Prokaryotes - AP Biology 2015-2016

Prokaryotes - AP Biology 2015-2016

Prokaryotes Single celled bacteria AP Biology 3 Domain system Domains = Super Kingdoms Bacteria (prokaryotes) Archaea (prokaryotes) extremophiles = live in extreme environments methanogens halogens thermophiles

Eukarya eukaryotes protists fungi plants animals AP Biology Kingdom Bacteria Kingdom AP BiologyFungi

Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia CQ: Which of the following is NOT a domain? Archea

Bacteria Eukarya Prokarya AP Biology Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaebacteria Domain Bacteria AP Biology Domain

Archaea Common ancestor Domain Eukarya Bacteria live EVERYWHERE! Bacteria live in all ecosystems on plants & animals in plants & animals in the soil in depths of the oceans in extreme cold in extreme hot in extreme salt

on the living on the dead AP Biology Bacterial diversity rods and spheres and spirals Oh My! AP Biology eukaryote cell Prokaryote Structure Unicellular

prokaryote cell bacilli, cocci, spirilli Size 1/10 size of eukaryote cell 1 micron (1um) Internal structure no internal compartments

no membrane-bound organelles only ribosomes AP Biology circular, naked DNA not wrapped around proteins Which DOES NOT describe prok? A.Small size B.Has a nucleus C.Usually unicellular AP Biology

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Chromosome Prokaryote Eukaryote double helix AP Biology Prokaryote Cell Wall Structure Gram-positive bacteria peptide side chains cell wall peptidoglycan plasma membrane protein

Thats peptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chains important for lipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharides your doctor to know! outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharides cell wall outer membrane peptidoglycan

AP Biology plasma membrane Prokaryotic metabolism How do bacteria acquire their energy & nutrients? photoautotrophs photosynthetic bacteria

chemoautotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen heterotrophs live on plant & animal matter decomposers & pathogens AP Biology How do Prok. Get food? CHOOSE ALL CORRECT ANSWERS A. B.

C. D. E. AP Biology Photosynthesis Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration Decomposers Chemicals (chemioautotroph) Genetic variation in bacteria Mutations

bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes binary fission error rate in copying DNA 1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation AP Biology Bacteria as pathogens Disease-causing microbes plant diseases wilts, fruit rot, blights

animal diseases tooth decay, ulcers anthrax, botulism plague, leprosy, flesh-eating disease STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia typhoid, cholera TB, pneumonia lyme disease AP Biology Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary) Life on Earth is dependent on bacteria

decomposers recycling of nutrients from dead to living nitrogen fixation only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids plant root nodules help in digestion (E. coli) digest cellulose for herbivores

cellulase enzyme produce vitamins K & B12 for humans produce foods & medicines from yogurt to insulin AP Biology Any Questions?? AP Biology

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