AS Media Studies Section B: Institutions and Audiences
AS Media Studies Section B: Institutions and Audiences 1 Exam Question 45 minutes The Film Industry Section B The Exam Focus The questions are very broad and can focus on one of the following areas : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7. Media Ownership (Media Conglomerates) Synergy & Cross Media Convergence New Media Technologies The spread of technology Technological Convergence (media gadgets) Big industries targeting British audiences Your media consumption Audiences and Institutions Learning Objective: To understand how investors play a major role in the film industry.
Production Who is responsible for production (companies, names, style of company etc.)? Type of institution (in line with the BFI categories) Money (funding, budget, overall expenditure, predicted revenue and revenue)
Filming (how is it filmed in todays ever changing media cameras/ film reel/ HD, DV) Type of story (is it typical to the production company, what type of genre, does it fulfil a real representation of Britain?) Stars (celebrity, typical to that company) Directors (well known, unknown, style)
The basics Production: Distribution: Exhibition: The basics Production: (Making Film) inception; optioning; writing the script; pitching to a studio; setting a budget; crewing up; casting; filming; editing. Distribution: (The Middle Man) the studio buys the rights; the studio makes a licensing agreement with a distribution company; they decide how many copies of the film are made; they negotiate deals to sell the lease to buyers. Exhibition: (The Screen) how the film reaches the
public; cinemas; DVDs; online; TV. ISP activity - key terms and phrases with approaches to unfamiliar vocabulary This unit contains many terms and phrases that learners will be unfamiliar with. Learner Resource 1.0 is a structured activity that is a useful starting place for exploring the unit. Work out the meanings of some of the key terms. PAGE 1 EXTENSION identify which of the phrases or terms was the easiest
and which was the hardest to understand. PAGE 2 Audiences and Institutions Learning Objective: To understand how investors play a major role in the film industry. Production Who is responsible for production (companies, names, style of company etc.)?
Type of institution (in line with the BFI categories) Money (funding, budget, overall expenditure, predicted revenue and revenue) Filming (how is it filmed in todays ever changing media cameras/ film reel/ HD, DV) Type of story (is it typical to the production company, what type of genre, does it fulfil a real representation of Britain?)
Stars (celebrity, typical to that company) Directors (well known, unknown, style) G325 Section B: Contemporary Media Regulation: Social Issues LO: To understand how investors play a major role in the film industry ALL STUDENTS: Define and examine in
relation to Production: Key terms Production Risks Hollywood Vs. Independent (A01) STRETCH & CHALLENGE: OUTCOMES: Produce: Lesson notes
and activities on blog. Define 6 key terms (AO1) Evaluate the pros and cons of majors vs. indies. What could be done to minimise the cost of producing a low budget movie? (AO2) AO1: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media concepts, contexts and critical debates, using terminology appropriately and with accurate and coherent written expression. AO2: Apply knowledge and understanding when analysing media products and processes, to show how
meanings and responses are created. REVIEW QUESTIONS: EXPLAIN: What have I about in todays lesson? EVALUATE: How can producers cut the level of risk in big budget productions? Logo Quiz: Logo Quiz: Answers 1. Hollywood Pictures 2. United Artists 3. Film Four 4. Castle Rock 5. Sony
6. Columbia 7. Amblin Entertainment 8. Dreamworks 9. Bruckheimer Films 10. Legendary Pictures 11. MGM 12. New Line Cinema 13. Paramount 14. RKO Pictures 15. Screen Gems 16. Spy Glass 17. Walt Disney Pictures 18. TriStar Pictures 19. Warner Brothers 20. Summit
Activity: Film Studios In pairs you have 60 seconds to list as many Hollywood Film Studios as you can. Challenge Task: You now have 60 seconds to list as many British Film Production Companies as you can. Look back at your results: Did you list more US than UK examples? If so, what does this tell us about the current market for cinema entertainment? Why is one industry so dominant over the rest? Aardman Animation to Elstree Studios Major Film Studios Production and distribution companies that release a substantial number of films annually and consistently commands a significant share of
box office revenue in a given market. The MAJORS In the global markets, the major film studios(majors), are regarded as the six diversified media conglomerates. Film production and distribution subsidiaries collectively command approximately .% of U.S. and Canadia n box office revenue. Media Conglomerates. (Media Ownership) Massive multinational media companies who own:
Film Studios TV Stations Record Labels Magazines Newspapers Books Internet platforms
A conglomerate has a lot of money to put into film production. They can also market their film through all of their subsidiary companies. This practice is known as SYNERGY. Put the studios in order of profits for 2013 Sony/Columbia Universal Paramount
Twentieth Century Fox Warner Brothers Lionsgate Buena Vista (Disney) Major Studios profits for 2013 Q2 Overview: The Production Cycle You are expected to know what happens in each of these 4 stages of a films life: 1. Film Production
Choose genre, director, stars, SFX, & film it! VERTICAL INTEGRATION 2. Film Distribution 3. Film Exhibition 4. Film Marketing 1000 Film reels produced & sent to as many cinemas as possible Get film into multiplexes & TV
deals Advertise the film as widely as possible (Synergy?) Independents Some producers work outside of the major studios. Often British productions are made by smaller outfits like Warp Films, working with Film 4 or the BBC to try to secure extra funding and help with distribution. Often films made this way struggle to get more than 1 or 2 million budgets and consider a success to break even, with DVD after-sales included.
US independent film maker Orin Peli made Paranormal Activity for just $15,000. But he needed Paramount, a US major studio to distribute his film. In doing so he made over $190 million. This shows there are exceptions to the rule that big budge films always do best... Research Task - Individually: Majors V.s Independents Can you list 3 Major Studios?
Can you list 3 Independent production companies? Choose 1 Major and 1 Independent - How would you classify the type of films they produce? (Genre) What facts can you compile that support mainstream Hollywood productions? Budgets, Casting, Locations, VFX, Box Office etc. ALL: 4 Facts C+ 6 Facts What facts can you compile that support independent productions? Budgets, Casting, Locations, VFX, Box Office etc. ALL: 4 Facts C+ 6 Facts Extension Task: What could be done to minimise the cost of producing a low budget movie? Join the Debate Team 1: For Independent companies, Against
Hollywood Mainstream. Team 2: For Hollywood Mainstream, Against Independent companies. Use the Key Words in the points you make: Budget, Production, Horizontal Integration, Vertical Integration, Distribution, Conglomerates, Synergy, Majors, Independent. Production - Investors For a film to go into production it needs investors to provide the necessary funding. However, Box office success is never
certain and so investors try to reduce the risk of losing their money by becoming involved in important decisions. Production - Risks Key questions that they will ask are: Is the films storyline similar to other films that have made money recently If the answer to any of theses questions is no then changes will be made to the package (the details of the film) to make sure all the answers are yes! Otherwise, the investors will take their money else where.
Production - Investors Key questions that investors will ask are: Is the films storyline similar to other films that have made money recently? Does it offer easy selling points? Are there obvious marketing spin offs to give added publicity? Is the star popular? Has the director had previous successes? Investigate the level of risk for:
Film & New Media Technology HOME CINEMA? FILMS ON THE MOVE? OR IMAX 3D? Advances in new media technology have made it possible for anyone to make films and showcase them on the internet on sites like YouTube. We can now also watch films on phones, games consoles, digital TV on demand. Digital T.V We can also see state of the art SFX on giant screens in 3D.
Digital Satellite ( Sky) Terrestrial (Freeview) Cable (NTL) Media Convergence - Film Technological Convergence Gadgets to watch films on: Give some examples Multimedia devices, films at home:
Give some examples Industry Overview - Examples Small Independent Low Budget British Film: Genre: Social Realist Drama - This is England Budget 1.5m, takings 1.5m. Institutions: Warp Films + Film 4 + various small UK media companies. Successful UK Studio: Working Title Genre: string of blockbuster Rom-Coms: Four Weddings & a Funeral budget $6m, takings $244m Post-Universal take-over Love Actually budget $30m, takings $244m. Produced 100 films, but several non Rom-Com flops. Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): Star Trek Genre: Science Fiction / Action Studio: Paramount: massive marketing campaign budget $140m, takings $280m+.
Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): Avatar Genre: Science Fiction / Action / Romance Studio: 20th Century Fox: massive hype, digital, 3D, massive budget $300m, massive takings $2.7bn. + add your own case study films & studios. NB: Paranormal Activity as Indie case study... Synergy & Cross Media Convergence An example of this: Vivendi Universal make a film in Universal Studios. It releases the films soundtrack on Polygram, one of its record labels. The tracks can be bought online at MP3.com, one of its internet companies.
The film can be downloaded on Vivendi Telecom phones. The film is then shown in its Odeon cinema chain. Owning all of these assets makes it cheaper for the producer to make, distribute, market and exhibit the film, thus maximising profit, enabling the studio to keep making big budget films. A win-win scenario for Hollywood Studios... Now research your own examples of Small Independent Low Budget British Film: Genre: Budget
Institutions: Successful UK Studio: Genre: Top films: Budgets and box office. Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): Genre: Studio: Budget Box Office
Successful US Blockbuster Film(s): Genre: Studio: Budget Box Office Audiences and Institutions Learning Objective: To understand media ownership in relation to the film industry.
Media Ownership All media (film, TV, print, music) is owned by a company. This company holds the rights to publish, distribute and manipulate their work to make a profit to fund their next product.
When an existing story, book, play, comic etc. is made into a film, the rights have to be bought from the author, as it is their intellectual property. Warner Bros. bought the rights to make the first 4 Harry Potter films for $1m. Film makers option a script meaning they only pay 10% of the fee to secure the rights and then pay the full amount if the project is green lit. There is normally a time limit on an option 2 or 3 yrs. If the film isnt made in this time, the option can be resold. Integration Vertical Integration (Home Video, Interactive
Entertainment, Animation, Television) Horizontal Integration (New Line Cinema studio, DC comics, The CW network, Rock Steady games) Piracy Piracy is the illegal distribution of media without the permission of its owner. A disadvantage of digital technology is the ease with which films can be pirated. This is a major problem for the film industry. It
effects profits and breaks copyright law. Illegal downloads leaking and sharing of films over the internet can spread within minutes. Illegal filming of screenings fake DVDs. Combating Piracy An advantage of digital technology is that it allows films to be released simultaneously, and legally, around the world. Previously, the delay in films reaching other parts of the world encouraged piracy. Digital encryption means that films can be
securely distributed. 3D cinema is currently more difficult to pirate http://www.thehobbitblog.com/?cat=8 Skyfall Marketing Please read through and summarise slides 26 48 of your Skyfall PPT. You should be able to recognise and identify examples of all the key terms and phrases and note them on your blog. Audiences and Institutions Learning Objective: To identify key differences between Hollywood
and British independent cinema. Shifty Shifty There has been an expansion in films of very low budget - known as micro-budget Shifty was made in 2008 under the Microwave scheme (UK Film Council)
Microwave was set up to widen participation and access for young London-based filmmakers The scheme offers support for films to be made in 18 days and with a budget of less than 100,000 Shifty The film was written and directed by Eran Creevy.
It was the second Microwave film to be released. Released on 24th April 2009 Opened with 51 prints through independent distributor Metrodome
Opening weekend took 61,000 After 3 weeks down to 12 prints after taking over 131,000 Final box office - 143,000 Shifty The film was distributed by Metrodome who marketed the film in the following ways:
Spent about 50,000 on prints, administration and advertising They felt that the film was similar to Kidulthood/Adulthood and wanted to reach a similar audience known as Urban Genre Shifty
However, to maximise the reach of the film Metrodome produced three trailers all tailored to appeal to different audiences. It was felt that the film could also appeal to the middle-class Guardian reading audience. The trailer targeting this audience featured a more classical style soundtrack whilst the urban trailer featured a hip-hop style soundtrack that didnt actually feature in the film
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=shifty+trailer&docid=1632815022351&view=detail&mid=4C519BF6 86951F92296F4C519BF686951F92296F&FORM=LKVR18# http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=shifty+trailer&docid=1651745621403&view=detail&mid=C110D742 8498C480DCA8C110D7428498C480DCA8&FORM=LKVR# Audiences and Institutions Learning Objective: To understand how independent British films
can be produced on a micro-budget. Shifty Microwave Scheme What is the Microwave scheme? http://www.filmeducation.org/shifty/production_ q4.html What did you learn from the Microwave scheme? http://www.filmeducation.org/shifty/production_ q4.html
Shifty Microwave Scheme What were the challenges of micro-budget film making? http://www.filmeducation.org/shifty/production_q 6.html They had to make the film in 18 days The Dark Knight started shooting in April 2007 and
was released in July 2008 with location shoots in Chicago, London, Hong Kong Marketing & Distribution: Shifty Metrodome had ambitious ideas for advertising http://www.filmeducation.org/shifty/production_q 7.html Metrodome allowed the producers to have an input into the posters and trailers of the film Metrodome was attracted to Shifty because it has a
universal theme of friendship at its heart; an audience could relate to the story it was telling; and the location could be familiar to British cinema goers Marketing & Distribution: Shifty
To reach the target audience, cross media convergence advertising took place: Adverts ran on pirate radio stations Fly-posters were used Business cards representing the character of Shifty as a drugdealer were distributed Viral campaign through emails no publicity is bad publicity Music competition music could be downloaded from website
and remixed into new track. The winner received 500 and studio time with Riz Ahmed Shifty website Social networking sites (Facebook, Bebo, Myspace) Music MP3 downloads CD the soundtrack Youtube the music video Cinema and television trailers (also on Youtube) DVD/Blu-Ray
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