Presenting Adam Hongwang Zhang Bryan David IN Cheese

Presenting Adam Hongwang Zhang Bryan David IN Cheese

Presenting Adam Hongwang Zhang Bryan David IN Cheese & Yogurt Art, Murder, Mayhem The History Possibly Found by Arab Nomad Greeks said Aristaeus found it Romans made their own types Anne Pickett Found 1st U.S. Business in 1841 Types of Cheese Texture Hard Parmesan, Romano Semi-Hard Cheddar, Gouda Soft Feta, Cream Cheese Fat Size: Microscopic-3 m Encased in Protein and Phospholipid membrane Phospholipids stabilize emulsions Caseins

Casein Molecular Weight Residues Proline Residues Description - Two hydrophobic regions which contain the proline residues - polar region with phosphate groups - can be precipitated at low calcium levels Alpha(s2) 23,000 199 17 Alpha(s1) 25,000 207 10 Beta

24,000 209 35 - amphiphilic protein acts like detergent molecule - less sensitive to calcium precipitation 20 - rennet cleavage leaves hydrophobic part, para-kappa casein, hydrophilic part (casein glycomacropeptide) - resistant to calcium precipitation Kappa 19,000 169 - can be precipitated at low levels of calcium Whey Proteins M olecula r P r ot ei n W ei ght R es i dues Des cr i pt i on - ha lf of t ot a l w hey pr ot ei n - 2 i nt er na l di s ulphi de bonds , 1 f r ee t hi ol gr oup - s econda r y s t r uct ur e

- ex i s t s na t ur a lly a s noncov a lent di m er - L a ct oglobuli ns 18,000 162 - f or m ed i n m a m m a r y gla nd - a bout 13 % of t ot a l w hey - hi ghly or der ed s econda r y s t r uc t ur e - ca n be f ound i n s pher i c a l t er i t i a r y s t r uct ur e - t her m a l dena t ur a t i on r es ult s i n r elea s e of bound ca lc i um - L a ct a lbum i ns 14 ,000 123 - 4 di s ulphi de li nk a ges a nd no phos pha t e gr oups Whey Proteins M olecula r P r ot ei n W ei ght R es i dues Des cr i pt i on - i dent i ca l t o blood s er um m olecules - cont a i ns no phos phor us - ha s 17 di s ulphi des , 1 f r ee s ulf hy dy l gr oup

BS A 69,000 - - m a y us e a lbum i n t o ca r r y f r ee f a t t y a ci ds li ght - 4 cla s s es lgG1, lgG2, lgA ,lgM 20,000- 2 a r e li ght cha i ns , 2 a r e hea v y cha i ns 25 ,000 hea v y - not pr oduced i n m a m m a r y gla nd 5 0,000I m m unoglobuli ns 75 ,000 - - pr ov i de pa s s i v e i m m uni t y t o ca lf -lactoglobulin -lactalbumin Bovine Serum Albumin Click Links for 3-d visual Bacteria

Convert lactose to lactic acid Cheese BacteriaStreptococcus lactis lactis Yogurt BacteriaStreptococcus salivarius Lactobacillus delbrueckii Alpha (s)-Casein Kappa-Casein The Casein Micelle TheThe Casein Casein Micelle Micelle Cheesemaking Homogenize & Pasteurize Add Starter Culture Coagulate Casein Micelles Treat curds to separate whey Ripen/Cure Curds Coagulation Cheese Gel Yogurt Making Heat milk to near boiling Inoculate with Bacteria Coagulate casein micelles Fortify yogurt with extra solids Yogurt

Gel Casein Motion Nutritional Info Nutrition Comparison of Cheeses ITEM SERVING AMERICAN, PASTEURIZED* CALOR. FAT SAT. FAT 1 oz. 106.5 9g 5.5g BLUE 1 oz. 100 8g

5.5g BRICK 1 oz. 105 8.5g BRIE 1 oz. 94.5 CAMEMBERT 1 oz. CARAWAY PROT. SOD. CALCIUM 405.5mg 174.5mg 6g 395.5mg

149.5mg 5.5g 6.5g 158.5mg 191mg 8g 5g 6g 178.5mg 52mg 85 7g 4.5g 5.5g 238.5mg 110mg 1 oz.

106.5 8.5g 5.5g 7g 195.5mg 191mg CHEDDAR 1 oz. 114 9.5g 6g 7g 176mg 204.5mg CHESHIRE 1 oz. 110 8.5g

5.5g 6.5g 198.5mg 182.5mg 6.5g Source: USDA - Nutrient Data Lab (Sept. 1996) - all data rounded to nearest 0.5 *with di sodium phosphate Nutritional Info Yoplait Yogurt Serving Size * Calo ries Yoplait Original Yogurt 99% Fat Free Fruit Flavors(1) Coconut Cream Pie Lemon Pina Colada

99% Fat Free Fruit Flavors(2) 6 oz. (170.1g) 6 oz. (170.1g) 6 oz. (170.1g) 6 oz. (170.1g) 4 oz. (113.4g) 170 % D V % D V % D V % D V 190 180

170 110 % D V F a t C a l. To ta l Fa t, g Sa t. Fa t, g Chol est. mg Sodi um

mg Pota ssium ,mg Tot al Car b,g Diet ary Fib er,g Total Suga rs,g Pro tein g 1 5 1. 5 1 10 80

260 33 0 27 5 3 5 3 3 7 11 0 3 2 10 85 260

34 0 5 11 4 3 7 11 0 1. 5 1 10 80 250 36 0 3

5 3 3 7 12 0 2 1. 5 10 95 250 33 0 3 6 3 4

7 11 0 1 0. 5 5 55 170 22 0 2 4 2 2 5 7 0

2 5 1 5 1 5 1 0 11 27 20 Ir o n 0 Ri bo fla vi n 10 Pho spho rus

15 Ma gnesi um 4 0 0 20 0 10 15 4 0 0 20 0 10 15 4

0 0 20 0 10 15 4 0 0 10 0 -- -- -- 5 11 18 0

Ca lCi u m 5 11 28 0 V i t . C 5 11 31 V i t . A 4 7 Diet Exchanges

1 skim milk 1 1/2 carbohydrat e 1 skim milk; 1/2 fat 1 1/2 carbohydrat e 1 skim milk; 1/2 fat 1 1/2 carbohydrat e 1 skim milk; 1/2 fat 1 1/2 carbohydrat e 1/2 skim milk 1 carbohydrat e (1) Flavors: Banana, Blueberry, Boysenberry, Cherry, French Vanilla, Harvest Peach, Key Lime Pie, Mandarin Orange, Mixed Berry, Orange Creme, Pineapple, Raspberry, Raspberry Lemonade, Strawberry, Strawberry Banana, Strawberry Cheesecake, Strawberry Kiwi, Strawberry Mango, Tropical Peach, White Chocolate Raspberry, Tropical, Blackberry (2) Flavors: Harvest Peach, Mixed Berry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Strawberry Banana (3) Flavors: Banana, Blueberry, Cherry Vanilla, Lemon, Peaches 'n Cream, Raspberry, Strawberry, Strawberry Banana, Key Lime Pie, Raspberry Cheesecake, Orange Creme, Tropical Fruit (4) Flavors: Strawberry, Raspberry, Peaches 'n Cream, Strawberry Banana, Strawberry Vanilla (5) Flavors: Apricot Mango, Berries 'n Cream, Blueberry, Cherry, Key Lime Pie, Peach, Raspberry, Raspberry Peach Melba, Strawberry, Strawberry Banana, Strawberry Orange Sunrise, White Chocolate Strawberry (6) Flavors: Banana Cream, Boston Cream Pie, Key Lime Pie, Lemon Cream Pie (7) Flavors: Harvest Peach, Key Lime, Lemon Burst, Mixed Berry, Peaches & Cream, Raspberry, Strawberry (8) Flavors: Cotton Candy, Raspberry Rainbow, Strawberry Banana Bash, Strawberry Kiwi, Strawberry Punch, Triple Cherry, Watermelon Burst, Wild Berry Blue, Bubble Gum, Rainbow Sherbet (9) Flavors: Berry Blue, Cherry, Cotton Candy, Punch, Raspberry, Strawberry, Strawberry Banana, Strawberry Kiwi, Watermelon, Melon Berry

Registered trademarks of General Mills, Inc. (TM) Trademark of General Mills, Inc. * Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Yogurt Production U.S. Yogurt Production 1999 2000 180,000 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May

Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cheese Production U.S. Cheese Production 1999 2000 2001 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000

200,000 100,000 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cheese Production World Cheese Production (1,000 metric tons) Country 1993 Netherlands

Italy 885 Germany 821 France 1509 United 3301 States Rest of 3388 World Total: 11510 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 637 913 855 1541 3386 648 922 890

1576 3137 680 983 1497 1605 3627 688 951 1559 1622 3644 693 951 1570 1653 3734 630 951 1571 1655 3771 3456 3479 5197 5381

5466 5469 11815 11644 14899 15180 15352 15416 http://usdec.org/products/CheeseOverview.htm 620 Innovations Packaging New Products Equipment http://www.wincanton-engineering.co.uk/ Questions?

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