COMBAT SPORTS Pale (Wrestling) 708 B.C. Pyx (Boxing)

COMBAT SPORTS Pale (Wrestling) 708 B.C. Pyx (Boxing)

COMBAT SPORTS Pale (Wrestling) 708 B.C. Pyx (Boxing) 688 B.C. Pankration 648 B.C. the all-powerful contest

a combination of pale and pyx Mythic Origins Gods Apollo and Ares box at Olympia

Heracles the Boxer Theseus the Athenian Pollux (Polydeuces) the brother of Helen (Arete #25)

Lapiths and Centaurs Spartans? (Arete #24) Earlier Evidence for Combat Sports

"Boxer" and "Antelope" frescoes, from Thera (Akrotiri), c.1650 B.C.

And dont forget about wrestling match at the Funeral Games for Patroclus in Iliad 23 (Arete 1) Pale (Wrestling) 708 B.C.

orthe (upright, erect) systasis (standing together) beginning from standing position object: throw opponent to ground

Note the kampter suggesting that the skamma for the combat events was in the stadium

skamma = dug-up area (also used for boxing and pankration) meson echein = grab the middle

apparently one knee could touch the ground, but not both trachelizein = to hold by the neck

hedran strephein = to turn the seat or to turn the buttocks Flying mare

a variation of the hedran strephein, but uses the back instead of the hip as a fulcrum no weight classes

competitors chosen by lot ephedros = on the seat received a bye on the first match anephedros winning without a bye

Kleobis and Biton from Argos, wrestlers. Herodotus writes a story about these brothers and their mother Cydippe:

When Solon had provoked him by saying that the affairs of Tellos were so olbios, Croesus asked who he thought was next, fully expecting to win second prize. Solon answered, "Kleobis and Biton." They were Argive in genos, they had enough to live on, and on top of

this they had great bodily strength. Both were prize-winning athletes [athlophoroi], and this story is told about them: There was a festival of Hera in Argos, and their mother absolutely had to be conveyed to the sacred precinct by a team of oxen. But their oxen had not come

back from the fields in time [hra], so the youths took the yoke upon their own shoulders under constraint of time. They drew the wagon, with their mother riding atop it, traveling 45 stadia until they arrived at the sacred precinct. When they had done this and had been seen by

the entire gathering, their lives came to the best fulfillment [ariston telos], and in their case the god made clear that for human beings it is better to be dead than to live. The Argive men stood around the youths and congratulated them on their strength; the Argive women

congratulated their mother for having such children. She was overjoyed at the feat and at the praise, so she stood before the image and prayed that the goddess might grant the best thing for humanity to her children Kleobis and Biton, who had given great tim to the goddess. After this prayer they sacrificed and feasted. The youths

then lay down in the sacred precinct and went to sleep, and they never got up again; they remained in the pose that they had assumed in reaching their telos. The Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them, since they were aristoi.

Milo of Croton The wrestler Milo of Crotona, several times Olympic champion for around 26 years. He

won the boys wrestling in the 60th Olympiad in 540 BC, five-time wrestling champion from the 62nd to the 66th Olympiad, (532 to 516 BC). He wore a lion-skin cloak and carried a club

like Hercules, very impressive athlete as he was eating 8 kg meat each day. Some say that he even once carried to the Olympic stadium a four-year old bull on his shoulders that he

slaughter and devour it. Milo was not only a wrestler but also a musician a poet and a student of Pythagoras the mathematician and Philosopher.

SUVE, Joseph-Benoit (b. 1743, Brugge, d. 1807, Roma) See Arete 33, 74, 143, 163a-b, 216

Pygmachia = Boxing Match himantes = gloves

Philostratus. On Gymnastics. Arete #37 Boxing invented by the Spartans

who had no helmets , nor did they think it proper to their native land to fight in helmets. They felt that a sheild, properly used, could serve in the place of a helmet. Therefore they practiced

boxing in order to know how to ward off blows to the face. Note himantes hanging

in background. Like wresting, boxing took place in the skamma.

Opponents chosen by lot. Preliminary bouts held Simultaneously. Note blows to the head.

hard himantes introduced by 4th century korykos = punching bag

Euthymos of Lokris Euthymus of Locris, three times winner in the boxing event in Olympia. Statue based inscription (to be admired by mortals) and produced by Pythagoras of Samos (not the mathematician).

See Arete 166a and 166b Diagoras of Rhodes

Victor in the 79th Olympiad, 464 BC. His sons' and grandsons' also became boxing and pancration winners and in the 83rd Olympiad his sons Damagetos and Akousilaos lifted their father Diagoras on their shoulders in the stadium. Diagoras was also a winner in the Isthmia Games (4 times) and 2 times winner in

Nemea. His other son Dorieus and the two sons of his daughter were also winners in various Games. See Arete #170; also 149 and 248

Pankration Brutality a key feature. Kicking and biting allowed.

Ground holds allowed. Statues by Canova. Story told by Pausanias.

Creugas (or Kreugas) of Epidamnos and Damoxenos of Syracuse In a Pancration event in Nemea in 400 BC Creugas (or

Kreugas) of Epidamnos and Damoxenos of Syracuse struggle for hours without a decision. Creugas and Damoxenos agreed that each would accept an undefended blow. Creugas delivered first a punch to his opponent's head. Still standing, Damoxenos

jabbed Creugas with his fingers straight out, piercing his rib cage. Damoxenos yanked out his intestines, killing him on the spot. Damoxenos was expelled, although seemingly on a technicality: The judges deemed the disemboweling to be

several blows (one for each finger) instead of the single agreedupon blow. POLYDAMAS of Scotassa

Polydamas of Skotoussa () winner of the ) winner of the 93th Olympiad (408 BC) a wrestler that once had to fight simultaneously with 3 of the best wrestlers of Dareius II Ochon, the king of Persia. He killed 2 while the third Persian wrestler run away. Legend says that he

killed a lion like Hercules with his bare hands. Polydamas died in a cave in when he tried to hold the collapsing mountain up with his arms. Pausanias saw the statue of Polydamas at Olympia and wrote (VI, 5, 1)

"And he on a high pedestal, the work of Lysippus, greater than all men, except for those called heroes,and of any other race that preceded mankind, and of contemporary men, Polydamas the Nicean is the

greatest. Julian the African (Euseb. 93rd Olymp.) wrote: The oversize Polydamas won at the pancration, he who in Persia, in front of King Ochon, naked and unarmed, killed lions, had a duel with three of the fully

armed bodyguard of the king, of those called the immortals "and killed them. The same man stopped chariots which were moving at full speed. Arrachion of Phigalia A heroic and at the same time tragic event took place at

Olympia, when the pankratiast Arrachion from Phigalia died during the game. Arrachion being in a difficult position, when his opponent grabbed his neck, managed to make him raise his hand (the sign of defeat) by twisting his leg, while himself was dying. Arrachion, though dead, was pronounced the

winner. He won three times at Olympia (572/568/564 BC). See Arete #38. For more on Ancient Greek Athletes, see

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