Privacy, Security, and Ethics - WordPress.com

Privacy, Security, and Ethics - WordPress.com

Chapter 5 The System Unit Chapter 5 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Learning Objectives Computing Essentials 2017 1. Differentiate between the five basic types of system units. 2. Describe system boards, including sockets, slots, and bus lines. 3. Recognize different microprocessors, including microprocessor chips and

specialty processors. 4. Compare different types of computer memory including RAM, ROM, and flash memory. 5. Explain expansion slots and cards. 6. Describe bus lines, bus widths, and expansion buses. 7. Describe ports, including standard and specialized ports. 8. Identify power supplies for desktop, laptop, tablet, and mobile devices. 9. Explain how a computer can represent numbers and encode characters electronically. 2 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Introduction Computing Essentials 2017

Speed, capacity, and flexibility determine the power of personal computers. Knowledge of a computers power allows you to make good buying decisions and to determine if your current system will run new applications. Competent end users need to understand the functionality of the basic components of the system unit 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. System Unit Computing Essentials 2017

System Chassis Container that houses most of the electronic components that make up a computer system System Unit Contains systems electronic components and selected secondary storage devices 4 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. System Unit Types 1. Desktops System unit is in a separate case

Computing Essentials 2017 Tower Units All-in-Ones All components including monitor 2. Laptops Portable and much smaller Ultrabooks laptop and tablet in one Gaming high end graphics

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. System Unit Types cont. 3. Tablets Mini tablet Computing Essentials 2017 4. Smartphone Most popular device handheld computer Extend the capabilities of cell phones 5. Wearables Contain embedded computers 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or

posted on a website, in whole or part. Components Although all Computing Essentials 2017 devices come in many shapes and sizes they have similarities such as System boards Microprocessors Memory 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Computing Essentials 2017 System Board System board or main board or motherboard controls communication for the entire computer system All components and devices connect to the system board Data path and traffic monitor Allows various components to communication efficiently with one another 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Sockets and Chips Computing Essentials 2017 The system board contains a variety of electronic components Sockets the connection point for chips Chips Tiny circuit boards etched onto squares of silicon Also called silicon chip, semiconductor, or integrated circuit Mounted on chip carriers

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Slots and Bus Lines Additional system board components: Slots Provide a connection point for specialized cards or circuit boards Provide expansion capabilities for the computer Computing Essentials 2017 Bus lines Connecting lines that provide pathways to support communication among electronic components 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Microprocessor Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor Computing Essentials 2017 Contained on a single chip call a Microprocessor Brains of the computer Two Basic Components of the CPU Control unit Tells the computer system how to carry out a programs instruction Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) Performs arithmetic and logical operations 11 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Relationship between Memory, Processor, Storage, Input and Output Devices Computing Essentials 2017 When user starts a program, its instruction transfer from a storage device to memory. Data needed by programs enters memory from either an input device or a storage device. The control unit interprets and executes instructions in memory, and the ALU performs calculations on the data in memory. Resulting information is stored in

memory, from which it can be sent to an output device or a storage device for future access, as needed. 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Processor Machine Cycle Computing Essentials 2017 For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle. 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Microprocessor Chips Chip capacities are expressed in word size Word is the number of bits that can be processed at one time: 16, 32 or 64 Computing Essentials 2017 Clock Speed Processing speed or the number of times the CPU fetches and processes data or instructions in a second 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Multicore Chips Multicore Processors Two or more separate and independent CPUs within a system unit

Quad-core supports 4 core processes Computing Essentials 2017 Parallel Processing Computers ability to divided tasks into parts that can be distributed across each core Windows 8 and Mac OS X support parallel processing 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Specialty Processors Coprocessors Computing Essentials 2017

Designed to improve specific computing operations Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) / Graphics coprocessors Designed to handle a variety of specialized tasks 3D images Encrypting data Standard features in gaming computers 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Memory Holding area for data, instructions, and information Contained on chips connected to the system board Three well-known types of memory chips: Computing Essentials 2017 RAM

Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory Flash Memory 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Memory The system unit contains two types of memory: Computing Essentials 2017 Volatile memory Loses its contents when

power is turned off Example includes RAM, cache memory and virtual Non volatile memory Does not lose contents when power is removed Examples include ROM and flash memory 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. RAM Random Access Memory (RAM)

chips hold programs and data that the CPU is presently processing Volatile or temporary contents are Computing Essentials 2017 lost when computer is powered off Cache memory temporary, highspeed holding area between the memory and CPU Additional RAM can be added using an expansion module called a DIMM (Dual in-line memory module) 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. RAM continued

Virtual Memory capability that uses hardware and software to allow a computer to compensate for physical memory shortages by temporarily transferring data from random access memory (RAM) to disk storage. Computing Essentials 2017 a memory management

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. RAM continued Each location in memory has an address Memory is expressed in bytes - memory size is measured Computing Essentials 2017 in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB) 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. ROM Read-only memory (ROM)

Information stored by the manufacturer Non-volatile and cannot be changed Computing Essentials 2017 CPU can read, or retrieve data and programs in ROM but the computer cannot change ROM Contain special instructions Start the computer Access memory Handle keyboard input 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Flash Memory Flash memory combines of the features of:

Computing Essentials 2017 RAM, it can be updated ROM, it is non-volatile Contains startup information BIOS (basic input/output system) Amount of RAM Type of keyboard, mouse, and secondary storage devices connected Many ROM chips are being replaced by flash memory 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Expansion Slots and Cards Expands your systems capabilities:

Computing Essentials 2017 Graphics cards - for high quality 3D graphics Network interface cards (NIC) connect devices to networks via cables Wireless network cards - connect devices to networks without cables SD cards - Expansion cards for mobile devices 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Bus Lines / Bus

Computing Essentials 2017 Connect parts of the CPU to each other and various other components on the system board Pathway for bits representing data and instructions Bus width Number of bits that can travel simultaneously down a bus Architecture and design are tied to the speed and power for the computer Two basic categories of buses System bus connects CPU to memory Expansion bus connects CPU to other components 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or

posted on a website, in whole or part. Expansion Buses Principle types: Universal Serial Bus (USB) Connects external USB devices onto the USB bus Computing Essentials 2017 FireWire Primarily used to connect audio and video equipment to the system board PCI Express (PCIe) Single dedicated path for each connected device 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or

posted on a website, in whole or part. Ports Computing Essentials 2017 Socket for connecting external devices to the system unit Ports connect directly To the system board To cards inserted into slots on the system board Two Types Standard Ports Specialized Ports

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Computing Essentials 2017 Ports (PC) 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Computing Essentials 2017 Ports (Laptop) 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Standard Ports USB Keyboards, mice, printers, storage devices Computing Essentials 2017 Ethernet High speed networking HDMI High Definition Multimedia Interface High definition video and audio Thunderbolt Provides high-speed connections Can connect up to 7 separate devices through 1 port

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Specialized Ports External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (eSATA) High-speed connection for external secondary storage Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) Computing Essentials 2017 Connect musical instruments Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mDP) Connection to large monitors VGA & DVI Connections to analog and digital monitors

FireWire High-speed connections to FireWire devices 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Cables Computing Essentials 2017 Used to connect external devices to the system unit via the ports One end of the cable is attached to the device and the other end has a connector that is attached to a matching connector on the port

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Making IT Work for You ~ TV Tuners Using Windows Media Center as a DVR Install TV Tuner to connect your computer or cable to Computing Essentials 2017 your computer 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Power Supply Computers require direct current (DC) power converting alternating

current (AC) from wall outlets or batteries Computing Essentials 2017 Desktop computers have a power supply unit in the system unit Laptops use AC adapters in the system unit Tablets and mobile devices use internal AC adapters Smartphones can use wireless charging platforms 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Electronic Data and Instructions

Digital electronic signals in one of two states: on or off Recognized by computers Computing Essentials 2017 Analog signals Continuous signalvary in strength and quality Created by voices Conversion must take place from analog to digital before processing can occur 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

Numeric Representation Two-state binary system consists of only two digits called bits Computing Essentials 2017 On = 1; negative charge Off = 0; no charge Byte = 8 bits grouped together as a unit. A byte represents a single character in the computer Hexadecimal system Uses 16 digits to represent binary numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F)

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Character Encoding Character encoding standards a unique sequence of binary representation of a particular letter, number or special character. It is used to facilitate communication among computers by using a common language code . Types of Character Encoding: Computing Essentials 2017 ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) the most widely used coding scheme to represent data Used by personal computers

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) Used by mainframe computers Unicode New encoding due to explosion of the Internet Uses 16 bits Recognized by virtually all computer systems 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. A Look to the Future Computing Essentials 2017 Wearable computers

Send and receive email while jogging Maintain your personal schedule book Remember the names of people at a party 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Open-Ended Questions (Page 1 of 3) 1. Describe the five most common types of personal computers. Computing Essentials 2017 2. Describe system boards including sockets, chips, chip carriers, slots, and bus lines.

3. Discuss microprocessor components, chips, and specialty processors. 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Open-Ended Questions (Page 2 of 3) 4. Define computer memory including RAM, ROM, and flash Computing Essentials 2017 memory. 5. Define expansion slots, cards, including graphics cards, network interface cards, wireless network cards, and SD cards.

6. Describe bus lines, bus width, system bus, and expansion bus. 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Open-Ended Questions (Page 3 of 3) 7. Define ports including standard and specialized ports. Computing Essentials 2017 Give examples of each. 8. Describe power supply including power supply units and AC adapters. 9. Discuss electronic data and instructions.

2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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