Pre-human influences

Pre-human influences

A HISTORY OF SUCESSION A D A P T E D F R O M U W - S T E V E N S P O I N T L . E . A . F. C U R R I C U L U M N ATA L I E S A L KO W S K I , R A N D O M L A K E H I G H S C H O O L OBJECTIVES Describe the process of forest succession using the terms change, primary succession, secondary succession, composition, structure, disturbance, events, and large-scale forces Describe in general the natural features and current land patterns in WI

Explain why the disruption of specific tree species in Wisconsin has increased and decreased throughout history Identify and describe the current causes of forest ecosystem change in WI VOCABULARY Disturbances Cause immediate death or injury to plants (ex, fire, logging) Stresses Cause the weakening of plants over a relatively short time period (ex, water pollution, air pollution) Events Social or environmental influences that affect disturbance

patterns and cause regional changes (ex, human migrations, technology, social policies) Large-Scale Forces Broad social tends or environmental forces that shape events or cause widespread change on the landscape (ex, climate change, mountain formation, evolution, industrialization, human population growth) PRE-HUMAN INFLUENCES

BEFORE THE ICE AGE 65 MYA TO 1.8 MYA Covered with mountains similar to Alps Center of magma uprising Volcanic event split NA in two (1.1 bya) Vast ocean covered area (450 mya) BEFORE THE ICE AGE 65 MYA TO 1.8 MYA

Rocky Mt. formation 60 mya caused eastward droughts Forests transferred to grasslands Great Plains (grey area) In WI, large scale erosion, little fossil record THE ICE AGE 1.8 MYA TO 12,000 YEARS AGO Glaciers advanced and receded into region

Wisconsin Glaciation 100,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago Driftless Area or Unglaciated Area forms THE GLACIERS RECEDE 18,000 TO 10,000 YEARS AGO Kettles and moraines

Rolling landscapes and glacial till Sandy soil aka glacial outwash Once bottoms of large reservoirs of glacial meltwater FILL OUT THE FIRST COLUMN OF YOUR

TIMELINES NATIVE AMERICAN INFLUENCES MIGRATIONS Migrations after glacier recession Forced into WI as settlers moved west Paleo-Indians (12-9k ya)

Nomadic hunters Archaic Period (9-3.5k ya) Hunter/gatherer Woodland Period (3.5-1k ya) Settlement, agriculture, hunting Mississippi Period (1k-400 ya) Large settlements, advanced ag, hunting

NATIVE AMERICAN NATIONS North: rolling, forested landscape with lakes and wetlands Central: flat, sandy landscape with mixed forest, barrens and savannahs Southwest: mixed forest and prairie landscape with tall ridges and steep valleys Southeast: rolling prairie landscape with areas of savannah and forest

HOW DID NATIONS SHAPE/ INTERACT WITH NATURE? Used fire to shape landscape for agriculture Wildlife management (not hunting during breeding seasons) Development of domestic plants Use furs and fibers for clothing Medicine Stone, wood, bone tools

EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND C O N S E RVAT I O N I N F LU E N C E S EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND FOREST CONSERVATION

Jean Nicolet Landed near Green Bay in 1634 Thought he was in China! Opened WI to settlement, fur trades, timber processing and farming EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT AND FOREST CONSERVATION Watch Forest Story

25 minutes SETTLEMENT AND EXPLOITATION 1634- Nicolet Discovers WI 1809- First sawmill on Fox River 1870-1920s- Intense soil erosion and wildfires

1831- First lumber mill on Wisconsin River 1890-1920- Land clearing and agriculture 1836- Creation of WI Territory 1920s- Farms abandoned in the cutover

1848- Statehood 1850s- Influx of European settlers 1850-1920s- The cutover 1890s- Railroads laid FOREST CONSERVATION 1880- Forest problems survey 1903- State Forestry department created

1904- First state forester 1906- State reforestation fund 1911- First tree nursery 1924- State given power to restore forests 1925- National forests established 1927- Forest Crop Law- tax breaks for forest land 1930- Property tax to pay for

reforestation Mid 1930s- County forests made from tax delinquent land 1933- Civilian Conservation Corps by FDR used to replant forests TIMELINES OF FOREST SUCESSION

TIMELINES Make a timeline of stresses and disturbances in WI White Pine Red Pine Jack Pine Quaking Aspen Black Ash Sugar Maple Eastern White Pine

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