AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions,

AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions,

AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions, and potential answers to those questions Subject Support 2012 Revision topics chosen by your teachers Physiology: Movements - racket strokes; running; squats; pressups Mechanics of breathing Levers Skill: Information processing Opportunities for Participation: Government influences to increase participation Qu 7:

Training methods Subject Support 2012 Typical question racket actions May 07 Qu 5 The diagram shows a squash player executing a forehand stroke. Using the diagram, identify the type of joint, the joint action and the main agonist at the shoulder and elbow that are involved in the movement of the racket arm from position A to position B. Type of joint Joint action Main agonist Shoulder Elbow (6 marks)

Subject Support 2012 Racket actions a-b Joint shoulder Type - Action = Ball and socket Bones - Humerus Agonist and = scapula Horizontal flexion Pectorals/ deltoids

Subject Support 2012 4 Racket actions c-d Joint elbow Type - Hinge Action = Bones - Humerus, Agonist = ulna and radius Flexion Biceps Subject Support

2012 5 Typical Question - running Jan 10 Qu 2 The diagram shows a games player running. Drive leg The players left leg is driving him forward. For the movement occurring at the knee joint, of the drive leg, identify: (i)The axis about which the movement is taking place. (1 mark) (ii) The main agonist causing the movement (1 mark) (iii) The joint action taking place. (1 mark) Subject Support 2012

Planes and axes The leg action in running takes place in a sagittal transverse plane about a axis . The actions are concerned with three joints, the hip, knee and ankle. Subject Support 2012 Running two phases Drive phase Recovery phase rare

Subject Support 2012 8 Drive phase Hip Type of joint ball and socket bones Articulating pelvis and Joint action femur extensionhyperextensi Main agonist on

Drive phase gluteals (hamstrings) Subject Support 2012 9 Drive phase Drive phase Knee Type of joint hinge Articulating bones

tibia and Joint femur action extensio Main agonist n quadricep s 10 Subject Support 2012 Drive phase Ankle Type of joint hinge Articulating

bones tibia, fibula and talus Joint action plantar flexion Main agonist - Drive phase gastrocnemi us 11 Subject Support 2012

Upward and Downward movements No movement Type of contraction Isometri Muscle stays same length c Upward movement Type of contraction Concentric Muscle shortens Downward movement Eccentric Type of contraction Muscle lengthens Subject Support 2012 1 2

Typical question - squats May 11 Qu 1 The diagram shows a weightlifter performing a squat. Using the diagram, identify the joint action, main agonist and the type of muscle contraction occurring at the hip and ankle joint as the weightlifter moves from position A to position B. Hip Ankle Joint action Main agonist Type of muscle contraction (6 marks) Subject Support 2012 Up and Down Movements Squat Upward movement

1 4 Up and Down Movements Downward movement 1 5 Upward movements Type of contraction Concentric Muscle shortens Agonists Hip extensionGluteal

Knee extensionQuadricep s s Ankle plantar flexion Gastrocnemi us Subject Support 2012 1 6 Downward movements Type of contractionEccentric Muscle lengthens Agonist controlling descent Hip flexion Gluteals

Knee flexion Quadricep Ankle dorsi flexion sGastrocnemi us Subject Support 2012 1 7 Press-ups - Typical Question May 02 Qu 4 The diagram shows a gymnast performing a press-up during a fitness session. (i) Using the diagram, name the main agonist and the main antagonist acting at the elbow as the gymnast

moves from Position A down to Position B (2 marks) (ii) Name the type of muscle contraction that occurs in the main agonist at: Position A, whilst the gymnast is stationary As the gymnast moves from Position A down to Position B. (2 marks) Subject Support 2012 Press ups A-B Pressing up Joint elbow Joint action = Extension Muscle action - Concentric Agonist = Triceps

Plane/axis = Sagittal/ transverse Subject Support 2012 1 9 Press ups B-A Lowering down Joint action = Flexion Muscle action Eccentric Agonist =Triceps Subject Support 2012 2

0 Mechanics of breathing typical question May 09 Qu 2 How is breathing rate regulated by the body to meet the increasing demands of exercise during a game such as netball? (4 marks) Subject Support 2012 Mechanics of Breathing Breathing rate determined by detecting:

carbon Increaseacidit dioxide in blood Increases y chemorecept Detected medul ors by Impulses to la Increased sympathetic nerve impulses to breathing muscles Subject Support 2012 Mechanics of breathing Depends on pressure - air moves

from higher to lower pressures To breathe in lower pressure by increasing volume of chest cavity diaphra gm intercos and tal muscles contract To breathe out muscles relax - chest passi returns to sympathe normal size ve Control by nerve tic Subject Support

2012 2 3 Levers typical question May 11 Qu 2 When running, the knee joint works as a lever system. Name, sketch and label the lever system operating at the knee during running. (2 marks) Subject Support 2012 Levers 3 classes Three components

fulcrum effort resistance 1st class fulcrum in middle 2 class resistance in middle 3rd class effort in middle nd

Subject Support 2012 Levers in humans third majority of joints act as class levers in middle effort Very few exceptions Vast Triceps causing extension1st class Plantar flexion 2nd class

Subject Support 2012 First class lever Remember 1 2 3 F R E resistanc e fulcrum effort Subject Support 2012 First class lever only one! Subject Support 2012

Second class lever 1 2 3 F R E resistanc e effort fulcrum Subject Support 2012 Second class levers only one! Subject Support 2012 Third class lever 1 2 3 F R E resistanc

e effort fulcrum Subject Support 2012 Third class levers all other joints Subject Support 2012 Mechanical Dis(advantage) Depends on length of force arm and resistance arm

Force arm = distance of force from fulcrum Resistance arm = distance of resistance from fulcrum Subject Support 2012 Mechanical (Dis)advantage 3rd class lever system e.g. biceps at elbow Force arm

Resistance arm Subject Support 2012 Mechanical (Dis)advantage 3rd class levers short force arm and long resistance arm: Forceswea k Movements rapi wide d range resistance 2nd class levers - short arm and long force arm: Forcesstron

g Movements slow limited range Subject Support 2012 Information processing typical question May 09 Qu 4. In games such as badminton, performers use information processing to make decisions. State four types of sensory information used in badminton. (3 marks) Subject Support 2012

Information Processing - input Main senses involved in sport awareness/kinaesthetic Touch/tactile sense sense Balance/equilibrium sense Propriocepto rs Eyes/vision/visual sense Ears/hearing/auditory sense Body

Subject Support 2012 3 7 Perception typical question May 09 Qu 4. Perception is part of an information processing system; briefly explain each of the three processes that occur as part of perception. (3 marks) Subject Support 2012 Perception - making sense Three parts to the perceptual

process D.C.R process Detection of stimuli Comparison to memory Recognition of stimuli Subject Support 2012 3 9 Selective attention typical question May 11 Qu 3 To be effective, games players will need to use selective attention.

(i) Using an example from a game, explain the term selective attention. (3 marks) (ii) How can a coach improve a players selective attention? (3 marks) Subject Support 2012 Selective attention environme muchinformati in Only pay attention on releva to nt irreleva

nt information and ignore nt Too Subject Support 2012 4 1 Improving selective attention Changeintensit of the stimulus cues/ y Highlight/focus on appropriate signals

Mental rehearsal Learn to ignoreirrelevant Lots of realisti stimuli practice c performer Motivat e Subject Support 2012 4 2 Memory typical question Jan 10 Qu 4. For the effective learning of gymnastic skills, gymnasts need to remember important

instructions and use selective attention. (a) What are the characteristics and functions of short term memory? (3 marks) (b) How can a coach ensure that important information is stored in the gymnasts long term memory? (4 marks) Subject Support 2012 Memory Input stimuli S.T S.S S. T. M

L.T.M. Action 44 STSS functions/characteristics Receives information from sense About environme organs Lots ofinformati nt Needs filtering on selective Lastsattention seconds

Requires is or 1 immediate attention lost Subject Support 2012 4 5 STM functions/characteristics Decision making area hence working memoryinformation from Receives STS Compares information to

S andLTM from motor Starts programmes 7 +/- 2 Limited capacity ( ) 30items Limited duration second ( ) s Subject Support 2012 4 6 LTM functions/characteristics

Store ofexperiences/motor Information programmes moved into and STM from Only correct/ relevant information stored capacity Unlimited Subject Support 2012 4 7

Improving memory Practice/ rehearsal Meaningfulnes s Chaining/ Chunking Mental rehearsal Subject Support 2012 4 8 Government initiatives typical questions May 10 Qu 6

There are many influences which impact on an individuals participation in sporting and recreational activities. (a) Name three policies that Sport England has developed to encourage increased participation in sport. (3 marks) (b) Why has the government in the UK become increasingly involved in developing specific policies to encourage participation in sport? (4 marks) May 09 Qu 5. (c) By 2007 there were nearly 350 Sports Colleges in England. What are the main aims of these Sports Colleges? (4 marks) Subject Support 2012 Initiatives - answers Step into Sport PESSCLS

Specialist sports colleges Sportsmark School Sport Partnerships Youth Sport Trust SSCOs Top Sport Sports Leaders UK Young Ambassadors Kelly Holmes UK School Sport Games Subject Support 2012 Questions 1. 2. 3.

4. Youth Sport Trust scheme for 7-11 year olds, - provides opportunities to develop skills in a range of sports Part of Governments specialist schools programme, hub sites for school and community sport and regional focal points for excellence in PE and sport People who are employed to work in schools promoting participation in PE/Sport Scheme set up to improve the working together of schools and sports clubs Top Sport

Speciali st sports colleges SSCOs PESSCL S Subject Support 2012 Questions 5. 6. 7. 8. Sports Organization promoting and developing Leaders

sports and dance leadership opportunities Secondary schools linked to a cluster ofUK School primary schools Sport This registered charity (established 1994) Partnershi Youth which aims to build a brighter future for psTrust Sport young people through sport An award given to a secondary school for Sportsm good practice in PE provision ark Subject Support

2012 Questions Sports Leaders UK and the Youth Step Sports Trust work together to into promote and develop this leadership Sport Young initiative for 14-19 year olds. Ambassad 10. Youth Sports Trust scheme ors promoting participation using UK School sporting role models Sport 11. An annual mini Olympics bringing Games Kelly

together the top school sport Holmes performers in the UK. 12. The School Sport Champion. 9. Subject Support 2012 Sports Organisations answers Sport England Youth Sports Trust National Governing Bodies Sports Leaders UK Disability Sport England Womens Sport Foundation Subject Support

2012 Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Grow, Sustain, Excel Appoint a School Sport Champion Sport England Youth Sports Trust

Examples include England Netball & UK NGBs Athletics Work with the Youth Sports Trust to Sports promote the Step into Sport initiative Leaders Raise awareness of needs/abilities of UK Disability disabled - physical activity for example Sport Promotes benefits of participation in Womens England physical activity to women/young girls Sport Promote benefits of exercise to disabled Disability Foundation Sport

Subject Support 2012 Questions 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Promote & develop a sport at all levels of the sports development pyramid Responsible for Active Programmes NGBs Sport England

Youth Sports Responsible for improving quality & Trust increasing quantity of school PE/sport Womens Involved in What works for women website Sport Responsible for various Awards (eg Foundation Sports CSLA) Leaders Train coaches/officials in a specific UK NGBs sport Subject Support 2012

Questions 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Womens Sport Foundation Youth Sports Trust Disability Specialist organisation trying to increase participation amongst disabled Sport England Governments key delivery partner for Sport Develops campaigns to increase

womens participation Runs Gifted and Talented/JAE programmes Community Sport Core values including providing a stepping stone to employment /decrease youth crime England Sports Leaders UK Subject Support 2012 Types of training continuous Continuous running, swimming, rowing or

cycling Trains the stami aerobi system and helps develop c . na steady Tostate develop stamina or endurance - train hard, 130but not too hard - heart rate about beats per min - improvement. 150 Borg scale of 13or heart rate of maximum 15

Remember idea of progressive Use overload 70 % Subject Support 2012 Types of training - Intermittent or interval Uses alternating periods of effort and recovery Body does greater total worklo than during continuo us

ad training Adjusting the duration, intensity and type of activity wide variety of sessions. Interval training = periods of intense exercise anaero followed by periods of rest bic duration of Interval training based on: intensity; exercise; length of recovery; number of repetitions of the exercise-recovery interval Also can divide the session into blocks of work set - have longer rest intervals between them. s Subject Support 2012

Types of training - Weights training increases your streng th powe and muscular Weight r , endurance Specific weight-training exercises - develop particular muscle groups E.g. upper-body weight training helps in tennis E.g. developing leg muscles helps

swimming kick. Basic principle overloa easy to do and d measure Subject Support 2012 Types of training - Circuits Exercises performed one after the other statio Each exercise = a nvariab Circuits variable le Can develop

many components streng powe muscular e.g. th r endurance stami , , na etc. Subject Support 2012 Types of training Plyometrics of powe training

Powerfulrmuscular contractions in response loadi to rapid stretching of muscles Faster and greater the load ng - more powerful the following contraction Loading activates stretch reflex - more concentr forceful contraction than a normal ic contraction. Examples - jumping and bounding exercises off and onto boxes overlo Plyometrics - very strenuous can ad be too excessive - injuries Type Subject Support

2012 Types of training - Mobility Mobility exercises during warm-up stimulate nervous system, muscles, tendons, and joints Stati stretches best during cool-down c help rest/recovery Dynam mobility exercises begin ic gradually - smoothly increase range of

dynam motion more ic Stay within normal range of motion - but increase the amplitude and speed of movement train not Key point strain Subject Support 2012

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