Pulmonary Edema vs Pneumonia - Chemeketa Community College
Pulmonary Edema vs Pneumonia Paramedic Program Sp2008 Acute Pulmonary Edema, Hypotension, Shock Clinical signs: shock, hypotension, congestive heart failure, acute pulmonary edema Most likely problem? Acute Pulmonary Edema First-line Actions
Oxygen Nitroglycerine SL Furosemide 0.5 to 1mg/kg Morphine IV 2 to10 mg Volume problem Administer Fluid Pump problem Bradycardia?
See algorithm Rate problem Tachycardia? See algorithm Blood pressure Lets Review:
Cardiac Output 5000-6000 ml/min. HR or SV = CO Sympathetic effects: HR and SV Parasympathetic: Slows HR Little effect on SV Review: SV = pressure in ventricle Frank Starling effect Peripheral vascular constriction
increases venous return = Increased RV output. Vasodilation of arteries decreases PVR and diastolic pressure = Decreased CO. Vital Signs Normal B/P is 120/70 mmHg Increases with age General: Systolic 100 + age up to 140 At age 50: usually 140 mmHg
Increases 1 mmHg/yr after 50. CHF Causes AMI Left ventricular enlargement Normal heart muscle Abnormal Cardiac Function Dispatched as:
Man down Chest pain Heart attack SOB Fainted Dizzy Passed out Choking Stroke DFO DRT Initial Assessment:
Brief History Onset Provoking factors Quality Radiation Severity Time BP changes Initial Assessment Meds Cardiac rhythm Abnormal breathing
Edema Rales Changes in skin color and moisture Right and Left Heart Failure Right Heart Failure Causes COPD Left heart failure
Progression Right ventricle cannot eject all of the blood Fluid/pressure backs up Right atrium Venous system Pedal edema, JVD Left Heart Failure Causes High afterload
Progression Left ventricle cannot eject all of the blood Fluid/pressure backs up Left atrium Lung tissue Alveoli Pulmonary edema Acute Left Ventricular Failure Acute LVF from heart disease: #1 cause of heart failure. Assume the worst, hope for best Pt. with CAD w/ hx of MI(new or old) May develop LVF.
Frequently LVF is only manifestation of AMI. LVF Common causes Systemic HTN Afterload Coronary artery disease Arteriosclerosis/atherosclerosis Ischemia Local/temporary occlusion
LVF Common Causes Infarction Permanent, necrosis Significant Sized Infarct Decrease effective wall motion Decreased stroke volume Cardiomyopathy Alcoholism one of main causes LVF
Other Causes Volume overload Bag of Potato Chips Severe anemia Hypoxemia LVF and Pulmonary Edema Incidence of CHF doubles per decade of life > 3 million in US; > 400,000 new diagnoses/yr 5 yr mortality rate /p dx; 60% in men 43% in women
Basically this happens Forward or backward ventricular flow. Forward (LVF) reduced flow into aorta and systemic circulation Backward elevated systemic venous pressure NY Heart Associations classification of CHF
Class I Not limited by symptoms Class II Fatigue, dyspnea, other sx with ordinary physical activity Class III Marked limitation with normal activity Class IV Symptoms at rest or with any activity
Narcotic abuse Especially Inhaled (Heroin) Altitude sickness. Acute Findings History Recent change in sleep patterns More frequent trips to the bathroom Need to sleep on more pillows at night Recent move to the recliner at nights New episodes of PND Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
Sudden awakening with acute shortness of breath Relieved after standing or sitting upright for a period of time (Midnight Walmart shoppers) Acute Findings History Is more nitroglycerin needed to stop the episodes of chest pain? Have nitroglycerin or oxygen doses increased incrementally in the last few days?
Acute Findings Critical Patient General impression/initial assessment Labored respirations Audible sounds Tripod position Frothy sputum Retraction of chest muscles Acute Findings Critical Patient General impression/initial assessment Lung sounds
Wheezing, crackles Middle-to-upper lung fields Diaphoresis, change in skin color Severe anxiety or restlessness Tachycardia or bradycardia Severe hypertension may be present Pulmonary Edema S/S Tachypnea Orthopnea Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea Elevation of pulmonary venous & cap pressures Wakening from sleep
Pulmonary Edema more S/S Noisy Labored Breathing Fine crackles/Rales Wheezes Reflex airway spasm
So, What to do? Decide Sick/NotSick? Vitals Look Skin wet/dry, color, temp JVD Peripheral edema Subtle signs Look Listen Breath sounds
Pulse x 6 Skin Treatment of RVF & LVF CHF a circumstance not a Dx Treatment objectives Decrease myocardial: Workload Oxygen demand Reduce fluid retention Treatment
Decrease Workload No Physical activity Sitting upright Oxygen Pt may tolerate BVM CPAP studies are promising Decreases preload and afterload in CHF Improves lung compliance BiPAP CPAP but also delivers higher pressure during inspiration Treatment
OMI Oxygen, Monitor, IV MONA - if appropriate Morphine, Oxygen, Nitro, ASA (Not in that order) Dont let patient walk!
Position of comfort Reassure Positive Pressure Ventilations if necessary Treatment Vasodilatory Therapy (Nitrates) AMI reperfusion Container expansion reduces preload Morphine Reduce Fluid Retention
Diuretics Lasix Bumex Differential Diagnosis
Pneumonia Herpes Zoster Pleurisy COPD Rib fracture Asthma Angina MI Pneumothorax Pancreatitis Hepatitis Salicylate OD
Bronchitis Hyperventilation Lung carcinoma
Sepsis TB Muscle pain Costochondritis Pericarditis CHF Percardial tamponade Pneumonia The statistics Community acquired pneumonia 4.5 million cases annually in US Winter months/Colder climates More men than women 20% require hospitalization
6th leading cause of death Most common infectious cause of death Viral Upper and lower respiratory infections Untreated, mortality > 30 % 37.7% in elder > 80 y/o Sudden onset of S/S & rapid progression suggest bacterial pneumonia S/S
Productive cough Sputum may be Green Rust-colored Current jelly Foul smelling Rigor or shaking chills
Fever Tachypnea Tachycardia Cyanosis Wheezes, coarse & fine crackles Anorexia & weight loss
Dullness to percussion Altered mentation nosocomial pneumonia aspiration or inhalation; ~ 45% of healthy people aspirate during sleep; even higher in severely ill patients; often bilateral typical pneumonia generally resides in the nasopharynx
carried asymptomatically in approximately 50% of healthy individuals Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia Viral pneumonia Host Factors DKA Alcoholism
Sickle Cell HIV So how do we tell the difference????? CHF/Pulmonary Edema Wheezes, fine & course crackles Cardiac history Productive cough dyspnea suddenly JVD Cyanosis
Finger clubbing Prolonged expiratory phase Tachypnea, tachycardia Accessory muscle use Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea Pneumonia Wheezes, Course & fine crackles Febrile, chills Productive cough Hx URI, OM,
etc. Acute Wt. gain Edema in legs Gradual Wt. loss Cough Productive, thick, green Foamy sputum Productive
(bronchitis) Onset BP Gradual Normal Rapid High Gradual Normal Meds
Antibiotics, cold Digoxin, medicines antiHTN, diuretics History Treatment Oxygen, Medneb, IV fluids High flow O2 NTG, Lasix, MS Bronchodilators Steroids
Oxygen, Med-neb Rx Treatment summary Pulmonary Edema OMI MONA if approp. Position of comfort Nitroglycerin 0.4 mg SL per protocol Morphine 2-10 mg Lasix per protocol (commonly 40 mg)
CPAP if available Pneumonia OMI Limit IV fluids if hx of cardiac disease CPAP if available Medications for Pulmonary edema Nitroglycerine Morphine
Lasix Nitroglycerin Drug Class: Nitrate vasodilator Relieves myocardial workload Dilates the arterial and venous systems Reduces preload to the already overworked ventricles Reduces blood pressure to reduce afterload Allows pressure and fluid to move into the venous system Sublingual doses start at 0.4mg Morphine Sulfate
Drug Class: Narcotic Analgesic Relieves myocardial workload as well Dilates the venous and arterial systems Reduces preload and afterload May cause hypotension Morphine Sulfate: Other Actions Mechanism of action Binds to opiate receptors throughout the CNS Slows respiratory rate at the medulla Stimulates the nausea center in the brain
Morphine Sulfate Administration 2-4mg over 1-2 minutes, every 5 minutes (usual max dose 10 mg) Furosemide Class: Loop Diuretic Moves sodium out of the blood vessels early in the kidney Water follows sodium into the kidney tubules The site pulls out potassium as well Provides some vasodilation within 5 min.
Diuresis within 20-30 min. Furosemide Reduces preload vasodilation Pulls the extra fluid out of the circulation Keeps fluid moving out of the kidney Medication effects Effects seen within 5-15 minutes of administration
Peaks in 30 minutes after administration Furosemide Administration 20-40mg IVP over 1-2 minutes Double the dose if the patient is currently taking a diuretic Relief of symptoms should begin within 5 minutes If no relief, consider BVM SHOPS drugs CHF patients
Street drugs Herbal drugs OTC drugs Prescription drugs Sexual enhancement Street drugs may contribute to CHF Cocaine Meth Inhaled solvents PCP
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