Resource Family Pre-Approval Class 2 Agenda for Tonight Housekeeping Items Icebreaker Activity Presentation of material (Child Development, Maslows, First part of Trauma information) Break (10 minutes)-optional/class vote

Video (Through Our Childrens Eyes) Finish presentation of material (Second part of Trauma information, Positive Discipline) Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 2 Development Why are we covering child development? What

does this have to do with our children in care? Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 3 Refer to the handout the specs of normal child development

Birth page 2 1-3 months page 3 4-6 months page 4 7-12 months page 5 13-18 months page 6 19-24 months page 7 2-3 years page 8 3-5 years page 9 6-11 years page 10 12-15 years page 11 16-21 years page 12 Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 4 Maslows HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Self-Actualization (achieving individual potential)

Self Esteem (self esteem and esteem for others) Belonging (love, affection, being a part of groups) Safety and Security (shelter, removal from danger) Survival (physiological needs, health, food, sleep) Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 5 What is Trauma????? Trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a

severely distressing event. It is often the result of an overwhelming amount of stress that exceeds ones ability to cope, or integrate the emotions involved with that experience. Often involving a sense of intense fear, terror and helplessness. A traumatic event involves one's experience, or repeating events of being overwhelmed that can be precipitated in weeks, years, or even decades as the person struggles to cope with the immediate circumstances, eventually leading to serious, long-term negative consequences.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-mental health disorder that may develop following a traumatic event that includes changes in emotional, behavioral and physiological functioning. Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 6 The impact In our children trauma may lead to. Loss of the capacity to sustain appropriate representations of mother/father as base of security Inability to determine who is safe and who is

dangerous (you are unresponsive, you are unreliable, you are or will be dangerous) Loss of sense of mother/father as reliable protectors Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 7 REACTIONS TO TRAUMA

Ability to trust others Sense of personal safety Ability to manage emotions Effectiveness in navigating life changes Physical and emotional responses RESPONSES TO TRAUMA Hyper arousal (nervousness, jumpiness, quickness to startle, hyper vigilance)

Avoidance/withdrawal (feeling numb, shutdown, pulling away from activities/relationships, avoiding things that prompt memories of the trauma) Re-experiencing (intrusive images, sensations, dreams, memories) Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 8 How extensive trauma can be

Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 9 How does the brain work? Reptilian brain (old brain/developed first)- in charge of instincts/ fight, flight, freeze/autopilot, plays a major role in trauma/survival, does NOT respond to language/conscious thought Limbic (middle brain/developed second)- in charge of emotions, memories, habits Neocortex (new brain/developed last)- in charge

of language, abstract thought, imagination, consciousness, reason, rationalization, logic Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 10 We want children to have typical development Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 11 Brain development and trauma Increased levels of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol (child is on survival mode)-chronic stress/trauma can lead to the childs survival mode becoming the normal mode

What are stress hormones? Adrenaline: secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, increasing blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion Cortisol: secreted by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 12

If a child feels threatened/unsafe the body goes into survival mode state/body acts to protect itself which causes chemical and physical changes. The thinking and rational parts of the brain begin to shut down/stress hormones kick in If this survival mode is activated regularly during childhood survival mode can become normal mode Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 13

What can happen to the brain? Smaller brain volumes (less development of the brain material) Less development of the upper brain Fewer brain connections Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 14 See the differences in each brain? Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 15

Risk factors Because trauma effects brain functioning these children are at higher risk to develop cognitive, physical, emotional, social, health and developmental problems Some child/parent/family risk factors are: Biomedical (low birth weight, physical deformities, chronic health problems) Child maltreatment especially before age 3

Parental substance abuse/mental health Single or teen parent Low educational attainment of parent 4 or more children in the home Family poverty or domestic violence Involvement with CPS Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 16 Break Time. Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program

17 Video Time Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 18 Billys Story Please read Billys Story begins on page 41 Part 2 on page 42 Part 3 on page 52 Part 4 on page 56 Conclusion on page 59 Sacramento County

DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 19 How to support healthy brain development Education of parents about the importance of early life experiences Knowledge of parenting and of child/youth development Prevention/education about abuse/neglect Accessible and quality mental health services for parents Ensuring adequate nutrition Quality child care Positive relationships (nurturing/attachment), rich learning environments, and safe environments Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program

20 The importance of early experiences for brain development Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 21 We want positive life experiences for children to promote healthy brain development Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 22 Trauma informed care giving

Do not be afraid to talk about the traumatic event Let the child guide when they want to talk about it Listen to the child, answer questions, be honest provide comfort and support Its ok to tell the child that you dont know why something happened Use age appropriate language and explanations Post trauma reactions differ in length of time, be realistic

Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 23 How can you help? Provide consistent, predictable pattern/routine for the child's day (this will help them feel safe) Be nurturing, comforting, affectionate, patient, responsive

Help them learn to cope and they will be able to recover. It will take time please be patient Discuss your expectation for behavior and discipline with the child Talk with the child and listen to them Teach the child to relax (deep breathing, breathing slowly, listening to calming music, saying positive affirmations, sight, smell, touch, taste, listen) Watch

closely for signs of reenactment or other behaviors Protect the child Give the child choices and some sense of control Ask for help Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 24 Some ideas.

Tangle toys/pinwheel- can be used as calming and relaxing for the child Rhythm and repetition (tossing a ball, rocking, swinging, music, reading nursery rhymes/Dr. Seuss books, dancing, swimming) Breathing regulation (in and out through nose/emphasize on exhaling/talk calmly) Calming activities- yoga, music, walking Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 25 Routines/predictability/patterns/ consistency are important for our children

Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 26 What is resilience ?? The ability to recover from traumatic events FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE RESILIENCE A strong relationship with a competent, caring adult/family Feeling connected to a positive role model/mentor Having talents and abilities nurtured and appreciated Feeling some control over their own life Having a sense of belonging

Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 27 Secondary trauma This refers to people who work with people that have been traumatized therefore are indirectly or secondarily at risk of developing the same or similar symptoms Most at risk are emergency service professionals/caregivers who work with maltreated/abused/traumatized children Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program

28 Why does secondary trauma happen? Children are the most vulnerable members of our society Empathy Insufficient recovery time Unresolved personal trauma Sense of isolation from family/friends/coworkers Lack of helpful resources/or not knowing about resources Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 29

What are some indicators? EMOTIONAL: anger, sadness, grief, anxiety, depression, guilt, hopelessness, fear PHYSICAL: headaches, stomach aches, lethargy, constipation, problems sleeping PERSONAL: self isolation, cynicism, mood swings, irritability WORKPLACE: avoidance of certain clients, missed appointments, tardiness, lack of motivation

Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 30 Self care is critical! PHYSICAL: good sleep habits, eat well, dance, walking, jogging, any type of exercise PSYCHOLOGICAL: self reflection, meditation, pleasure reading, say no, smile, solitude EMOTIONAL: see friends, cry, laugh, praise yourself, humor

WORK PLACE: take breaks, take lunch, set limits, peer support, utilize supervision, use vacation time/sick time/FMLA Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 31 Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 32 Self care can help: Helps you become more effective at accomplishing your goals Provides you tools to manage difficult situations as they arise Provides you with emotional resources

Focus you need to help the child in your care Result: You being a more effective and fulfilled Resource Parent Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 33 Using positive discipline What Techniques Rooted Often

is positive discipline? in a secure, trusting relationship between parent and child involve prevention, distraction and substitution to guide child away from harm children communicate through their behavior (helps them develop better communication skills) Focuses Ultimate goal of

discipline is to help the child develop self control and self discipline on the importance of understanding developmentally appropriate behavior Use discipline as a tool to teach children rather than punish Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 34 Some tools for Positive Discipline

Please turn to page 109 in the binder for some tools to use for Positive Discipline Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 35 Good Nightsee you all Tuesday! Sacramento County DHHS/CPS/RFA Program 36

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