Prison Management - University of Minnesota Duluth

Prison Management - University of Minnesota Duluth

Prison Management Governing Prisons Corrections Officers Prisons as unique organizations (vs. UMD or General Motors) Dont select clients Have little or no control over release Clients held against their will Clients do most of the daily work in the institution (and are not really paid) Depends on the relationships between

staff & clients How best to run prison? The Old Penology PN vs Auburn model, prison farms, etc. Use of corporal punishment Sociological Research/Implications Interest in inmate culture, argot roles, prisonization, and so forth

Not interested in helping the man control inmates Implies that running a prison demands the cooperation of inmates (CO-inmate agreement, tolerate some violations, etc.) John DiIulio Governing Prisons (1986) Approaches issue from policy/political science background What is a good prison? Confinement model Order, amenity, security

Comparison of three prison systems TX control model MI responsibility model CA consensual model Concludes TX is best, and suggests much of the prison violence in 1960s/70s due to lax, liberal management DiIulio II Critique

Was prison violence of the 1970s due to lax/permissive management? The exceptional leader theory of prison management Defects in the TX system Building Tenders CO use of physical coercion Collapse of TX system in 1980s Importance of Book: MANAGEMENT MATTERS Manager Styles Authoritarian gives orders, manages details, controls all (TOP

DOWN) Joseph Ragen (Stateville until 1960s) George Beto (TX until 1970s, Walking George) Laissez-faire Little/no direction (do what you think is best) Maybe for hospitals (highly trained staff) but probably not prisons Democratic/participatory See, A Model Prison box in Clear et al. book Inmates pool funds to buy amenities, town hall meetings Unit Management

Used heavily in the federal BOP and many states (more popular of late) Divide prison into small units Greatly aided by architecture (pods) Units more manageable Team approach (CO and caseworkers) Better career ladder Restrict inmate movement Corrections Officers How do COs maintain control over the inmate population? Hassine? Conover?

Bases of Power Legit (power b/c of position) Coercive (ability to punish) Reward (ability to reward) Expert (special knowledge, skill, professional judgment) Referent (gain respect) Influences on Power

What dictates the type of power that is most important to a CO? Environment/Structure Coercion less likely in a centralized bureaucracy Expert more valued and training more likely Attitudes/Roles More social distance = less referent/expert power Custody orientation = more coercive Type of prison (Rx or Custody) Rx depends upon more referent/expert power Marquart (1986)

The extent and nature of the use of coercive force Qualitative/participatory studyCO in the Texas Department of Corrections Ass Whooping and Tune up relatively common. Part of CO subculture (build cohesion), how officers got better post or were promoted, maintain control model More common among young Job Satisfaction/Burnout Why Important? What predicts burnout/intention to quit?

Importation (Gender, Race, Education, etc.) Weak effects, but nonwhite, female, more education hold more negative attitudes Deprivation (Perception of Danger) Danger is #1 predictor (mean r = .26) Management (Supervisor Support, Role conflict) Role conflict (r = .22), Support (r = -.16) CO Basics Corrections Officers More popular now (move up ranks, money is a bit better, more qualfications)

Median federal around $40K (State = $32K, Private = 22K) Job prospects = good Corrections Counselors More requirements (psychology degrees) and earn more money (case manager, counselor)

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