BODY IMAGE BODY IMAGE: the mental picture a person has of his/her own physical appearance and the associated attitudes and feelings toward their own body and how they think others see their body Adolescents are acutely aware of their appearance and intensely sensitive to how they are perceived and accepted by others SELF-ESTEEM: reflects a persons overall
evaluation of his or her own self worth Self-esteem is very important with regard to general motivation, learning capacity, & selfacceptance Developing a positive body-image and aiming for a healthy lifestyle will help enhance selfesteem Body image & self-esteem are constantly changing HOW DOES THE AVERAGE WOMAN MEASURE UP? 5/10 adolescent girls and women struggle with
eating disorders and borderline conditions 1 million boys and men struggle with eating disorders and borderline conditions Almost half of elementary school students between the first and third grades want to be thinner 4 out of 5 children at the age of 10 are afraid of being fat Half of 9 and 10 year old girls feel better about themselves If they are on a diet Most fashion models are thinner than98% of women
8% of women have an hourglass body type a psychological study found in 1995 that 3 minutes spent looking at fashion magazines caused 70% of women to feel depressed, guilty & ashamed Frequent readers of women's magazines were more likely to have Dieted or exercised to lose weight Males are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders if
they participate in sports with a weight restriction The models in magazines are airbrushed, clipped, and touched up 1 in 4 college-aged women has an eating disorder Societys image of a perfect women changes over time Marilyn Monroe wore a size 12 compared with todays models she would be considered overweight AVERAGE WOMENS PROPORTIONS VS. BARBIES PROPORTIONS HEIGHT 54 WEIGHT 145LBS
If Barbie were a real women she wouldnt be able to stand up! Shed have to walk on all fours! FACTORS AFFECTING BODY IMAGE MEDIA - Soap operas, billboards, advertisements, movies, TV, mus - Videos, magazines, beauty contests, fashion shows etc. FAMILY - their eating habits, body image, activity patterns, attitudes towards food, comments on appearance etc.
FRIENDS - Peers reinforce each others beliefs about the ideal body, - teens feel a need to conform SOCIETY - Perfect industry, pre-programmed to expect a quick fix, - self-worth is based on physical characteristics SELF-ESTEEM - Develops from birth & continues to be shaped by significa people in their life, personal characteristics add to feelings o
self-esteem HEALTH PROFESSIONALS - Annual physical (height/weight), cosmetic surgeons advertising the perfect body GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING A BETTER BODY IMAGE Accept that healthy people come in all shapes and sizes. Do not compare yourself to others. You are a unique person who has inherited a body that is suited for you.
Define beauty for yourself. Do not let media or others tell you what to think about your body. What the media portrays doesnt reflect reality; there is no such thing as a perfect body Look in the mirror and notice what you like about your body. Be aware of messages your body gives to you and respond to them appropriately. E.g. tired= rest, full=stop eating Remember there is more to you that just your weight or your body size & shape
Live in the present. I you are always waiting to get thin before you do this or that, then you will spend most of your life waiting and not doing or being. Learn to nurture yourself with things other than food. E.g. relax with music Leave the scales to the fish! Do not allow numbers to determine how you feel about yourself. Wear clothes that you find attractive & comfortable. Wearing uncomfortable clothes may cause you to be dissatisfied with your body. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT
STAGES OF LIFE INFANTS at the highest growth curve, require a higher fat diet, foods that are easily digested CHILDREN high growth curve & are very active, therefore require a higher fat diet, as well as grain products to continue a healthy growth pattern YOUTH- during puberty, high growth spurt, therefore require sufficient energy to meet the physiological needs, nearing adulthood & therefore need to begin to eat lower-fat foods in order to be ready for the end of their growth curve ADULT- need to consume more vegetables & fruit, low-fat foods, need to lead an active lifestyle in order to maintain a
healthy weight and decrease health risks PREGNANT/BREASTFEEDING- must consume nutrient-dense foods & additional milk products OLDER ADULT- metabolism is slowing down, need to consume less food, food choices must be nutrient dense, maintain an active lifestyle HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY High blood pressure
Diabetes Heart disease Cancer Mental health issues Risk of using dangerous weight loss methods Risk of developing eating disorders Arthritis RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH BEING UNDERWEIGHT Heart irregularities Depression/emotional distress Anemia
Risk of developing extreme eating disorders Genetically Predetermined Body Types DOMORPH - soft, round appearance, high percentage of body fat, averag ge body frame, legs may appear short compared to total body size SOMORPH- firm, well developed muscles, average to large bones, broad oulders, slim waist, powerful legs, well-proportioned limbs TOMORPH- small bones, slender, angular, with little muscle or fat mass, row chest and shoulders, arms & legs appear longer in proportion to tors
SET POINT THEORY States that each body has a particular weight that it tends to maintain Genetics plays a key role in determining body weight and shape Set point can fluctuate between 5 & 10 pounds and cannot be lowered through restrictive dieting If an individuals weight is below or above their set point weight range, their body will experience physiological and emotional
changes in an attempt to re-establish itself As less food is eaten, a persons basal metabolic rate decreases (the rate at which calories are used by the body) decreases. Food eaten is then used more efficiently in an attempt by the body to defend its set point and to prevent further weight loss There is no ideal weight for those of the same height & age because people have different body shapes and frames
EATING DISORDER CONTINUUM TUNING INTO HUNGER dieting approach to eating involves eating when you are hungry and sto you are full. There are several degrees of hunger ranging from feeling fu ing extremely hunger. TISIFIED not hungry, no thoughts of food, may have had a meal recen INKING OF FOOD vague thoughts of food, not ready for a meal, may thing to do if upset or bored
NGRY hungry enough to eat a meal, temporarily satisfied with a snack ng decisions about what to eat ALLY HUNGRY thinking of food a lot, irritable, stomach growling, low e ea, upset stomach, getting harder to concentrate ARVING feeling shaky, decreased physical co-ordination, experiencing che, unable to concentrate, may feel sleepy, may faint THE THREE DS
ING billions dollars are spent on dieting & diet related products each year e diet industrys target consumer is the professional female dieter e risk of Yo-Yo dieting far outweigh the benefits netics plays a key role in determining shape, weight and size etc. % of females between the ages of 11 and 13 already se themselves as erweight dividuals who diet are 8% more likely to develop an eating disorder Y DISSATISFACTION % of adult women are dissatisfied with their bodies
cording to one study, up to 13% of 9 year olds reported a fear of being fa d by the age of 11, 51% began their first diet ny dieting teenagers experience the passage through puberty with repu d disgust OR THINNESS the mid-sixties, we have become a nation obsessed with thinness bsession is perpetuated by the myths that thinness equals beauty, ctionism ness, self-confidence and self-control or thinness is often passed on by mothers to daughters through a ss of learning and imitation
esponsible are the diet, beauty, and fashion industries, which bombard h mixed messages through media advertising MBER ot your bodies that need changing, its our attitudes. AT REALLY HAPPENS WHEN WE DIET, JUST FOR GIRLS WE DIET-THIS IS WHAT REALLY HAPPENS pping meals or decreasing calories is lowers metabolism so we store fat more easily from fewer alories
e brain & muscles demand for fuel causes rebound munchie sually for high fat & high sugar items or attention span, irritability, fatigue uscle tissue may be lost ut out starchy foods ur body loses its best source of stable energy ull be more likely to fell moody & tired ull end up eating higher fat & sugary foods to satisfy munch o on a Preplanned Meal Replacement Diet or Liquid Di
You have 95% chance of regaining any weight you lose in 1 to 2 years You give away control to the plan which lowers your self-esteem You often lose muscle mass along with fat. This lowers your metabolism, aking it easier to store fat on fewer calories Habits are replaced temporarily, not changed permanently They are expensive! Cut out Meats Without a Comparable Replacement
May risk iron deficiency which leads to fatigue Energy from meals may not last as long, causing more hunger in betwee Meals for high fat, high sugar foods DIET PRODUCTS he diet industry makes billions of dollars every year. Each year new weight loss roducts and gimmicks are introduced.
Fastin g Most of the weight lost is water Muscle mass decreases which lowers metabolism, and therefore causes fat gain Can be medically dangerous WHY WE DIET To Be Slim Over the long run, 95% of dieters regain the weight, most gain back more weight, so they diet again with similar poor results
This is called the Diet Cycling/Yo-Yo Dieting and often leads to obesity, it also increases health risks here is no evidence that being plump is unhealthy, but there is evidence that ws being too thin is unhealthy ost diets decrease out muscle mass, muscle is needed for a healthy lifestyle a healthy metabolism BE HEALTHIER any diets are unhealthy, your body and mind dont run well when you restrict cal
eting makes you moody & irritable and obsessed with food, this feels like failure n fact it is a physiological response and has nothing to do with willpower BE MORE ATTRACTIVE hat attracts you to someone else? What are long-term relationships based upon? you are dieting are you any fun to be around? MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS Being thin will make me popular
Thin people are happy Being thin will make him love me more Thin people are successful Thin people have self-control & will power Thin people are hard workers, smart & powerful Fat people are unhealthy Dieting will help me achieve the ideal body Skipping meals will help me lose weight faster Fat people are lazy, sloppy and stupid SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING A
HEALTHY, NON-DIETING, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE come aware of your body signals for hunger & fullness t until you feel full or satisfied. You dont have to eat everything on your ke time to eat meals & snacks, including breakfast ke eating a sit down activity as often as possible to avoid the unconscious eating that may take place in front of the TV,
ovies, talking on the phone/on the computer etc. foods from all the recommended food groups oid using bathroom scales ow time to relax t enough sleep ke gradual changes in your lifestyle
ANOREXIA NERVOSA An emotional disorder characterized by an intense fear of fat that results in Extreme dieting The loss of at least 15% of normal body weight or a failure to reach within
15% of normally expected body weight Affects mostly women between the ages of 12-24 Low self-esteem, a distorted body image, obsession with food are common Relentless pursuit of thinness results in death in 10-15% with the disorder SIGNS Noticeable weight loss in a short period of time ( approx. 3 months) Become a pickier eater, avoiding certain food groups etc. Obsession with food, recipes, hours of exercise Individual denies being hungry even though they are starving
Hunger may not be recognized due to the large water intake Feel a false sense of control when they resist the urge to eat Feel out of control in other areas of their life Perfectionism and unrealistic expectations for personal achievement May binge due to prolonged starvation, often purge whatever is consumed to avoid weight gain EFFECTS Chronic constipation, alternating with diarrhea, dry pasty skin, depression Irritability, and distorted body image
Lack of adequate body fat= always feeling cold Fine downy hair may grow on parts of the body Menstruation stops In males there is a decrease in sex drive Internal organs are weakened, the body begins to shut down to conserve energy Individuals may continue to perform day to day activities with bursts of energy Eventually they will have faintness, weakness, irregular heartbeats and may IMIA NERVOSA
otional disorder, characterized by binge eating & a method of purge at l days/week for a period of 3 months e person eats to control overpowering emotions & are often not hungry a oint rging= vomiting, laxative, diet pills, over exercising, diuretics & or fasting re than one method of purging is often used ually within 10lbs of normal weight
ects 15-20% of college women les & females are both affected en starts out as a simple diet, escalating into a binge/purge cycle, that f ery much like an addiction SIGNS Weight fluctuations, soreness in the mouth, gums, teeth are sensitive to cold & hot Swollen glands in the neck, chronic sore throat, fainting spells, dizziness, frequent trips to the bathroom after eating
Secretive about eating EFFECTS Chronic constipation,, broken blood vessels in the eyes, and bags under the eyes Depression, irregular heartbeats, electrolyte imbalance Stomach muscles may stretch due to the large amounts of food ingested Tears in the esophogus, & if it ruptures it can cause instant death CHARATERISTICS Purging is a coping mechanism used to control overwhelming emotions
Often a history of sexual abuse EATMENT FOR ANOREXIA & BULIMIA edical attention to monitor health edication is often used to help depression ounselling, therapy, support groups utritional education
indsor/Essex County BANA, Teen Health Centre, Family Dr. FINITIONS STRICTIVE EATING - a futile, often harmful process of restrictive eating sed by body dissatisfaction, preoccupation with thinness, and the false ef that self-worth is dependent upon body and size SFUNCTIONAL EATING - troublesome eating behaviours, such as restric ting, bingeing, or purging, which occur less frequently or less severely th se required to meet the full criteria for the diagnosis of an eating disorde
ER-EXERCISING - exercising compulsively for long periods of time as a n calories from food that has just been eaten RGING - attempts to rid the body of food consumed by engaging in selfmiting, use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics and excessive exercise, skippin als or dieting EROIDS there are 2 types of synthetic steroids: anabolic and androgen abolic- tissue building Androgenic masculinizing effect, even if the use male
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