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Young Arthur Medieval Legend Retold by Robert D. San Souci Prof. Jim Rush 88thth Grade Grade Literature Literature October, 2017 October, 2017 // Trimester Trimester 33 Summary This excerpt from Young Arthur tells the legend of how the lost heir to Britains throne discovered his identity. Taken for safekeeping as a baby from his father, King Uther, Arthur grows up ignorant of his royal lineage. On a trip to London with his foster family, Arthur pulls an enchanted sword from a stonean act possible only for the true king of Britain. His destiny revealed, Meet the Author Robert D. San Souci

born 1946 Always a Fan One of the first books Robert D. San Souci ever read was a book about King Arthur, and he remembers being fascinated by dragons and knights. In addition to Young Arthur, San Souci has written three other books about the Arthurian legend: Young Guinevere, Young Lancelot, and Young Merlin. San Souci has also retold the tales and legends of Background to the Legend Pretenders and Kings The Arthur legends paint a vivid picture of the intrigues of medieval life. In the Middle Ages, a kings oldest son was considered the heir to his fathers throne. When the enemies of a king wished to take over his kingdom, they might try to kill his son. Arthurian Legends and Merlin In the Arthur legends, a magician named Merlin plays an important role. Legends often include unreal or magical people and relate events that

could never happen in real life. Some legends also contain magical objects that confer special powers or privileges on their bearers. Characteristics of Legend It is a very old story, possibly based in history, about an inspiring figure. Robin Hood and Aladdin In the 1100s, Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote about Merlin, Arthurs adviser. This wise and beloved wizard may have been based on a figure in Welsh history. Find the characteristics of legends evident in the Merlin story. Identify other legendary figures. Why are these figures admired?

Identify Chronological Order Lancelot was kidnapped as a baby by the Lady of the Lake. While serving King Arthur, he became known for his bravery. His son, Galahad, ultimately found the Holy Grail. 1 as a baby Identify the words that show chronological order. 2 while Use chronological order and words such as later and next to summarize a 3 ultimat ely Background: Knighthood and Chivalry In medieval times, a knight (line 20) was a soldier who possessed weaponry and a horsetwo signs that he had greater advantages than most people of his time. Often,

a knight worked for a wealthy landowner. An aspiring knight might enter his masters house as a child and become an apprentice, known as a page, while he trained for knighthood. Knights became associated with a code of values and ideals known as chivalry. These values included loyalty, courtesy, honor, and valor (bravery). Arthurian legend is one of the best-known sources of lore about knighthood and chivalry. Cultural Connection: Modern-day Knights Today, the sovereign of the United Kingdom bestows honorary knighthood as an award for outstanding achievement. Among the Americans who have received this honor from Queen Elizabeth are film director Steven Spielberg, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, and former mayor of New York Rudy Giuliani. An honorary knight is entitled to use the letters KBE after his name, for Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. Analyze Visuals: pg. 683 Examine the main character in this illustration. What kind of personality do you think he might have? The young

man looks cautious; his posture and facial expression suggest that he is not overly The young man looks sensitive and thoughtful; his face seems to reveal feelings of concern. The young man looks determined; he has positioned himself carefully to pull out the sword. Read with a Purpose

To help you set a purpose for reading as you read Young Arthur, think about the relationship between Kay and Arthur and how it affected each of them. Revisit the Big Question Is there a job you were born to do? In lines 57, what does Merlin say Arthur will do and when does he say it? Even before Arthur was born, Merlin foretold that he would be a great king. How do

Merlins words support the idea of destiny? The fact that Arthurs future role could be known before he was born suggests Own the Word: melancholy (n.) sadness; depression Identify the reason for Uthers melancholy. Queen Igernas death List other reasons a person might feel that way. death of a loved one loss of a job

failure in a major effort such as getting in to a certain college A: Chronological Order: Lines 1-13 What events have happened so far? Mark the events in order on your timeline. 4 3 2 1 Uther says that Arthur will be a great king. Arthur is born Arthurs mother dies. Merlin offers to take the baby for safekeeping.

Own the Word: reclaim (v.) to get back; recover The prefix remeans to do again, as in reprint or refurnish. Use reclaim in a sentence. She reclaimed her purse from the lost and found. 1. Targeted Passage: Lines 11-31 This passage explains the context for the legend: the wizard Merlin seeks to protect baby Arthur, heir to the throne. Why does Merlin bring baby Arthur to Sir Ector and his lady? (lines 11 19) What does he tell them? (lines 1617) What happens to

Uther? (lines 2223) What do the rebels want to do to Uthers son? Why? (lines 30 Merlin brings Arthur to Sir Ector to protect him from the traitors because Sir Ector lives far from the danger, and they have lost a child. Merlin told them the that the babys name was Arthur and nothing else. The traitors poisoned the well, and this killed U|ther and his men. Merlin was the only one that survived. They want to kill baby Arthur to end King Uthers Develop Reading Fluency Lines 11-36 To To practice practice in in reading reading for

for accuracy accuracy in in both both dialogue dialogue and and description, description, demonstrate demonstrate effective effective reading reading skills skills by by reading reading the the lines lines aloud. aloud. Voice Voice the the text text by by switching switching between between dialogue dialogue and and description description smoothly. smoothly.

Practice Pair up and read the selection by alternating paragraphs. Correct Yourselves Partners should check for errors and provide insight. Own the Words Lines 37-48 taskmaster (n.): a person who sets tasks for others to do Note that taskmaster is a compound word which combines two smaller words. Give Give examples examples of a taskmaster. flinching (n.): drawing back from difficulty or danger. From flinch v. parents teachers

supervisors If youre going to be hit by something grievous (adj.): painful; serious Antonyms for grievous are slight and minor. Use grievous and an antonym in a sentence. She suffered a grievous injury in the car accident, but his injuries were only B: Characteristics of Legend

1 Admirable Admirable or or Undesirable Undesirable 2 3 4 Which Which of of the the characters characters youve youve met met so so far far represent represent admirable admirable characteristics characteristics and and which which represent represent undesirable undesirable ones?

ones? Actions Discuss Discuss the the actions actions of of various various characters, characters, noting noting how how they they treat treat others. others. Traits Identify Identify words words that that describe describe their their traits. traits. Answer

AdmirableMerlin AdmirableMerlin is is wise wise and and loyal. loyal. UndesirableKay UndesirableKay is is vain vain and and jealous. jealous. Own the Word: upstart upstart (adj.) suddenly risen to wealth or power Name an area of modern life in which an upstart might gain power or fame. music

entertainm ent politics Oral Fluency The letter w in each word is silent. In both words, sw is pronounced like s, as in sore. gh in light, p in psychology, t in listen, n in hymn, b in bomb. Notice the words broadsword in line 54 and sword in line 56. Note that many English spellings and pronunciations involve silent letters. Provide some examples of words that contain silent letters in the pronunciation.

A: Chronological Order: Lines 52-57 1 What phrase tells you when Merlin put the sword in the stone? 2 Mark the event on your timeline. 3 One Christmas Eve (line 52) Revisit the Big Question: Is there a job you were born to do? 2 1 Lines: 51-60 What happens when the knights and other people try to pull the sword from the stone? 3 Answer The people cannot pull the sword from the stone.

4 Destiny What does this suggest about the uniqueness of destiny? Answer This suggests that personal destiny is unique; you cannot fulfil another persons destiny, no matter how hard you try. Own the Word: dismounted 1 dismounted (v.) to get down or off 2 Note that the prefix dis makes dismount the antonym of mount, just as in

discomfort and discharge. 3 4 Use dismount in a sentence. The cowboy dismounted his horse. 2. Targeted Passage: Lines 52-82 Only Only the the true true king king with with aa good good heart, heart, courage, courage, and and honesty honesty may

may draw draw the the sword. sword. What test does Merlin create? (lines 5457) To To go go get get Sir Sir Kays Kays sword sword and and bring bring itit back back before before Kays Kays turn turn at at the the

tournament. tournament. What errand does Sir Ector send Arthur to do? (lines 6970) On On the the way way home home ,, he he finds finds aa sword sword in in aa stone stone and and pulls pulls itit out to out to give give to to Sir Sir Kay.

Kay. How does Arthur complete it? (lines 7180) Because Because itit isis Arthurs Arthurs destiny destiny to to be be the the true true King King of of England. England. Only Only he he can can draw draw the the sword. sword.

Why is Arthur able to pull the sword from the stone? (lines 5657) This passage presents a turning point: Merlin has put a sword in a stone that only the true heir (Arthur) can remove. D: Characteristics of Legend: Lines 83-85 Why does Kay tell Arthur to get away? Kay tells Arthur to get away because he wants people to think that he, Kay, is the rightful king of England, as written on the sword. Visual Vocabulary: Pommel pommel (n.) a knob on the handle of a sword Vocabulary: Idioms and Sayings all eyes turned brought ruin upon

toward (line 113) (line 97) Use the Use the phrases to create original sentences: caused trouble for everyone watched 3. Targeted Passage: Lines 92-120 This passage presents the climax: Kay tries to pass himself off as the heir, but Arthurs identity as the true heir is revealed. Why does Arthur ride away? (lines 92-94) Why does he

return? (lines 95100) What does Merlin tell Kay to do? (lines 109110) How does Arthur prove his destiny? (lines 117118) Arthur thought that he committed a crime, stole the sword of the king. He didnt want Sir Kay to suffer for a crime that he committed, thinking that he must exhibit the true qualities of knight. Merlin tells Sir Kay to put the sword back in

the stone and pull it out again. Arthur easily pulls the sword from the stone a second time, proving that he is the true King. E: Characteristics of Legend: Lines 92-120 A legend is a story handed down from the past about a specific person, usually someone of heroic stature. What heros task does Arthur perform? Like an epic, a legend may also feature a heros task, a trial in which the hero is tested against another warrior or

monster. Arthur pulls the sword from the stone, making him the rightful king. Own the Word: homage Definition Example Practice Answer 1 2 3 4 homage (n.) a display of loyalty and respect

In this case, homage is a visible display of deference. Create a sentence using both words correctly. He treated the leader with deference but didnt think he needed to actually pay homage to him. F: Chronological Order: Lines 121-126 After Sir Ector pays Arthur homage, who else does? Mark the final events of the story on your timeline.

Kay pays homage to Arthur; then many others in the crowd do the same. Selection Wrap-up 0 1 Read With a Purpose: 0 2 Answer: 0 3 How did reading about Kay and Arthurs relationship help you understand what each boy is like? Kay appears jealous of Arthur; Arthur remains true to Kay even though he was not always treated kindly.

Critique: Does it make the story better to have Arthur take the sword out of the stone without being aware of its significance? Explain.

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