Sentencing Update Alan Dorhoffer Commission Resources www.ussc.gov helpline

Sentencing Update Alan Dorhoffer Commission Resources www.ussc.gov helpline

Sentencing Update Alan Dorhoffer Commission Resources www.ussc.gov helpline (202) 502-4545 @theusscgov [email protected]

New Training Resources Case Law Concierge www.ussc.gov (202) 502-4545 @theusscgov [email protected]

3 Recent Commission Reports Past Predicts the Future: Criminal History and Recidivism of Federal Offenders Criminal History and Recidivism of Federal Offenders Youthful Offender Report Mandatory Minimum Penalties for Federal Sex Offenses Recidivism Among Federal Drug Trafficking Offenders 4

2017 National Primary Offense Types National - FY 2016 SOURCE: 2017 Sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statistics; 66,873 Cases Sentenced 5 2017 Middle District of Pennslyvania National - FY 2016

SOURCE: 2017 Sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statistics; 406 Cases Sentenced 6 7 2018 Amendments www.ussc.gov (202) 502-4545

@theusscgov [email protected] 7 2018 Guideline Amendments 2D1.1 (Drugs: Fentanyl and Synthetic Drugs) New increase for knowingly misrepresenting fentanyl or fentanyl analogue as another substance New definition of fentanyl analogue Establishes drug ratios and minimum offense levels for synthetic drugs (cathinones and cannabinoids)

8 Synthetic Drugs 2D1.1 Drug Trafficking, Etc. (a) Base Offense Level (BOL) (apply the greatest): Level (2) defendant convicted under 21/841(b)(1)(A), (1)(B), or (b)(1)(C), or 960(b)(1), (b)(2), and the offense of conviction establishes death/serious injury from use of the substance

Note See 1B1.2 for offense of conviction (b) or (b)(3), 38 10 2018 Guideline Amendments Alternatives to Incarceration for Nonviolent First Offenders New Application Note at 5C1.1 for court to consider

alternative sentences for nonviolent first offenders in Zones A or B Eligible offenders must have no prior convictions and instant offense must not involve violence or possess a weapon 11 2018 Guideline Amendments Acceptance of Responsibility language The fact that a defendants challenge is unsuccessful does not necessarily establish that

it was either a false denial or frivolous 12 2018 Guideline Amendments 13 Marijuana Equivalency term changed to Converted Drug Weight Bipartisan Budget Act: Increase penalties for Social Security fraud offenses

14 Supreme Court Cases www.ussc.gov (202) 502-4545 @theusscgov [email protected]

14 15 Stokeling v. United States, 139 S. Ct. 544 (2019) A robbery offense that has an element of force sufficient to overcome a victims resistance meets the level of force necessary to qualify as a violent felony under the elements clause of the Armed Career Criminal Act

16 U.S. v. Stitt, 139 S. Ct. 399 (2018) Generic burglary, as described in the ACCA, includes burglary of a structure or vehicle that has been adapted or is customarily used for overnight habitation. These include mobile homes, recreational vehicles, trailers, and camping tents. Note: check out PA burglary at 3501 17

U.S. v. Quarles, 850 F.3d 836 (6th Cir. 2017), cert. granted, -S. Ct.-, 2019 WL 166873 (2019) Whether Taylor v. United States definition of generic burglary requires proof that intent to commit a crime was present at the time of unlawful entry or first unlawful remaining, as two circuits hold; or whether it is enough that the defendant formed the intent to commit a crime at any time while remaining in the building or structure, as the court below and three other circuits hold.

18 U.S. v. Davis, 903 F.3d 483 (5th Cir. 2018), cert. granted, -S. Ct.-, 2019 WL 98544 (2019) Whether the subsection-specific definition of crime of violence in 18 U.S.C. 924(c)(3)(B) [residual clause], which applies only in the limited context of a federal criminal prosecution for possessing, using or carrying a firearm in connection with acts comprising such a crime, is unconstitutionally vague.

19 U.S. v. Haymond, 869 F.3d 1153 (10th Cir. 2017), cert. granted, 139 S. Ct. 398 (2018) Whether the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit erred in holding unconstitutional and unenforceable the portions of 18 U.S.C. 3583(k) that required the district court to revoke the respondents 10-year term of supervised release, and to impose five years of reimprisonment, following its finding by a preponderance of the evidence that the respondent

violated the conditions of his release by knowingly possessing child pornography. 20 Supervised Release Conditions Remands Treatment or Therapy Associations with Others Access to Sexually Stimulating Materials Geography Locations Computer Restrictions Alcohol or Drug Treatment or Restrictions

Lifestyle Restrictions Supervised Release Conditions 21 U.S. v. Holena, 906 F.3d 288 (3d Cir. 2018) Still, internet bans are draconian, and we have said as much even in cases where we have upheld them. United States v. Heckman, 592 F.3d 400 (3d Cir. 2010). To gauge whether an internet or computer restriction is more restrictive than necessary, we consider three factors: the restrictions length, its

coverage, and the defendants underlying conduct. Id. at 405 (emphasis removed). Sometimes we also consider a fourth factor: the proportion of the supervised-release restriction to the total restriction period (including prison). Tapia and Revoking Supervise Release U.S. v. McClure-Potts, 908 F.3d 30 (3d Cir. 2018) Tapia holding which prevents courts from imposing or lengthening a prison term merely to promote an offenders rehabilitation applies to revocation sentencing. However, here there is no indication that the court tailored its sentence length because of rehabilitation

22 23 Selected Third Circuit Cases www.ussc.gov (202) 502-4545 @theusscgov

[email protected] View on Categorical Approach U.S. v. Mayo, 901 F.3d 218 (3d Cir. 2018) We recognize that the result we reach here is wholly unsatisfying and counterintuitive. It is hard to imagine that Congress meant for the kinds of crimes typically prosecuted as aggravated assault under state law to fall outside of the definition of violent felony in the ACCA. But thats the categorical approach for you. (acknowledging that faithful application of the categorical

approach at times results in outcomes that frustrate [the] policy objective underlying a recidivist enhancement provision). 24 Example: Career Offender Guideline Defendant is convicted of armed bank robbery (18 U.S.C. 2113(a)&(d)) The defendant has three prior convictions: PA robbery PA aggravated assault

Federal Conspiracy to commit murder in aid of rackateering Does this defendant have two prior crimes of violence to qualify as a career offender at 4B1.2 25 26 Guidelines Definition of Crime of Violence 4B1.2(a) Force clause

has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person of another, or Enumerated Offenses is murder, manslaughter, kidnapping, aggravated assault, forcible sex offense, robbery, arson, or extortion, involves use of explosives

Example: ACCA Defendant is convicted of felon-in-possession ( 922(g)) If defendant has 3 or more violent felonies or serious drug trafficking offenses, he qualifies under ACCA Defendant has 3 prior convictions: PA Armed Robbery PA Burglary NJ Possession of Child Pornography 27

Supreme Court Case Involving Force Clause of Violent Felony Johnson v. U.S., 130 S. Ct. 1265 (2010) The term violentconnotes a substantial degree of force. Need force capable of causing physical pain or injury to another More than de minimis force 28 Crime of Violence: Robbery

U.S. v. Wilson, 880 F.3d 80(3d Cir. 2018) Federal unarmed bank robbery (18 U.S.C. 2113(a)) is a crime of violence at 4B1.2 because 2113(a) requires proof that a defendant knowingly engaged in an act that would cause an ordinary bank teller to be intimidated and turn over money that the defendant knew he had no right to have. See also, U.S. v. Johnson, 899 F.3d 91 (3d Cir. 2018) (bank robbery is a crime of violence under 924(c) 29 Robbery

U.S. v. Peppers, 899 F.3d 211 (3d Cir. 2018) PA robbery ( 3701(a)(1)(v)) at the time the defendant was convicted of this offense was not a violent felony because the statute has been interpreted to include any amount of force applied to a person while committing a theft[,] including the mere use of threatening words or gestures, and operates on the mind, and because [t]he degree of actual force is immaterial, so long as it is sufficient to separate the victim from his property, 30

Robbery U.S. v. McCants, 911 F.3d 127 (3d Cir. 2019) New Jersey second-degree robbery entailing theft by threatening another with, or purposely putting another in fear of, bodily injury is a crime of violence under 4B1.2 under both the enumerated offense clause and the force clause 31 Aggravated Assault U.S. v. Mayo, 901 F.3d 218 (3d Cir. 2018)

Because Pennsylvania aggravated assault under 2702(a)(1) criminalizes certain acts of omission, it sweeps more broadly than the ACCAs definition of physical force. and is not a violent felony 32 Aggravated Assault U.S. v. Ramos, 892 F.3d 599 (3d Cir. 2018) PA second degree ( 2702) is divisible because it contains separate punishments and criminalizes different conduct and contains separate elements.

PA second-degree aggravated assault with a deadly weapon section is a crime of violence under career offender sentencing guideline 33 Aggravated Assault U.S. v. Abdullah, 905 F.3d 739 (3d Cir. 2018) NJ aggravated assault with a deadly weapon ( 2C:12-1(b) (2)), is a crime of violence. It is [still] nearly impossible to conceive of a scenario in which a person could knowingly or intentionally injure, or

attempt to injure, another person with a deadly weapon without engaging in at least some affirmative, forceful conduct. Ramos, 892 F.3d at 612. 34 Serious Drug Trafficking Offense 35 U.S. v. Daniels, 915 F.3d 148 (3d Cir. 2019) PA possession with intent to deliver cocaine is a serious drug

offense under ACCA because the statute encompasses attempts, as defined by federal law, to manufacture, distribute, or possess w/intent to manufacture/distribute controlled substance. U.S. v. Glass, 904 F.3d 319 (3d Cir. 2018) PA 780-113(a)(30) is a controlled substance offense. The parties have failed to uncover any authority, such as state judicial decisions or pattern jury instructions, suggesting Pennsylvania would prosecute a mere offer to sell under 780113(a)(30). RICO and Controlled Substance U.S. v. Williams, 898 F.3d 323 (3d Cir. 2018)

RICO is divisible and here, the indictment showed that the defendants predicate acts were for violations under 21 U.S.C. 841(a)(1) and he was convicted of manufacturing, selling drugs which matches the guidelines definition of controlled substance offense. 36 Inchoate/Accomplice Liability Crimes Conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering is not a controlled substance offense under 4B1.2 U.S. v. McCollum , 885 F.3d 300 (4th Cir. 2018)

Attempt crimes not crimes of violence under 4B1.2 U.S. v. Winstead, 890 F.3d 1082 (D.C. Cir. 2018) WA unlawful delivery of a controlled substance is not serious drug trafficking offense under the ACCA because of mens rea of knowledge for accomplice liability U.S. v. Franklin, 904 F.3d 793 (9th Cir. 2018) 37 Divisible U.S. v. McCants, 911 F.3d 127 (3d Cir. 2019) Because N.J. STAT. ANN. 2C:15-1 [Robbery] lays out

alternative elements upon which prosecutors can sustain a second-degree robbery conviction, we hold that the statute is divisible. Thus, we have no reason to overturn the District Courts finding that the natural reading of the plea colloquy is that McCantss two prior robbery convictions fall under N.J. STAT. ANN. 2C:15-1(a)(2). 38 Divisible U.S. v. Abdullah, 905 F.3d 739 (3d Cir. 2018)

NJ 3rd degree aggravated assault ( 2C:12-1(b)) is divisible because it proscribes three alternative degrees of conduct, each subject to different maximum sentences 39 Remand for Mitigating Information U.S. v. Chapman, 915 F.3d 139 (3d Cir. 2019) Court should have continued the sentencing when the defendant stated at the sentencing hearing that his attorney had not told him the date of the sentencing

hearing, and that he would have sent the court letters from himself and family members. 40 3B1.1 Aggravating Role U.S. v. Van Huynh, 884 F.3d 160 (3d Cir. 2018) Three part-test to determine otherwise extensive: 1) court must distinguish schemes participants from nonparticipants who were involved; 2) the court must determine whether the defendant used each non-participant's services with specific criminal intent;

3) court must determine the extent to which those services were peculiar and necessary to the criminal scheme. 41 3B1.3 (Abuse of Trust) U.S. v. Douglas, 885 F.3d 124 (3d Cir. 2018) In determining whether the defendant occupied a position of trust, the key question is whether the defendant had the power to make decisions substantially free from supervision based on 1) a fiduciary or fiduciary-like relationship, or 2) an authoritative status that would lead

his actions or judgement to be presumptively accepted. Here, the defendant was an airline mechanic who went through security without being checked and the enhancement should not have applied. 42 3C1.1 Obstruction Of Justice U.S. v. Welshans, 892 F.3d 566 (3d Cir. 2018) A defendant who moved child pornography files into a recycling bin when he found out police were on the way to his house was not obstruction under 3C1.1.

The files were easily restored, and none were lost. The fact that this process took extra time and was raised at trial as evidence of guilt in no way amounts to a material hindrance under Application Note 4(D). 43 3C1.1 U.S. v. Douglas, 885 F.3d 124 (3d Cir. 2018) District court erred in applying 3C1.1 based on the defendants failure to show up for the first day of trial. The defendant was admitted to the emergency

room the night before trial and had a verification of treatment signed by a hospital doctor. 44 2K2.1(b)(6) U.S. v. Hester, 910 F.3d 78 (3d Cir. 2018) District court incorrectly applied 2K2.1(b)(6) because the government did not prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant had committed New Jersey tampering. Also, in order for the enhancement to apply, the

weapon must facilitate a subsequent felony offense of the kind contemplated by the Guidelines and our precedent 45 2B1.1(b)(1) Loss U.S. v. McClure-Potts, 908 F.3d 30 (3d Cir. 2018) The court correctly included food stamps and medical assistance benefits in the loss calculation Tax and assistance benefits can also be included under relevant conduct

46 Three Common Mistakes by Courts Determining if a prior conviction is a crime of violence, violent felony, or controlled substance offense Special conditions of supervised release Determining Relevant Conduct in a Conspiracy 47

Mythbusters All defendants in a conspiracy will have the same relevant conduct If a defendant knows about prior conduct by codefendants, he is held accountable A defendant can be held accountable for all prior related conduct without limitation 48 3-Part Analysis of (a)(1)(B) Determinations required for acts of others to be relevant conduct

1. What was the scope of the defendants jointly undertaken criminal activity? 2. Were the acts of others in furtherance of the defendants jointly undertaken criminal activity? AND 3. Were the acts of others reasonably foreseeable in connection with the defendants jointly undertaken criminal activity? 49 Relevant Conduct

U.S. v. Metro, 882 F.3d 431(3d Cir. 2018) The court must make findings on the scope of a defendants involvement in a scheme, which is different than the scope of the overall conspiracy. After identifying the scope of conduct, the court should then analyze that conduct to determine whom the defendant act[ed] in concert with and to whom he provided inside information[.] (citations omitted 50

51 Determining Scope in a Conspiracy 1B1.3, App. Note 3(B) Scope of criminal activity jointly undertaken by a defendant is not necessarily the same as the scope of the entire conspiracy (i.e., Pinkerton doctrine is broader than jointly undertaken criminal activity) 52 Determining Scope in a Conspiracy

Bright Line Rule 1B1.3, App. Note 3(B) Relevant conduct does not include the conduct of members of a conspiracy prior to the defendant joining the conspiracy, even if the defendant knows of that conduct.

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