Seating plan November-December Based on assessments AS: approaches

Seating plan November-December Based on assessments AS: approaches

Seating plan November-December Based on assessments AS: approaches A2: paper 1 mock (2 hours) CX 1 Henry Amy Yvette Faith 2 Lucy

Chloe Olivia Jess 3 Lauren Nancy Izzy 4 Rebecca Harry Alexa Joe DX

1 Elvis Megan M Abi Megan H.S 2 Jemma Dana Mae Emma 3 Ella Molly Amy

Ben 4 Sophie Elizbath Ruby Lal 1 Ellie Jemima Toby Ollie EX 2

Laurence Eli Lydia Becca 3 Laila Honour Lucy Hattie 4 Daisy Esme Rosie Ben

5 Jaden Hope Seth Mia 1 Alice Lily Chloe Charlie AX 2 Jordan

Saskia Emily 3 Amy Ruth Max Sam 4 Sophie P Josh Tasher Bx 1

Andrei Kim Megan Charlotte Chloe 2 Danni Keavy Josh Izzy Tom 3 Becki Lucy

Rob Lauren Phoebe 4 Lydia Zac Steph Bailey katie 1 Remy Elle George Amelia

Fx 2 Emily Fran Freya Sarah 3 Sophie Rhianno n Alan 4 Mia Olivia

Beth Homework Paper 2 to complete at home under timed conditions Support session this half term Topic Tuesday Research methods Friday 2 points: Which variation of Milgram supports the agentic state explanation? 4 points: Define the terms; compliance, identification and internalisation.

2 points: Define minority influence. 3 points: Describe Asch variation studies 2 Points: Evaluate Milgrams experiment 2 points: Which variation of Milgram supports legitimacy of authority & why? 2 points: Describe social support as an explanation for resisting social influence.

5 points: Outline Zimbardos experiment 2 points: Outline the Authoritarian Personality. 2 points: How do you determine if someone has an Authoritarian Personality? 4 points: Milgram & Elms support the Authoritarian Personality explanation how? 2 points: Give a weakness of the Authoritarian Personality explanation of obedience.

Social Influence Points Task: 4 points: Explain how Moscovicis study (blue/green slides) supports one of the key principles of a successful minority influence. 3 points: Explain how Nemeths study (ski accident) supports another a key features of minority influence. 5 points: Explain the snowball effect using the terms normative social influence and informational social influence. 3 points: Evaluate the social support explanation

3 points: How can social-crypto amnesia explain social change? 2 points: I never found maths easy so I made sure I got extra help and worked at it. Internal or external Locus of Control? 3 points: Use a piece of evidence to support the Locus of Control explanation. 4 points: Give 3 characteristics an internal LoC and explain why this personality will resist social influence.

4 points: Give a criticism of the explanations of conformity. 2 points: Yasmine always messages the group chat before she goes out to check if the girls are wearing a coat as she doesnt want to be the only one who does. What type of conformity is this? 2 points: Theo has always been a Newcastle fan but only because his Grandad is, he doesnt really understand football but all of his friends support Boro. His friends explain to him why he should be a Boro fan after their performance this season. Theo now has a Boro season ticket and never misses a match. #UTB. What type of conformity is this?

Exam focus In an observational study, 100 cars were fitted with video cameras to record the drivers behaviour. Two psychologists used content analysis to analyse the data from the films. They found that 75% of accidents involved a lack of attention by the driver. The most common distractions were using a hands-free phone or talking to a passenger. Other distractions included looking at the scenery, smoking, eating, personal grooming and trying to reach something within the car. (a) What is content analysis? (2) (b) Explain how the psychologists might have carried out content analysis to analyse the film clips of driver behaviour. (4) Exam answers 1. Content analysis is a technique for analysing qualitative

data of various kinds. Data can be placed into categories/themes and counted (quantitative) or can be analysed in themes (qualitative). 2. The psychologist could have begun by watching some of the film clips of driver behaviour. This would enable the psychologist to identify potential categories which emerged from the data of the different types of distractions seen in the film. Such categories / themes might include: passenger distractions, gadget distractions, etc. The psychologists would then have watched the films again and counted the number of examples which fell into each category to provide quantitative data. Top-Down approach

Offender Profiling (dates back from 1988) A behavioural and analytic tool that is intended to help investigators accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminals. Offender profiling is grounded in the belief that it is possible to work out the characteristics of an offender by examining the characteristics of their offences. As Ainsworth (2001) puts it: profiling generally refers to the process of using all the available information about a crime, a crime scene, and a victim in order to compose a profile of the (as yet) unknown perpetrator. Aim = to narrow the field of enquiry and list of suspects Methods vary Copson (1995) argues police need 4 types of information from Profilers: 1. Type of person 2. Future threat 3. Case linked to others? 4. Interview strategies to be used with offender.

How is it conducted? Top-Down Approach Bottom-Up Approach Start with an established typology / categorisation Assign individuals to these types based on witness accounts and evidence. Starts by looking at even the minor details of a crime scene and develop a likely

hypothesis about the likely characteristics of the offender. British model American - Used by FBI Ted Bundy, the Organised Killer Theodore Robert Bundy (1946-1989) was an American serial killer, kidnapper, rapist, and necrophile who assaulted and murdered numerous young women and girls during the 1970s. Shortly before his execution, after more than a decade of denials, he confessed to 30 homicides committed in seven states between 1974 and 1978. The true victim count remains unknown, and could be much higher. Bundys killings usually followed a pattern. He

was intelligent, charming and attractive. He excelled at law school and fell in love with a young woman at college. After the breakdown of this relationship, Bundys killing spree ensued his victims resembling his college girlfriend with long hair parted down the middle. After escaping police custody twice, Bundy was executed by electric chair in 1989. Some of Bundys confirmed victims . . . The top-down approach Organised Victim targeted

Controls conversation Disorganised Victim selected at random Crime unplanned Avoids conversation Crime scene detail Weapon absent Body hidden from view Body moved from crime scene Attempts to clean up Weapon present

Sexual activity after death Body left in view at crime scene Characteristics of criminal High intelligence Socially competent Sexually competent Skilled occupation Average intelligence or lower Socially immature Sexually incompetent Poor work history

Lives alone Lives close to crime scene Behaviour towards victim serious offenders have certain signature ways of working (modus operandi) and these generally correlate with a particular set of social and psychological characteristics of the individual 4 stages of creating a profile Organised or Disorganised? Task: complete page 18 and 19: Read the descriptions of crimes below and highlight in different colours the characteristics of each description that can be classified as organised or disorganised.

Challenge: can you identify two problems with using these classifications? Exam focus: page 19 10 minute challenge! 1. Define what is meant by offender profiling (3 marks) 2. Distinguish between organised and disorganised types of offender (4 marks) Define what is meant by offender profiling (3marks) Offender profiling is a behavioural and analytic tool that is intended to help investigators accurately predict and profile the characteristics

of unknown criminals. It is grounded in the belief that it is possible to work out the characteristics of an offender by examining the characteristics of their offences. Distinguish between organised and disorganised types of offender (4 marks) Research Read the case on page 23. Arthur Shawcrosss (caught using the top-down approach) Challenge: research the case of Rachel Nickell Paul Britton (Collin Stag wrongly convicted for Rachel Nickells murder) Evaluation of the Top-Down Approach

In pairs, discuss the issues with using this approach. Evaluation What problems can you identify with the FBIs approach to offender profiling? Problems with typological profiling What problems can you identify with the FBIs approach to offender profiling? Assumptions about stable types (Alison 2002) Subjective judgements (Godwin 2002) Small and unusual sample, self-report (FBI Science unit) Support / reliability (canter 2004) Simplistic (Holmes 1989; Walter 1999)

Limited use Evaluation Only applies to particular crimes This kind of profiling is best suited to crimes scenes that reveal details about the suspect such as rape, torture etc. More common offences such as burglary do not lend themselves to profiling because the crime scene doesnt reveal much about the offender. Evaluation Two categories is too restrictive

Invalid? Having only 2 categories is very simplistic as it is likely that criminals do not fit neatly into either category this makes the prediction of their characteristics difficult It is likely that there will be more than two types REDUCTIONIST Every crime scene fits into one of two categories and then predictions are made but this allows for a rapid solving of the crime Evaluation Original sample The approach was developed using interviews with 36 killers in the US 25 were serial killers, the other 11 were

single/double murderers This is too small and unrepresentative to base a profiling system that may have a significant influence on the nature of police investigation Also, it is not sensible to rely of self-report data with convicted killers when constructing a classification system THE SCIENCE PART Ressler didnt allow others to read his work so how accurate are the categories? Evaluation Based on outdated models of personality Based on the assumption that offenders have patterns of behaviour and motivations that remain consistent across situations and contexts.

This approach is nave and informed by old-fashioned models of personality that see behaviour as being driven by stable dispositional traits rather than external factors that may be constantly changing. Evaluation Opposing evidence for disorganised type Canter et al. (2004) analysed data from 100 murders in the USA. Although the findings did suggest evidence of a distinct organised type, this was not the case for disorganised which

seems to undermine the classification system as a whole. Nevertheless, this system is still used in the US and has widespread support. Evaluation Influential Adopted and enhanced all over the world Helps to link offences/facilitate predictions regarding timeframes (Ainsworth, 01) Challenge stereotypes Exam focus Page 23. Plan an answer to the following question:

Discuss the top-down approach to offender profiling, referring to evidence in your answer. [16 marks] Plenary: true or false Complete page 15 Write down whether the statements rae true or false For the false ones, write what the correct answer is in the table FBI TOP DOWN Type Motives Reductionist

Individual Think like a criminal Little scientific evaluation Quick Subjective interpretation BOTTOM UP UK Behaviour What offender does Holistic Looks at offence Statistical Correlations Slow Criminal consistency theory

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