Administrative Law and the Regulatory Process Understanding the Basics
to: Identify the sources and functions of Administrative Law Understand the purpose of Administrative Agencies Understand the Regulatory Process Understand the limits on Administrative Agencies Understand sufficiency of evidence in Administrative Proceedings Sources and Functions
of Administrative Law Sources and Functions of Administrative Law Administrative law is a branch of statutes, rules, policies, and court decisions that tell us how government agencies are established and function. Initially what is termed as "Administrative Law"
could be broadly defined as procedural and not substantive. Sources and Functions of Administrative Law It is not really classified as Civil Law and it is different from Criminal Law, although; It is different from civil law because it has its own very special rules usually including at least slightly different rules of evidence and discovery.
While different from criminal law, some jurisdictions classify it as quasi-criminal. Sources and Functions of Administrative Law Functions Sets forth the powers that may be exercised by administrative agencies. Lays down the principles governing the exercise of those powers.
Provides legal remedies to those aggrieved by administrative action. Purpose of Administrative Agencies Purpose of Administrative Agencies Regulation is only justified as a way to protect the public from harm.
Criteria for regulating a profession: unqualified practice poses a serious risk; such risks are likely to occur; the public cannot accurately judge a practitioners qualifications; and benefits outweigh potential harmful effects of regulation. Purpose of Administrative Agencies To set standards, maintain standards, and promote the
maintenance of standards with the ultimate objective of protecting the public, determine violations of standards, adjudicate violations, and impose penalties. Licensing requirements. Standards of practice. Standards of conduct. Purpose of Administrative Agencies To carry out functions of government on a day-to-day
basis. To control entry into a profession by requiring a license to undertake specified activities. Registration Certification Licensing Purpose of Administrative Agencies To inspect and regulate facilities.
To dispense grants, subsidies, or other incentives. Other Reasons for Administrative Agencies. Population increase. Expansion of government responsibility. Need for flexibility in administering programs. Purpose of Administrative Agencies Other Reasons for Administrative Agencies. (cont.) Development of expertise.
Inability of Legislature to respond quickly. Inability of judiciary to handle all cases and controversies. The Regulatory Process Definitions Adjudication process for determining facts or applying law from which an agency formulates and
issues an order. Agency a government entity authorized to: make rules, regulations, or policy, or formulate or issue decisions or orders Definitions Agency action Agency head individual or members in which vested with the ultimate legal authority of an
agency. Contested case an adjudication in which the opportunity for an evidentiary hearing is required. Definitions Emergency adjudication an adjudication when the public health, safety, or welfare requires immediate action. Evidentiary hearing proceeding for the receipt of
evidence on issues on which a decision of the presiding officer may be. Final order the order issued Definitions Law a written provision passed by a legislative body. License a permit, certificate, approval, registration, charter, or similar form of permission required by law
and issued by an agency. Licensing the grant, denial, renewal, revocation, suspension, annulment, withdrawal, or amendment of a license. Definitions Notice a record containing information required to be sent to a person. Notify reasonably required steps taken to inform a
person, regardless of whether the person actually comes to know of the information. Order an agency decision determining the rights, duties, privileges, immunities, or other interests of a specific person. Definitions Rule a provision of general application promulgated or adopted by the agency applicable basic laws .
Force of law affecting the rights or conduct of individuals and businesses. A rule may: establish a requirement, set a standard, establish a fee or rate, or provide a procedure for interactions with agency. Definitions
Guidance document developed by an agency or staff (i) stating the agencys interpretation of law, or (ii) describing how and when the agency will exercise discretionary functions. Policy memoranda documents that pertain only to the internal management of the agency agencies. Statutory Authority An administrative agency is a creature of statute and is only
entitled to act within the jurisdiction created by legislation and in a manner prescribed by the statute that created it. Powers of Administrative agencies Many agencies operate under statutes that give them: Legislative (rule-making) Executive (enforcement) Judicial Power (adjudication) Sample Regulation
The board shall have the authority to levy and collect fees for certification or licensure and renewal that are sufficient to cover all expenses for the administration and operation of the regulatory board and a proportionate share of the expenses of the Department The board shall promulgate regulations necessary to assure continued competency, to prevent deceptive or misleading practices by practitioners and to effectively administer the regulatory system administered by the
regulatory board Sample Regulation The board shall examine, or cause to be examined, the qualifications of each applicant for certification or licensure, including when necessary the preparation, administration and grading of examinations The board shall certify or license qualified applicants as practitioners of the particular profession or occupation
regulated by such board The board shall receive complaints concerning the conduct of any person whose activities are regulated by the regulatory board and to take appropriate disciplinary action if warranted Sample Regulation The board may, in considering the totality of the circumstances, fine any licensee, certificate holder, or
permit holder, and to suspend or revoke or refuse to renew or reinstate any license Limits on Administrative Agencies Legislative Initial grant of authority Revoke or narrow the authority it granted through
legislation Report and Wait Procedure effective date of an agency's proposed rules is delayed for a period of time Sunset law a given agency will go out of existence after a fixed period of time Legislative Interim oversight periodic legislatively mandated review of some or all agency regulations
Authorization for appropriations Annual/Biennial Report requiring agencies to report back periodically on their activities Executive Derived from the executive office of government Power to appoint Removal powers for the same staff Executive orders or formal directive
Modification of an organizational structure Oversight of rule-making proceedings Power to control litigation affecting the agencies Judicial When an agencys final action causes harm or threatens harm to someone, the agency action ordinarily can be challenged in court. A court will review the agency action to make sure the action
itself and the process that the agency followed when taking the action were proper. May uphold the agency action or strike it down. Administrative Procedures Act (APA) Most jurisdictions have enacted statutes that (i) place
restrictions on the activities of administrative agencies and (ii) codifying some procedures. Most APAs are comprehensive, establishing minimum requirements concerning four main area Public access Rulemaking procedure Adjudication Procedure Judicial Review
Administrative Procedures Act (APA) Public access Agency laws, regulations and policies Agency meetings (notice of fact and substance) Agency records Agency rule making procedure
Agency adjudication procedure Requirement for the agency to provide due process prior to reaching a final decision and instituting sanctions Judicial review of agency actions Other General Controls The Public Open meeting laws
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Ombudsman Prosecutorial Discretion Agency Discretion Sufficiency of Evidence in Administrative Proceedings Sufficiency of Evidence
Burdens of Proof Who must present sufficient evidence in order to prevail at hearing Generally rests upon the state to demonstrate that a violation has taken place Standards of Proof
How much credible and persuasive evidence must be provided in order to meet the burden of proof Sufficiency of Evidence There are two standards of proof used in professional discipline cases or licensing cases: Preponderance of the Evidence Clear and Convincing Evidence
Preponderance of the Evidence Establishing that the elements of the violation are more probably true than not Most administrative adjudications in the United States use the preponderance of evidence standard Sufficiency of Evidence Even Stephen, plus a feather Means that all things being equal, the tiniest
piece of evidence that pushes judgement one way or the other is what wins, or loses, the case A criminal defendant may be found not guilty in a criminal trial, but guilty in a civil action on the exact same evidence Sufficiency of Evidence Clear and Convincing Evidence
Mostly used in fraud cases Established when it is highly probable that the elements of the violation occurred In the United States, this standard is used for some agency actions Section Review Learning Objectives Review
You should now be able to: Identify the sources and functions of Administrative Law Understand the purpose of Administrative Agencies Understand the Regulatory Process Understand the limits on Administrative Agencies Understand sufficiency of evidence in Administrative Proceedings
Questions ? Section 2 The Role of Agency General Counsel Learning Objectives
Upon completion of the section, you will be able to: Understand the principles of Administrative Agencies, Boards and Colleges The role as Board Counsel Rulemaking Principles of Administrative Agencies, Boards and Colleges
Regulatory Board is a Creature of Statute Regulatory Board - different designations Creation of the Board Typically created by statute Authority is limited to those powers expressly delegated Implied powers are only those derived by necessary
implication from express statutory authority granted to the board Principles of Administrative Agencies, Boards and Colleges Boards purpose is to protect public Created for purpose of protecting the public by regulating the profession Ensure professional competence and fitness
Promulgate rules Investigate allegations of misconduct Conducting hearings Regulation Subject matter Factors Regulatory Boards
Subject matter Structure of a Regulatory Board Board composition Citizen members Centralized agencies/ Umbrella boards Regulatory Boards Board Selection In most instances, individuals appointed by the chief executive
In some instances the appointments must be confirmed by the state legislature Types of Board Autonomous boards Centralized agencies Semi-Autonomous agencies or boards Role as Board Counsel
Advisory Functions Rulemaking Board meetings General counsel Prosecutorial Functions Investigations Contested Cases
Advisory Functions Rulemaking Procedural requirements of the APA Advises on statutory authority and other issues May draft rules and proposed advisory opinions Board meetings Public meetings Conflicts of interests and ethical concerns
Disciplinary process Advisory Functions General Counsel Policies and procedures Records and open meeting requirements Injunctions for unlicensed practice Enforcement actions and collection activities Personnel issues
Hiring Issues handled by outside counsel Prosecutorial Functions Investigations Disciplinary or application matters Provide information and documentation for upcoming board meetings Assist investigators in the collection of evidence
Contested cases Prosecution of disciplinary and application contested cases Rulemaking Types of Rules Procedural Substantive
Interpretive Rules Oversee the Drafting Process Delegated from the legislature to regulatory boards Properly promulgated, rules have the force and effect of law Rulemaking - Advice to the Board Statutory authority to promulgate rules.
Whether the rules are within the boards scope of authority and legislative intent. Whether the rules meet the applicable statutory and constitutional standards. Whether the rules should be promulgated by the regular rulemaking process or emergency.
Rulemaking Ensure rulemaking procedure is followed Written public notice of the intention to make a rule and publication of the proposed rule itself Opportunity for public comment/hearing Consideration of comments Publication of the final rule Defend rule of rule if challenged
Section Review Learning Objectives Review You should now be able to: Understand the principles of Administrative Agencies, Boards and Colleges The role as Board Counsel Rulemaking
Questions ? Section 3 Adjudication Learning Objectives Upon completion of the section, you will be able
to: Understand the role of the Attorney in compliance and discipline Understand adjudication on administrative cases The Role of the Attorney in Compliance and Discipline
Investigations Case Assessment Legal Counsel support to investigators The investigator is the front-line contact with the respondent and the witnesses. May be asked for insight or counsel on proper procedure, records or statements needed from the respondent or witnesses.
Preparation of Evidence Classifications of Evidence Evidence is generally classified as: Direct Circumstantial Direct Evidence Tends to establish a fact in issue without the need
for an inference or presumption Generally requires an eyewitness May also take other forms, such as photographs, records, or signed statements Example: In a drug diversion hearing, a nurse testifies that she saw another nurse take narcotics from the medication cabinet at the end of her shift, place the bottle into her purse, and walk out of the facility. That would be direct evidence of drug diversion.
Circumstantial Evidence Proof of a fact, or series of facts, from which the existence or nonexistence of other facts may reasonably be inferred. Cases may lawfully be built entirely from circumstantial evidence. The difficulty in building successful circumstantial cases
Circumstantial Evidence Example: In a drug diversion case, there are no eyewitnesses that place a suspected nurse in contact with the medication. Instead: there is evidence that drugs are missing only on dates when the nurse was on duty only at the end of her shift, that only she had access to the medicine cabinet during those times, patients complained that they had not received those
medications from that nurse toward the end of the shift or that the medications administered by that nurse did not relieve pain, and that the nurse had slurred speech at points during her shift Forms of Evidence Evidence can take many forms at hearing Real Testimonial
Demonstrative Each form has its own strengths and challenges You must use all forms to develop a strong case Real Evidence Evidence that consists of tangible objects Documentary Evidence: a form of real evidence that speaks for itself as to the content. Includes:
Public Records Personal Records Medical Records Electronic communications Other documents Real Evidence Physical evidence a form of real evidence that was part of the event in question. Includes:
Objects seized at the scene Security camera footage Garments worn during the event Hard drives, CDs or DVDs Scientific evidence: the lab tests Testimonial Evidence Evidence supplied through witnesses testifying about an event, rather than through the
presentation of objects. Types of witnesses include lay or expert. As a general rule, testifying witnesses must have personal knowledge of the topics to which he or she will testify be willing to testify under oath or affirmation Demonstrative Evidence Evidence created after the incident to illustrate/support
testimonial evidence or make other evidence more understandable to the trier of fact Includes Maps Photographs Diagrams Models Summaries of voluminous evidence
Discovery Goals of Discovery Prevent "trial by ambush" Reach a fair result Provide more information to encourage settlement of cases prior to trial Discovery Methods Depositions upon oral examination or written questions Production of documents or things or permission to enter for inspection
Physical and mental examinations Requests for admissions Scope of Discovery Unless otherwise limited, parties may obtain discovery regarding any matter that: is not privileged is relevant to the subject matter of the pending action
Whether it relates to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or the claim or defense of any other party, existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any, documents, or other tangible things identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter Scope of Discovery
Claims of Privilege and Protection as trial preparation material When a party withholds information otherwise discoverable by claiming that it is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation material The claim must be express and describe the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced or disclosed Must be done in a manner that will enable other parties to
assess the applicability of the privilege or protection. Scope of Discovery Protective Orders Upon motion by a party or by the person from whom discovery is sought For good cause shown the court in which the action is pending may make any order to protect a party or person from
annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden or expense Scope of Discovery Protective Orders scope that the discovery not be had that the discovery may be had only on specified terms and conditions, including a designation of the time or place that the discovery may be had only by a method of other
than that selected by the party seeking discovery that certain matters not be inquired into, or that the scope of discovery be limited to certain matters that discovery be conducted with no one present except persons designated by the court Scope of Discovery Protective Orders scope that a deposition after being sealed be opened only by
order of the court that a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a designated way that the parties simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened directly by the court Discovery
Experts Routinely used to help establish a failure to meet a particular standard of care or practice Discovery of facts and opinions held by experts, otherwise discoverable, may be obtained by interrogatories A party may require any other party to identify each person whom the other party expects to call as an expert witness at trial
Discovery Any person disclosed by interrogatories or as a person expected to be called as an expert witness at trial may be deposed. A party may obtain the following discovery The scope of employment in the pending case and compensation for such service The expert's general litigation experience The identity of other cases in which the expert has testified by deposition or at trial
An approximation of the portion of the expert's involvement Discovery Experts NOT required to disclose earnings as an expert witness or other income derived from other services. Only under unusual or compelling circumstances would an expert be required to produce financial or business records.
A party may discover facts known or opinions held by an expert who has been retained or specially employed by another party in anticipation of litigation or preparation for trial and who is not expected to testify at trial Discovery Experts Unless manifest injustice would result, the court shall require that the party seeking discovery pay the expert a
reasonable fee for the time spent in responding to discovery. Discovery - Requests to Opposing Parties Interrogatories to Parties Without leave of court, any party may serve upon any other party written interrogatories to be answered: by the party to whom the interrogatories are directed any officer or agent of a corporation or government agency
Interrogatories may be served on the plaintiff after commencement of the action. Each interrogatory shall be answered separately and fully under oath unless it is objected to. Discovery - Requests to Opposing Parties Interrogatories to Parties There usually exists a timeframe within which parties
must respond to the interrogatories. Use of interrogatories at trial the answers to interrogatories may be used to the extent permitted by the rules of evidence. Option to produce records Discovery - Requests to Opposing Parties Production of Documents. any party may request any other party to produce and
permit the party making the request to inspect and copy possession, custody, or control of the party to whom the request is directed Requests for Admissions a party may serve upon any other party a written request for admission of the truth of any matters set forth in the request
Sanctions for Failure to Make Discovery Motion for Order Compelling Discovery Upon reasonable notice to other parties and all persons affected, a party may apply for an order compelling discovery as follows Appropriate Court Motion- Order to compel Sanctions for Failure to Make Discovery
Motion for Order Compelling Discovery Upon reasonable notice to other parties and all persons affected, a party may apply for an order compelling discovery as follows: Motions to compel should include a certification If a party continually refuses to respond, it is appropriate to file a Motion for Imposition of Sanctions Exhibits- General Principles
Relevance The controlling issue for admissible evidence is relevance. An exhibit is relevant if it tends to prove or disprove a material fact. The material facts are found in the Administrative Complaint and the elements of the regulations that are alleged to have been violated. Foundation The attorney must establish a foundation for
the exhibit Exhibits- Mechanics Most attorneys proffer exhibits one by one during the course of the hearing. An example of common technique for this process follows: Have the exhibit marked (i.e. Please mark this as Petitioners exhibit 1 for identification) Show exhibit to the responded Ask permission to approach the witness (if applicable)
Show the exhibit to the witness Lay the foundation for the exhibit Move for admission of the exhibit into evidence Exhibits- Mechanics Sometimes an attorney will choose to pre-mark and give the exhibits to the trier of fact at the beginning of the hearing. If the proceeding begins with the opportunity to
address preliminary matters, the parties can use this time to offer exhibits before the hearing begins. The attorney may reserve the right to offer additional exhibits. Exhibits- Practice Tips Review the Administrative Complaint and Investigative Report. Make sure the Administrative Complaint gives notice to the Respondent of what violations the agency seeks to prove at the
hearing. If necessary, amend the Administrative Complaint. Identify potential witnesses and exhibits and make sure the witnesses are available. Consider whether there was substantial justification or reasonable basis in law and fact for filing the Administrative Complaint in anticipation of a motion for attorneys fees. Troubleshoot the Administrative Complaint taking the oppositions point of view.
Exhibits- Practice Tips Identify the Potential Exhibits and Witnesses Needed Exhibits should be legible Exhibits should really be needed to prove the case Identify the evidentiary rule that supports admission Objections to admissibility are identified and strategy to overcome developed Need for testimony to lay a foundation Identify witness through which the admission of an exhibit will be
sought or needed Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Hearsay Legal Definition: Hearsay is an out of court statement that is presented at hearing for the truth of the matter asserted. Under the normal rules of evidence, hearsay statements are generally barred unless one of the many
exceptions to the hearsay rule applies. Hearsay is generally excluded from a truth-finding hearing A hearsay witness cannot be effectively cross-examined to determine the reliability of the original source of the information. Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Administrative hearings generally permit the admission
of hearsay evidence, if it is of sufficient reliability. Hearsay evidence, however, is generally viewed as weak evidence because of the difficulties in judging the reliability of the information. The prior statements of a party opponent are not considered to be hearsay. It is fair to discuss what a party has said previously because the party will always be present to explain or contest such evidence.
Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Privileges Evidentiary privileges recognized in civil actions apply in administrative proceedings. Business and Public Records. Even though documents produced by or for an agency are usually public records, these documents are typically not admissible under the
hearsay exception for public records, but rather as business records. Documents Prepared by your Witness. Often this relates to reports or documents drafted by expert witnesses which are still, technically, hearsay even if the witness is on the stand. Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Judicial Notice and Stipulations
Information that is accepted as true without the need to present other forms of evidence to substantiate the fact. Appropriate when the fact is commonly known or easily ascertainable as true without requiring formal proof Stipulations are agreements between the parties. These agreements can cover any of the information that would normally be included in a hearing
Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Authentication of Evidence Before any evidence is admitted at hearing, a proper foundation for the admission must be built. When the evidence is in the form of real evidence, such as documents or physical evidence, the foundation requires the authentication of that evidence.
Authentication means that the party offering the evidence establishes that the evidence is what the party claims it to be. Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Authentication of Evidence Authentication normally requires that a witness who has first-hand knowledge of how the evidence was
collected. Authentication requirements mean that the collection of evidence must be thorough enough, and maintained well enough, to permit the authentication of each piece of evidence. Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Best Evidence Rule
General rule: The most original document is best. The rules of evidence generally require that an original writing, recording, photograph, or other document in which legitimacy is in issue, should be proven by admission of the original version of that document. Secondary evidence is acceptable when: The original is unavailable; or The party presenting it did not destroy or make the original unavailable or, if it did make the original unavailable, did not
do so with bad intent. Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Best Evidence Rule The Best Evidence Rule does not apply where the fact to be proven has an existence independent of any writing. A witness may testify that she paid for a service without producing the receipt
Admissions or confessions of a party may be testified to orally by anyone who heard them Basic biographical facts such as birth, marriage or death may be testified to orally Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Impeachment Evidence Impeachment is a technique used to attack the truth-telling
capacity of a witness. Impeachment may be accomplished by: Demonstrating the witness' bias Self-contradiction Evidence of poor character as to truth-telling A defect in perceptive capacity Prior convictions or prior bad acts By presenting contradictory evidence which is contrary to the version of events presented by the witness
Exhibits: Frequently Encountered Evidence Issues Impeachment Evidence Impeachment evidence does not directly address the substantive issues in a case. Presented to demonstrate why the fact finder should hesitate to accept the testimony of a witness as true and correct. A thorough investigation should include investigation of
credibility of witnesses. Adjudication of Administrative Cases Adjudication of Administrative Cases Every final action that produces an "order" is
technically an adjudication. Consent Orders and Negotiated Settlements Admission of violation Waiver of right to hearing Agreed imposition of monetary penalty May have the ability to fashion a range of resolutions Summary suspension Must be allowed by statute or regulation
Showing a degree of harm to the public Requires due process after suspension is taken or court approval for summary action May involve quality of care grounds, physical or psychological impairment, certain criminal convictions, fraud, or other substantial economic or health and safety threat to public Section Review
Learning Objectives Review You should now be able to: Understand the role of the Attorney in compliance and discipline Understand adjudication on administrative cases Questions
? Section 4 Litigation Are You Ready For Battle? Learning Objectives Upon completion of the section, you will be able to:
Understand how to initiate the hearing process as a disciplinary prosecutor The administrative hearing process Preparation for formal hearings Understand the adjudication of formal hearings Initiating the Hearing Process as a Disciplinary Prosecutor
Initiating the Hearing What must be done to initiate the action? Notice and Opportunity to be heard Basic Due Process Evaluating The Strength of your Case Do you have a case that you can bring that meets the burden of proof? Are there any jurisdictional bars to bringing the action? Any statutorily imposed time limits?
Any deadlines that must be met? Evaluating The Strength of your Case Need to Match the Expected Evidence to Your Elements Many different methods are used Simple two column method - list elements on one side and to the other side place evidence/witness that will be used to establish the element
Do you need an expert witness to assist? Evaluating The Strength of your Case Using Expert Evidence Effectively Recognizing if There Is a Need for Expert Testimony Establish standard of care violation Perform analysis of results or other evidence Evaluating The Strength of your Case
So you have hired an expert now what? Are you a Frye jurisdiction or a Daubert jurisdiction? Source: https://www.theexpertinstitute.com/daubert-v-frye-a-state-by-state-comparison/ Frye Standard Frye vs. US, 29 F 1013 (D.C. Cir 1923) The 1923 case revolved around the use of a blood pressure polygraph test.
Result is that the opinion of experts or skilled witnesses is admissible when the matter of inquiry does not lie within the range of common experience or knowledge. Daubert Standard A witness who is qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education may testify in the form of an opinion or otherwise if: the experts scientific, technical, or other specialized
knowledge will help the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue the testimony is based on sufficient facts or data the testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods the expert has reliably applied the principles and methods to the facts of the case. Daubert Standard Other factors considered in determining reliability
of expert testimony: If the testimony is related to the experts independent research The analytical gap between the data and expert opinion Accounting for obvious alternative explanations Daubert Standard Other factors (cont.): Expectations regarding the experts level of care and
professionalism as a litigation consultant The reliability of the experts field of expertise or subjects outside of the experts field Considerable leeway is given to the trial judge Using Expert Evidence Effectively Evaluating Whether Your Expert Opinion Is Sufficient Standard the court uses for admissibility
Look at this issue count by count; each count that is going to require expert testimony should be supported by the expert opinion. Experts in professional licensure cases should explain what actions (or inactions) should have been performed by the Respondent Evaluating The Strength of your Case Determine if Your Case Involves Direct Evidence or
Circumstantial Evidence or a Mixture: The key to a circumstantial case is to rule out the other possibilities that could explain the conclusion you wish the court to draw. The key to a direct evidence case rests on the credibility of the witnesses. Evaluate the credibility of each witness carefully to determine the possible landmines in your evidence.
Evaluating The Strength of your Case After determining whether you can prove the case What sanction or outcome will you be asking for? What facts must be proven to support such a sanction or outcome? Aggravating Factors versus Mitigating Factors Have you pled them? Do you need to plead them? Evaluating the Strength of your Witnesses
Evaluating Witnesses for Credibility Purposes Questions to Consider Did they have a reasonable opportunity to observe or hear what they say they did? Do they have sufficient personal knowledge? What about hearsay? Evaluating the Strength of your Witnesses Evaluating Witnesses for Credibility Purposes
Is there any corroboration available for their testimony? Have they made inconsistent statements about the events in question in the past? Bias Considerations What personal and business connections do they have to the respondent? What community do the live in? What biases for or against other potential witnesses or the respondent can you identify?
Evaluating the Strength of your Witnesses Evaluating the strength of proposed expert testimony: Expert testimony should be evaluated both in terms of its ability to persuade as a technical analysis and its ability to persuade as credible testimony. The most knowledgeable is not always the best witness. Evaluating the Strength of your Witnesses Evaluating the strength of proposed expert
testimony: Bias and credibility considerations apply equally to the expert Choices to be made if the case is not strong Pre-filing investigation & Pre-discovery inquiries Can you obtain information or do more investigation? Talk to witnesses including experts Evaluate the evidence do you need witnesses to have
it admitted? Choices to be made if the case is not strong Return to the client for further investigation: Cases that require more extensive inquiry, or that would benefit from use of the investigative powers of the client, may be returned to the client for further investigation. If available, an attorney-client protected
memorandum describing the issues that should be explored would be helpful to focus the client on specific case needs. Public Record Laws and Government in the Sunshine laws may apply Choices to be made if the case is not strong Use of the discovery process to fill in small blanks and determine how the opposing side
will address the charges and evidence. A case is dynamic and must be constantly reassessed. Choices to be made if the case is not strong You must always be willing to return the matter to the client as not prosecutable. If you dont have the facts right or the charges right look at amending the case.
Administrative Hearing Process Informal Hearings Usually less adversarial can be done in writing only. May be used for formulation of settlements that address a wide range of conduct. Informal Hearings
Methods and types of resolution approaches: Alternative dispute resolution Mediation Arbitration Formal Hearings Nature of Proceedings: Considered civil, but with different rules Not criminal most criminal procedures and defense do
not apply Rules of Evidence do not apply, but are usually followed Hearsay Evidence generally allowed, but not given great weight Formal Hearings Basic Requirements of the Proceeding Notice and Opportunity to Be Heard Time and Place of the hearing
Legal Authority the agency is relying on Facts asserted and alleged regulations or laws violated. Formal Hearings Basic Requirements of the Proceeding Discovery Prehearing statement Formal Hearings
Basic Requirements of the Proceeding Present and Contest Evidence When do you know the result? Oral Pronouncement Written Decision Formal Hearings Basic Requirements of the Proceeding Appeal rights
Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies Formal Hearings Motions The majority of administrative hearing processes permit the parties to request the hearing officer to issue specific orders. A request for the judge to issue a particular ruling is done through the filing of a motion. Typically requires you to confer with and state the position of the other side
Formal Hearings Types of Motions Motion to Continue and Reschedule Motion to Compel/Motion for Sanctions Motion in Limine Motion for Default Judgement Motion for Summary Judgement or Summary Order
Formal Hearings Does your jurisdiction use an any evidence rule Common Objections Hearsay Irrelevant Cumulative Formal Hearings Common Objections
Speculative Leading Question Compound and Confusing Question Questions Assuming Unproven Facts Formal Hearings Common Objections Argumentative Asked and Answered
Privileged Preparing for Formal Hearings Preparing your Trial Notebook Your trial notebook is your resource of information culled from both your case preparation and the case file. Organization of the trial notebook
Preparing your Trial Notebook Prepare a checklist Important dates Discovery dates Deposition dates Discovery cutoff dates Dates for dispositive motions Prehearing Order compliance dates
Prepare a list of steps what needs to be done first Identify witnesses for both sides of the case Identify experts Preparing your Trial Notebook Make a list of all tangible evidence Assess potential scope of electronically stored
information Preparing your Trial Notebook Prepare notices to witnesses Interview potential witnesses Determine availability of witnesses for hearing Preparing your Trial Notebook Prepare checklist for final preparation for trial
Required prehearing statements Motions in Limine Requests for Official Recognition Subpoena and witness fees for hearing attendance Witness and witness question preparation Outline expected witness examination and cross examination Preparing your Trial Notebook
Organizing your trial notebook Hard copy and/or electronic Trial Notebook programs and apps Ease of Use is Key! Preparing your Trial Notebook Guidelines for trial notebook format Necessary to have at the hearing Indexed set of the pertinent pleadings, motions,
responses and discovery Miscellaneous Depositions What is a Deposition? A form of discovery Typically take place outside of a courtroom Judge is not present Counsel for each of the parties run the proceeding
Depositions What is a Deposition? Purpose of a deposition in administrative prosecutions Use of witness statements during deposition Depositions What does a Deposition entail? A deposition witness will be placed under oath
Depositions consist of counsel asking questions of the witness Objections to specific questions may be made by opposing counsel, but there is no judge to resolve the issue Depositions often last longer than hearing testimony, and will cover more material than hearing testimony Depositions What does a Deposition entail? Recorded by a court reporter, taped or both
A deposition can affect the outcome of the case. Prepare for a deposition the same way that you prepare for a hearing. Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Preparing yourself Determine the purpose or goals of the deposition Prepare an outline of the questions
Begin with the least controversial questions then move on to more pointed questions later in the deposition Items to bring with you Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Preparing yourself Administration of oath Instructions for deponents
Ask broad questions in a casual manner, and then use follow-up questions to add details. Two purposes in taking a deposition: gathering information eliminating other versions of the story Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Preparing yourself
Dealing with interruptions during questioning Remember the purpose of your questions Deponent review of documentation Review the transcript after the deposition Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Dealing with Objections How to state your objections
As a general rule, most objections are preserved Objection to the form of the question Avoid objections to the admissibility of testimony Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Disclosure and filing of depositions Rights to attend or obtain transcripts of depositions Guidelines for filing depositions
Providing documentation to both sides Depositions Preparing for a Deposition Practice Tips Changes in testimony Transcription requirements and guidelines Deponent acknowledgement of transcript Making substantive changes to deponent testimony
Witness Preparation Witness Preparation should proceed continuously from the date of the filing the case through the day of the hearing. Witness Preparation Categories of Witnesses
Lay (or non-expert) fact witnesses allowed to testify only to facts that they personally observed Establishing personal knowledge Opinion testimony is generally not permitted unless rationally related to their observations Examples of lay witnesses include the complainant, respondent and individuals present during the events in question Witness Preparation
Categories of Witnesses Predicate Witness Examples: Building code official who testifies whether permit was obtained. Agency employee who testifies about procedure for changing address of record. Records custodians
Witness Preparation Categories of Witnesses Character Witness Character evidence may be offered through testimony on the reputation held by the witness Witness Preparation Categories of Witnesses Expert / Skilled Witness - Utilized when there is an issue
not within the knowledge or common experience of people of ordinary intelligence. Expert witnesses are commonly involved in cases involving technical issues, complex issues, or issues involving professional standards. The court decides on whether or not to allow this type of testimony. The competence of an expert witness is never presumed.
Witness Preparation The demeanor of your witness will have an impact on your preparations and tactics Friendly Witness Adverse Witness Reluctant Witness Witness Preparation Preparing for the witnesses you intend to call:
Identify your witness Determine if any of your necessary documents are selfauthenticating Testimony presented as stipulation Determine the order to call the witnesses Witness Preparation Preparing for the witnesses you intend to call: Know how to pronounce the witnesses names Special accommodations (i.e. issues of
accessibility or managing the elderly) Be prepared! Witness Preparation Meet with the Witnesses before the hearing Expert, Lay Witness, Predicate Witness and/or Character Witness Explain the case Describe the process and give instructions
Witness Preparation Dos and Donts for witness testimony: Do not volunteer answers Do not guess Listen to the entire question before starting the answer Give counsel a chance to object by providing a short pause between the question and the answer Prepare the witness for how to respond to objections
When you are expected to answer a question, provide your answer to the question that was asked and then stop. Witness Preparation Dos and Donts for witness testimony: (cont.) Do not answer with head nods or gestures. Answer in a way that can be recorded in a transcript Avoid distracting mannerisms or personal habits Avoid inappropriate language
Dress appropriately Use a conversational tone of voice and avoid using a monotone Use natural posture but dont slump Dont be afraid to say, I dont remember or I dont know. Witness Preparation Dos and Donts for witness testimony: (cont.) Do not argue Maintain eye contact
Pause and reflect before you speak Warn the witnesses that their credibility is likely to be attacked Above all else, answer the question and only the question Go over pertinent exhibits with witnesses Dont put words into your witness mouth BE YOURSELF Witness Preparation Meet with Expert Witness
Dos and Donts for witness testimony: Select the right expert You can always find an expert to agree with you, so credibility is key Know what your expert will say on each issue Witness Preparation Meet with Expert Witness Dos and Donts for witness testimony: (cont.)
Consulting expert vs. testimonial expert Getting your expert witness qualified Discuss the importance of using lay language Prepare them for questions about pay and experience Witness Preparation Meet with Expert Witness Dos and Donts for witness testimony: (cont.) Determine an experts temperament regarding testimony.
Conduct a dry-run with your expert. Witness Preparation Practice Tips Use of prior statements Notice of deposition vs. subpoena Notice of deposition vs. duces tecum Adverse witnesses must be subpoenaed for trial You cannot require a witness to compile or produce
nonexistent documents Witness Preparation Practice Tips (cont) Any person who is subject to a subpoena must be paid for their appearance in accordance with the applicable rules Nonparty witnesses can be excluded from trial by invoking the rule of sequestration All witnesses must be disclosed in response to a pretrial order
Every person is competent to be a witness, unless otherwise provided my statute Use of leading questions during direct and cross examination Witness Impeachment A witness can be impeached by showing: prior inconsistent statements bias character
defect of capacity, ability or opportunity to observe, remember or recount contradiction through proof by other witnesses that the material facts are not as the witness says they are Witness Impeachment Prior Inconsistent Statements - A party may attack the credibility of a witness by introducing statements
which are inconsistent with the present testimony. This is the most common method of impeachment. It is used to discredit the witness by showing contradicting statements. Witness Impeachment Addressing prior inconsistent statements Common examples of prior inconstant statements are tax returns, letters, depositions, medical records, and
previous trial testimony. Use the following four-step approach to impeach using prior inconsistent statement. Witness Impeachment Step one: Lock in the testimony Q. "Mr. Jones, you just testified that the homeowner fired you, correct?" A. Yes Step two: Accredit prior statement
Q. "Did the Department take your deposition in this case?" A. Yes Q. "Is this a copy of the transcript in that deposition?" A. Yes Q. "Were you under oath?" A. Yes Q. "Was your lawyer present?" A. Yes
Witness Impeachment Step three: Confront witness about prior statement Q. I would like to refer you to page 7, line 23 of the deposition transcript. Do you see that? A. Yes Q. Page 7, line 23 says "Q. did you quit the job? Line 24 A. Yes, I quit because the homeowner would not advance the fourth draw. "Do you remember making that statement?"
A. Yes Witness Impeachment Step four: Compare the two statements Q. "You just testified that you were terminated, correct?" A. Yes, well um, I don't know, um I guess, kinda Q. "But during your earlier deposition, you stated under oath that you quit?" A. Um, well I forgot.
Witness Impeachment Other methods of witness impeachment Bias relates to the interest of the witness, favoritism and corruption Character credibility can be attacked or supported by reputation Use of Prior Crimes or Bad Acts May be used if witness has been convicted of certain
crimes, while others are inadmissible Witness Impeachment Other methods of witness impeachment (cont.) Defect of Capacity Evidence of a defect of capacity, ability, or opportunity in the witness to observe, remember, or recount the matters about which the witness testified is admissible to impeach. Must relate to the lack of capacity at the time of the occurrence of the
facts that the witness is testifying to (ability to observe) or the capacity at the time of trial (ability to remember). Contradiction Testimony of other witnesses Contradiction within the statements given by the witness Opening and Closing Statements Thinking like a story teller
Provide a context for your position in a way that is understandable to your listeners. Develop a theory of the case A good theory of the case presents a thoroughly plausible explanation for events. Opening and Closing Statements The time to develop a theory is when trial
preparations begin. Develop the theory of the case using both your point of view and the opposing partys point of view. Trial preparations should reflect and emphasize your theory of the case. Direct Examination Maintain witness control by using a logical
theme to organize the material covered. You may orient the witness through the use of somewhat leading preliminary questions. Provide the witness with some background and context. Direct Examination Use simple questions. Allow your witness to paint the scene of an
occurrence before describing an event. Have the witness explain any confusing testimony. Direct Examination Admit weaknesses prior to cross-examination. Listen to the answers that are being given. Have the witness authenticate exhibits at a point where it does not interrupt the flow of his or her testimony.
Allow the story to flow. Cross Examination Preparation for cross examination at trial begins when preparing for the deposition. Deposition Test questions that will be asked of the witness at trial. Plan to ask only leading questions of the witness.
Plan to ask for one fact per question. Cross Examination Deposition Do not argue with the witness. Explore the ultimate question a deciding question for the case during deposition and before the hearing. If a favorable answer is received, accept it quietly and move on.
Cross Examination Trial Preparation Summarize the information gathered in the depositions. Develop a section for cross examination in the trial notebook. Create a cross examination outline for the questions that will be asked of the witness. A two column chart is helpful in
setting up this outline. Place questions for the witnesses in the left column. Place the source of the answer in the right column. Cross Examination Trial Preparation Place all materials that will be used as source materials behind the questions chart in the notebook. Do not ask a question to which you do not know the
answer. When setting up questions for the opposition's witness, it is a good plan to start strong and finish strong. Sometimes the best cross examination is to ask no questions at all. Cross Examination Helpful Hints An extra copy of the pages to be used for
impeachment should be available and marked as impeachment exhibits in the trial notebook. Watching the body language and demeanor of a witness is crucial to a successful cross examination. Eye contact is very important with the witness, and particular attention should be paid to the voice of the witness and the phrasing of the questions for the witness.
Cross Examination Helpful Hints As to expert witnesses, no question should ever be asked that is so broad that it gives an expert an opportunity to expand on his own views and allow him to cover a point that opposing counsel had been unable to make on direct examination. Remember that the professional witness is always partisan and willing to serve the party that called him. In cross
examination, encourage the witness to betray this bias. Keep in mind that he is being paid to do damage to your case and will take advantage of the opportunity to do so. Cross Examination Helpful Hints In the Art of Cross Examination, Mr. Wellman says in his closing paragraph on the "Golden Rules for the Examination of Witnesses":
"But in cross examination every question that does not advance your case injures it. If you have not a definite object to attain, dismiss the witness without a word. There are no harmless questions here; the most apparently unimportant may bring destruction or victory. Adjudication of Formal Hearings
Adjudication Interagency Agreements Cooperation Coordinated Action Referral of cases for criminal action or unlicensed activity Final Agency Decision
Adjudication Appeals Judicial Review - Using three standards, one of which is Arbitrary, Capricious or Abuse of Discretion, courts must always assure that the agency has: Acted constitutionally Acted with the scope of its authority
Used the correct constitutional or statutory procedures Reached a decision that is supported by the facts Instituted a justified penalty Section Review Learning Objectives Review You should now be able to: Understand how to initiate the hearing process
as a disciplinary prosecutor The administrative hearing process Preparation for formal hearings Understand the adjudication of formal hearings Questions ?