MODULE 8 Crop Nutrition 02/23/2020 1 LESSON 1

MODULE 8 Crop Nutrition 02/23/2020 1 LESSON 1

MODULE 8 Crop Nutrition 02/23/2020 1 LESSON 1 Introduction to Crop Nutrition 02/23/2020 2 Outcomes 1. Define plant nutrition 2. Discuss the basic needs of plants 3. Define what fertilizers are 02/23/2020 3

Structure 1. Why crop nutrition is important 2. Why do plants need fertilizers 3. Explain the Liebigs law of the minimum 02/23/2020 4 What is crop nutrition? - Understanding the crop the soil condition where it will be grown managing the crops nutrient requirement Determining Which nutrients does the crop need? When does the crop need the nutrients?

How much nutrient does the crop need? 02/23/2020 5 The plants needs O2 CO2 O2 O2 Primary nutrients N P

H2O O2 Secondary nutrients K Ca Mg S Micro nutrients B 02/23/2020 Cu Fe Mn

Mo Zn 6 What are fertilizers? Simply put, fertilizers are plant food Why do we need them? Fertilizers replaces the nutrients that crops remove from the soil. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yields would be significantly reduced. 02/23/2020 7 Fertilizer increases yield *If for some reason mineral fertilizer use were abruptly discontinued, The world food output would probably go down by 40% or more 02/23/2020

8 Liebigs law of the minimum 02/23/2020 9 LESSON 2 Understanding the soil 02/23/2020 10 Outcomes 1. Determine the types of soil 2. Discuss why cultivation is important 02/23/2020 11

Structure 1. Relationship of soil and crop productivity 2. Cross section of the soil 3. How cultivation affects the soil 02/23/2020 12 Soil horizons are often visible Ideal soils do not exist, but all soils can be improved - It varies within the area, from field to field and even within the field - Soil color are indicators of the status of the soil A) Topsoil B) Subsoil A) Topsoil B) Subsoil C) Parent material

Photos courtesy: CSIRO Australia 02/23/2020 13 Cultivation Opens up the soil - aeration Speeds up the breakdown of organic matter and soil structure Leaves the surface soil more vulnerable to wind or water erosion (weathering) Photo courtesy: CSIRO Australia 02/23/2020

14 LESSON 3 Physical Properties of the Soil 02/23/2020 15 Outcomes 1. Name and define the physical attributes/ characteristic of soil 2. Explain how such physical attributes affects soil fertility 02/23/2020 16 Structure 1. Learn about soil color

2. Learn about soil texture 3. Learn about soil structure 4. Learn about soil composition 02/23/2020 17 Physical Properties Soil color are indicators of the status of the soil Light colors Generally low in fertility Dark colors Generally high in fertility Red Generally high in Iron

Blue greyish - There is waterlogging 02/23/2020 18 b. Soil structure Is a description of the Size Shape Arrangement .of blocks in the soil Soil structure is formed by the aggregation of Sand

Silt Clay And bound by soil organic compounds 02/23/2020 19 Different soil structures 02/23/2020 20 c. Soil Texture is a measure of soil particles Sand 2000 63mm, feels gritty Silt 63 2mm, feels smooth Clay <2mm, feels silky -The majority of soils are a mixture of the following; Sandy clay, Silty clay, Sandy loam, Sandy clay loam, Loamy sand .etc.

02/23/2020 21 Determination of textural class of soil 02/23/2020 22 Soil texture flow chart UK (feeling the soil with your fingers) 02/23/2020 23 Measuring the soil texture in the laboratories Into a clear jar, measuring cylinder or rain gauge place 8 to 10 cm of soil

The soil should be free of stones, sticks or other foreign matter and any clods should be broken up. Partially fill with water, cover the top and shake until the soil is suspended in the solution Leave overnight to settle 02/23/2020 24 Texture class is measured using this figure 02/23/2020

25 Soil texture influences fertilizer use Freely draining soils Nutrients may move with the water flow through the soil Sandy soils May have lower organic matter levels and hence lower fertility Clay soils May have higher organic matter levels and water nutrient holding capacity *Fertilizer applications need to be adjusted to suit soil types

02/23/2020 26 Soil composition Sand Chemically inactive Silt Chemically inactive Clay Chemically active Colloids Very fine clay particles < 0.1mm Can be mineral or organic Chemically active Low colloid soil

02/23/2020 High colloid soil 27 LESSON 4 Chemical Properties of the Soil 02/23/2020 28 Outcomes 1. What ions are 2. Describe ion movements in the soil 3. Describe how nutrients are taken up by plants 4. Explain how soil acidity affects nutrient availability 02/23/2020

29 Structure 1. What ions are? 2. Nutrient retention and release 3. Nutrient uptake pathways 4. pH level and nutrient availability 02/23/2020 30 Ions are charged nutrient elements - negatively charged are Cations - positively charged are Anions Ammonium Nitrogen increases soil acidity When nutrients are taken up by plants roots, an ion exchange takes place Urea and ammonium nitrogen are converted to nitrate for uptake by the plants The release of H+ ions increases the acidity of the soil + H

H++ Urea 02/23/2020 NO3NH4+ Ammonium NO3Nitrate 31 Nitrate nitrogen does not increase soil acidity With Anions (NO3) is directly supplied Hydroxyl ions (OH) is displaced from the roots Uptake of nitrate releases OH- ions which do not increase soil acidity

OH OH-- Fertilizers NO33-Nitrate 02/23/2020 32 Nutrient uptake pathways 02/23/2020 33 pH and nutrient availability 02/23/2020 34 Al becomes available as the soil becomes acidic

02/23/2020 35 LESSON 5 Physical Properties of the Soil 02/23/2020 36 Outcomes 1. Describe the different methods of assessing soil fertility 2. Determine which method is more appropriate/ practical for farmer use 02/23/2020 37 Structure

1. How to take soil samples properly 2. Minus one element technique 3. Crop offtake table 4. Use of leaf color chart 5. N-tester 6. Crop manager 02/23/2020 38 Diagnosis of nutrient limitations in the soil a. Soil Analysis - laboratory analysis/ soil test kit Open sided soil cores can be useful in heavier (more clay) or wet soils They also allow the top soil horizons to be seen Sampling pathFollow the W path across the field Samples here are

Samples from this core is more accurate inconsistent 02/23/2020 39 b. Minus one element technique (MOET) - A pot experiment to determine the nutrients deficient in the soil. - Complete treatment compared - with the minus treatments MOET is a reliable technique that determines soil nutrient deficiencies in the field. MOET is based on the law of the Minimum 02/23/2020 40

c. Leaf Color Chart (LCC) Tool that can help farmers visually assess N status of their rice crop Measures N content indirectly by measuring intensity of green color of sample leaves 02/23/2020 41 N-Tester readings to evaluate the crops nitrogen status The hypothesis behind ... From ... via ... to ... and finally ...

Leaf chlorophyll concentration N-Tester reading Leaf nitrogen concentration Nitrogen fertilizer recommendation 02/23/2020 42 Yaras "Just-in-time" plant nutrition concept Just-in-time application of fertilizers means Fertilizer to the crop when needed

providing the required nutrients at the time of crop demand in an adequate ratio in a highly plant available form employing the best available delivery system solid or foliar application, fertigation using tools like the Yara N-Tester to determine the current nutrient requirement, considering nutrient supply by the soil crop development

Advantages 02/23/2020 to allow a better fine tuning in terms of crop requirement to achieve a high nutrient efficiency to utilize the crops potential in terms of yield and quality 43 Rice Crop Manager A decision making tool accessible to the web browser thru computer and smart phones, Can be used by extension workers, crop advisors, service provider and even farmers for nutrient management advise 02/23/2020 44

02/23/2020 45 Crop off-take table Analysis N P K Ca Mg S (N) (P2O5) (K2O) (CaO) (MgO) (S) Crop

kg kg kg kg kg kg Egg Plant Fruit 1.7 0.73 2.54 0.31

0.27 0.18 Maize - hybrid Grain 15.6 2.9 3.8 0.4 0.9 1.3 Potato Tuber

3.3 1.01 5.48 0.13 0.25 Rice - modern Grain 10.5 2 2.5 0.5 Tomato

Fruit 1.56 0.64 3.03 Water melon Fruit 1.2 0.39 2.9 B Cu Fe

(B) (Cu) (Fe) Mo Mn (Mo) (Mn) Zn (Zn) grms grms grms grms grms grms 0.5 4 2 2

5.3 2.1 11.6 6.3 0.3 3.4 3 1.5 1 5.4 6.3 54.9

24.3 1.8 14.4 0.15 0.18 0.7 1.3 0.3 3 2 0.025 1.8

0.14 0.12 0.08 0.6 1.5 20 1.7 * determining the nutrients to be replenished based on what was consumed from the previous yield or your target yield 02/23/2020 46 LESSON 6 Organic and mineral fertilizers

02/23/2020 47 Outcomes 1. Describe organic and mineral fertilizers 2. How organic and mineral fertilizers are made 02/23/2020 48 Structure 1. What organic and mineral fertilizers are 2. How are organic and mineral fertilizers made 02/23/2020 49 Organic and mineral fertilizers

production and utilization Organic fertilizer These are fertilizers mostly derived from animal manure or decomposed plant and animal materials Mineral Fertilizer These are formulated fertilizers, not arising from natural process Foliar fertilizer these are fertilizers directly applied to the leaves 02/23/2020 50 Average Nutrient and Dry Matter Content of Manures Nutrients kg/tonne of slurry or manure Dry matter (%) Total N Total P2O5 Total K2O Slurry from

dairy cows 6 3.0 1.2 3.5 FYM from dairy cows 25 6.0 3.5 8.0 Slurry from pigs

4 4.0 2.0 2.5 FYM from pigs 25 7.0 7.0 5.0 Manure from chickens 30

16.0 13.0 9.0 Broiler litter 60 30.0 25.0 18.0 02/23/2020 51 Mineral Fertilizer Production Processes Process alternatives

Inputs (raw materials) Urea + DAP +MOP1. Ammonia 2. Blending NPK blends Wet sulphuric acid based products 3. 02/23/2020 Ammonium based Ammonium based NPK Compounds CaSO4 -Gypsum for Waste

disposal Phosphate Rock Potash Salt Products Nitrophosphate process Nitrophosphate NPK compounds Calcium Nitrate P.O. 52 LESSON 7 Managing the nutrient requirement of crops (Key Check 5)

02/23/2020 53 Outcomes 1. Determine the nutrient deficiencies 2. How organic and mineral fertilizers are made 02/23/2020 54 Structure 1. The deficiency symptoms of each nutrient element 2. The causes of deficiencies 3. The right kind of fertilizers 4. The right amount of fertilizers 5. The right time to apply fertilizers 02/23/2020 55

K A T 02/23/2020 Know the right KIND of nutrients your plant needs. Use nutrient assessment and decision-support tools to guide you in determining the right fertilizer to use. Know the right AMOUNT of fertilizer to apply. Too much or too little is not good. Know the right TIMING of fertilizer application to increase efficiency in input cost and nutrient uptake. 56 Causes of N deficiency

Low N supply Insufficient application of N N losses due to heavy rainfall (leaching and seepage) . NITROGEN Deficiency symptoms Stunted, yellowish plants. Older leaves or whole plants are yellowish green. 02/23/2020 57 (Basal) Timing rip g

in er g in en w flo e cl n ni tio pa itia in g rin le til ep pr

n io at in g lin ed se rm ge nd la 58 02/23/2020 NITROGEN Organic Causes of P deficiency Low soil P supply

Insufficient application of mineral P Low efficiency of applied P fertilizer PHOSPHORUS Deficiency symptoms: Stunted dark green plants with narrow, short, very erect leaves and greatly reduced tillering. 02/23/2020 59 rip g in er g in en

w flo e cl n ni tio pa itia in g rin le til ep pr n io at in g

lin ed se rm ge nd la 60 02/23/2020 PHOSPHORUS Timing (Basal) Organic Causes of N deficiency Low soil K supply Insuficient application of

K Rice straw burned and not returned in the field POTASSIUM Deficiency symptoms: Dark green plants with yellowish brown leaf margins or dark brown necrotic spots first appear on the tip of older leaves. 02/23/2020 61 rip g in er g in en

w flo e cl n ni tio pa itia in g rin le til ep pr n io at in g

lin ed se rm ge nd la 62 02/23/2020 POTASSIUM Timing (Basal) Organic fertilizer Role of Zn in the plant For the production of auxin, enzymes that regulates plant growth Enhances seedling development

ZINC Deficiency symptoms: Dusty brown spots on upper leaves of stunted plants appearing 2-4 weeks after transplanting Reduced tiller number 02/23/2020 63 Zn Procoated Urea Organic ZnSO4 10 -14 DAT rip g

in er g in en w flo e cl n ni tio pa itia in g rin le til ep pr

n io at in g lin ed se rm ge nd la 64 02/23/2020 ZINC Timing Foliar Zn

Role of S in plant For protein synthesis, plant function and plant structure Fro chlorophyll production For protein building to maximize yield SULFUR Deficiency symptoms: young leaves becomes yellow whitish brown, reduced no. of tillers, fewer and shorter panicles, reduced no. of spikelets per panicle, and delayed maturityv 02/23/2020 65 Timing SULFUR Organic rip

g in er g in en w flo e cl n ni tio pa itia in g rin le til ep

pr n io at in g lin ed se rm ge nd la 66 02/23/2020 Consider this! Aside from nutrient deficiency, consider mineral toxicity in deciding on the nutrients

to apply. Toxicity can occur when minerals exist in a form that becomes harmful to plants. Worms (parasites) live in every persons intestines, no matter how clean and healthy a person is. 02/23/2020 67 IRON TOXICITY Iron is naturally present in the soil and plants need iron. But iron can be harmful in permanently-flooded fields. tiny brown spots on the lower leaves starting from the tip or orange-yellow to brown leaves IRRI WHAT TO DO? Use intermittent irrigation and avoid

continuous flooding in poorly-drained soils, balance fertilizers and perform dry tillage after harvest to increase iron oxidation during the fallow period. 02/23/2020 68 02/23/2020 69 Lets review! Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur rip g in er w

n io at iti in g in en flo e cl ni pa g rin le til n io

at in g lin ed se rm ge 02/23/2020 Zinc 70 Matching game N def Fe toxicity S def Zn def P def

N def 02/23/2020 P def K def K def S def Zn def Fe toxicity 71 LESSON 7 Managing the nutrient requirement of crops (Key Check 5) 02/23/2020 72

Outcomes 1. Able to analyze current fertilizer program 2. Able to calculate the nutrients in a bag 3. Create a fertilizer program 02/23/2020 73 Structure 1.Issues to consider in creating a fertilizer program 2.Calculate the amount of nutrients per bag of fertilizers 3.Creating a fertilizer program 02/23/2020 74 In creating a fertilizer program, the issues to consider are:

The crops nutrient needs What - When - How much The farmers needs What are his expectations What changes will he accept Simple Effective Agreed between the client and advisor Made from the products that addresses the issues 02/23/2020

75 Nutrient demand varies with growth stages Crop nutrient uptake Fertilizer demand Soil Nutrient supply 02/23/2020 76 t/ha Balanced Nutrition 7.5 Add Ca,Mg,S,B,Zn Add

K2O 6.7 5.9 Add P2O5 5.2 Add N only 3.1 No fertilizer added Nil 02/23/2020 N only N&P N, P, K 2.0 N,P,K, +Ca,Mg S B, Zn 77

Questions What are the common fertilizers available in the market? 46-0-0 14-14-14 16-20-0 21-0-0 18-46-0 0-0-60 16-16-16 13.5-0-46 02/23/2020 17-7-17 12-12-12 17-0-17 25-0-0 20-20-0 0-18-0 6-9-15 20-10-0 20-10-10 10-5-42

0-0-52 15.5-0-0-26.3 Foliar Fertilizers 78 Know how to compute the nutrients in the bag What do the numbers preceding the kind of fertilizer represents? 1. Ur ea 46 -00 02/23/2020 th e nu m be

r re pr 79 es Determine the nutrient content of the following in terms of Kgs. per bag 46-0-0 21-0-0+24S 14-14-14+11S 16-20-0+12S 18-46-0 0-0-60 16-16-16

15.5-0-0+26.3Ca 02/23/2020 N P2O5 K2O 23 0 10.5 7 8 9 0 8 7.75 0 0 7 10 23

0 8 0 0 12 5.5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 30 8 0 S

CaO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13.15 80 Determine the total nutrients you put in the soil Number of Bags Grade 2 6 Total 4 6

Total 02/23/2020 Kilos/ha N P2O5 K 2O S CaO 100 Urea Complete 300 46 42 0

42 0 42 0 33 0 0 400 88 42 42 33 0 Ammosul 200

Complete 300 42 42 0 42 0 42 48 33 0 0 500 84 42 42

81 0 81 Which has more Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium content? 8 bags of 14-14-14 or 7 bags of 16-16-16? Ans: They have the same Amount 56 kg Nitrogen-56kg Phosphorous- 56kg Potassium 02/23/2020 82 Fertilizer Computation Given: 47-24-24

Using 16-16-16 and Urea Compute for the N, P2O5,and K2O No. of bags N P2O5 K20 16-16-16 Urea Total 02/23/2020 83 Fertilizer Computation Given: 47-24-24 Using 16-16-16 and Urea Compute for the N, P2O5,and K2O 1st compute for the lowest requirement, here it is 24 If one bag of 16-16-16 has 8kgN-8kgP-8kgK, Divide 24 by 8 = 3 bags 16-16-16 47-24-24 here you still need 23 kg N

24-24-24 one bag Urea has 23 kg 23-0-0 02/23/2020 84 Fertilizer Computation Given: 47-24-24 Using 16-16-16 and Urea Compute for the N, P2O5,and K2O No. of bags N P2O5 16-16-16 3 bags 24 24 24 Urea 1 bag

23 Total 4 bags 47 24 24 02/23/2020 K20 85 Gi ve n: Fertilizer Computation 7.5 bags 1.3 bags 8.8 bags 02/23/2020 60 60

34 0 94 60 60 0 60 9 06 06 0 U si n g 1 61 86 Fertilizer Computation Given: 120-45-45-26Ca Using 16-16-16, Tropicote and Urea

Compute for N,P2O5,K2O and Ca No. of bags N P2O5 K2O CaO 16-16-16 5.5 bags 44 44 44 0 2 bags 15.5 0 0 Tropicote 2.5 bags 57.5 0 0 Urea Total 02/23/2020 10 bags 117 44

44 26.3 0 26.3 87 Fertilizer Computation Given: 170-120-180-26Ca Using Unik 16, Tropicote, MOP and Urea Compute for N,P2O5,K2O and CaO No. of bags N P2O5 K2O CaO 16-16-16 15 bags 120 120120 0 Tropicote 2 bags 15.5 0 0 26.3 Urea 1.5 bags 34.5 0 0 0 2 bags 0 0 60 0 MOP Total

02/23/2020 20.5 bags 170 120 180 26.3 88 Example of Nutrient calculation rice The scene: A rice farmer is worried how come his yield was way below the potential of the variety. He was only getting 80 100 cavans per hectare with this new hybrid 1 hectare of rice field He applies 2 bags 14-14-14 and 2 bags Urea his usual practice Application at basal and before panicle initiation For other cultural practice eg, irrigation, weed and pest control etc., he followed the recommendations His question: Why is my yield still low? Should I apply more fertilizers?

02/23/2020 89 For more information, please contact: Mr. Tomas Quimbo Yara Fertilizer Focal Person BRIA FARMERS [email protected] http://www.yara.com Mr. Matthias Radek Chief Advisor GIZ Agriculture-DPP Projects [email protected] http://www.better-rice-initiative-asia.org/ 02/23/2020 Credit Yara Fertilizer with support from PhilRice 90

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