character into a model. Analysis: Prioritise Change the most serious problem here into an image. No words allowed! Label your partners image. Why do you think that this problem is so serious? Diamond Nine activity. Justify your top three choices. Any ranking exercise and justification of top and bottom responses. Which of these questions is the most difficult/easiest? Explain why. Underline the most important/thought provoking/surprising/ shocking statement. Neatly cross out the least important point. Explain your thinking. Analysis: Categorise Sort this information into three categories. Highlight and think of a suitable title for each category. Group together questions that require the same technique to answer. Highlight in three different colours. Flexibility: Extend Write down three questions you would like to askabout. Flexibility: Making connections How is this question/text/image similar to X? How is it different? Flexibility: Deconstruct Write a three-step guide for a Year 12 student to answer these types of question.

Think-Pair-Square Students share with two other students after they have completed ThinkPair-Share (4-square). Think-Write/Draw-Share Students write or draw their own ideas paired discussion with a partner. This allows ideas to be developed more before sharing.

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